Delray, Detroit

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Delray
Neighborhood of Detroit
Delray
Delray looking south along West Jefferson
Delray, Detroit is located in Wayne County, Michigan
Delray, Detroit
Location of Delray within the city of Detroit
Location within the state of Michigan
Location within the state of Michigan
Location of Delray in the state of Michigan
Coordinates: 42°17′45″N 83°07′00″W / 42.29583°N 83.11667°W / 42.29583; -83.11667Coordinates: 42°17′45″N 83°07′00″W / 42.29583°N 83.11667°W / 42.29583; -83.11667
Country United States
State Michigan
County Wayne
City Detroit
Platted 1836
Incorporated 1897
Annexed by Detroit 1905
Area
 • Land 2.938 sq mi (7.61 km2)
Population (2010)
 • Total 2,783
 • Density 947.2/sq mi (365.7/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s) 48209[1]
Area code(s) 313

Delray is a neighborhood and former incorporated village, located on the southwest side of Detroit, Michigan. It is isolated from other areas of Detroit by industrial warehouses and Interstate 75 (I-75). As a neighborhood, Delray has no legally defined boundaries, but its area usually extends south to the River Rouge, east to the Detroit River, west to M-85 (Fort Street) and I-75, and north to Dragoon Street at Fort Wayne or sometimes further north to Clark Street.[2]

In 1930, Delray had approximately 23,000 residents. As of the 2010 Census, the two tracts that cover the area had a population of 2,783, a 33% decrease in population from the 2000 Census. Residents have relocated over the years due to the increased industrialization of the neighborhood. Much of Delray consists of riverfront industries, interspersed with residential properties, mostly single-family and duplex houses. Due to this high level of disrepair, in 2007, the Detroit Metro Times described Delray as "the closest thing to a ghost town within a city."[3]

Geography[edit]

Delray is located at the southern edge of the city limit of Detroit, although it is not the city's southernmost territory. The neighborhoods of Boynton and Oakwood Heights occupy the southernmost strip of Detroit along Outer Drive and Fort Street extending down to the city of Lincoln Park.[4] With no official boundaries, Delray is considered mostly conterminous with two Census Bureau tracts that cover 2.938 square miles (7.61 km2). Major thoroughfares through Delray, which typically represent the neighborhood's boundaries, include Fort Street, I-75 (Fisher Freeway), and West Jefferson Avenue. Delray is relatively isolated from the rest of the city.

The southern border of Delray is the River Rouge, with the city of River Rouge on the southern side of the river. The two are connected by the West Jefferson Avenue-Rouge River Bridge. Due to a bend at the mouth of the River Rouge, Delray is also bordered on the southeast by the river as well. Across the river at that point lies Zug Island, which is under the jurisdiction of the city of River Rouge. North of Zug Island, Delray borders the Detroit River on the east. No residents of Delray live along either body of water due to the congestion of riverfront industries and the historic Fort Wayne.

Delray is about five miles (8.0 km) west of Downtown Detroit. In 1935 Delray formed the southern portion of Wards 14, 16, 18, and 20.[5]

History[edit]

Historic Fort Wayne, built 1843 to guard Detroit from British attack from Amherstburg's Fort Malden, is located at the northeastern end of the neighborhood.[citation needed] The area known as Delray was first platted as "Belgrade" in 1836. It was renamed as "Del Rey" on October 14, 1851. Augustus D. Burdeno, after returning from the Mexican-American War convinced other residents to rename the town "Del Rey". He had encountered a Mexican village named "Del Rey" ("of the kings") during the Mexican-American War.[6] This was probably associated with the Battle of Molino del Rey.[citation needed] At a later point the name was anglicized to "Delray".[6] Most of the village sat in what was Springwells Township, with the rest sitting across the River Rouge in Ecorse Township.[citation needed] In 1870 it received a post office. It incorporated as a village in 1897.[6]

Around 1889 many Slovaks, Hungarians, and Poles settled in Delray. Dense housing arrangements appeared to accommodate the immigrants going to Delray. In 1894 Solvay Process Company opened a chemical plant. The company provided a fire service and paved streets to Delray. In 1901 Detroit Iron Works built two iron-making blast furnaces on Zug Island, near Delray.[3]

In 1906 Detroit annexed Delray.[6] Chemical plants and factories opened in Delray. As years passed, residents who were able to move did so.[3]

Delray had around 23,000 residents in 1930.[citation needed]

A wastewater plant opened in the area in 1939, leading to the destruction of houses in Delray.[7] When I-75 was built in the 1950s and 1960s, many houses in Delray were destroyed.[3][7] The wastewater plant received an expansion in 1957, leading to more loss of houses.[citation needed]

In the 2000s (decade), many of Delray's businesses closed during the late 2000s economic recession. In addition, around that time U.S. Steel had taken over Zug Island. Many workers had been laid off during the recession.[3]

In the 1990s the neighborhood dealt with large gang membership. Numerous gangs targeted in policing efforts to control crime and recruitment were the Cobras, Cash Flow Posse, 138, Gangster Disciples, Latin Counts, Latin Kings, and the Delray Mafia.[8]

According to the 2000 census, 3,100 lived in Delray.[7] John Carlisle (DetroitBloggerJohn) said in a 2009 article in the Detroit Metro Times that "a foul stench" was present in Delray due to the wastewater plant and the factories still operating.[3]

In the 2010s, Delray regained attention in the state as a result of the debate over the Detroit River International Crossing, the construction of which would lead to the demolition of much if not the vast majority of the blighted neighborhood.[citation needed]

The city of Delray Beach, Florida in Greater Miami is named after Delray.[6]

Demographics[edit]

Hungarian population[edit]

In the early 20th Century the Delray-Springwells area served as the "Little Hungary" of Detroit and Michigan's Hungarian culture was centered in that community.[9]

In 1898 the Michigan Malleable Iron Company began operations in Delray. Hungarian immigrants moved to Delray from cities including Cleveland Ohio, South Bend, Indiana, and Toledo, Ohio, in order to get better working conditions and better wages.[5] The first wave of Hungarian refugees came to the U.S. in order to escape the Austro-Hungarian Empire's political issues.[10]

In 1904 a society to establish a Hungarian Lutheran church had about 60 members,[11] There were also plans to establish a Catholic church, but by 1905 the Hungarians had difficulty agreeing on a final site.[12] Later that year the Holy Cross Hungarian Church,[13] a Hungarian Catholic church, opened in Delray.[9] By 1911 about 5,000 Hungarians lived in Delray.[14] In 1906 the Hungarian population began resisting the actions of the town police.[15] In 1907 some Hungarians in Delray and Wyandotte who feared a lack of work returned to Hungary.[16]

After World War I a second wave of Hungarian refugees, who escaped due to religious and political reasons, arrived. They selected Detroit because the automobile plants paid high wages.[10] As the number of Hungarians in Delray increased, a new church of the Holy Cross Hungarian Catholic Church opened in 1925.[13]

In 1935, Doanne Erdmann Beynon, author of "Crime and Custom of the Hungarians of Detroit," wrote that "it may be assumed" that the Hungarian colony is within an area that extends from Fort Street to the Detroit River and from Clark Street to the Rouge River.[5] He stated that even though the former Delray municipality had "definite" boundaries the boundary of the "Hungarian colony of Delray" was "zonal" and that the lines "fade off indeterminately into areas that do not belong to the colony."[5] He wrote that within this colony, immigrants from all parts of Hungary lived next to each other and did not settle in different areas according to their places of origin.[17] The exception was an are on Barnes and Medina Streets called "Magyar Negyed" where the immigrants mainly originated from Sarud in Heves County. Beynon wrote that the residents preserved "the peculiar customs and, to some extent, the costumes of the home village."[17]

Beynon wrote that in Delray the individual village cultures in Hungary were mixed into a new pan-Hungarian way of life in Delray. During the time Hungarians inhabited Delray, a common phrase was "Within Delray the village life flows on" (Hungarian: Delray-ben foly a falusi élet).[18] Various Hungarian social clubs including athletic, altar, dramatic, sick benefit and insurance, singing (Dalárdák), and social clubs were formed. Each club included a membership and a wider group of adherents or pártolók. Beynon wrote that "Practically every Hungarian of Detroit who has not broken away entirely from the people of his own nationality is connected in some way with one or more of these societies or clubs."[18] As of 1935 many Hungarians in Delray had been socially isolated to the community and persons who had lived 15 to 20 years in Detroit had never visited the city center.[19] Kossuth Day was celebrated in Delray.[20]

Beynon argued that due to Delray's fragmentation among many different wards it was "not possible to determine from the population statistics published by the Bureau of the Census either the number of Hungarians resident within the colony or the population which these form of the total Hungarian population of Detroit."[21] Using the Detroit Board of Education's Detroit City Census, Beynon concluded that in 1925, 45.46% of Detroit's Hungarian population lived in Delray.[17] Using a list of Hungarian surnames in the Detroit City Directory published by the company Polk, Beynon concluded that 44.27% of the Hungarians lived in the Delray colony and 55.72% lived outside of the Delray colony.[17]

During the Great Depression the Daughters of Divine Charity served in a Hungarian-operated orphanage on South Street.[22]

From January 1, 1927, to March 11, 1932, the Wayne County Juvenile Court received 462 complaints filed against Hungarian boys, with a total of 380 boys involved. Of those boys, 140 were from the Delray Hungarian colony.[23]

One wave of Hungarians arrived after the end of World War II.[24] Another wave of Hungarians escaped the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, causing more to arrive in Delray. The construction of Interstate 75 in the mid-1960s destroyed large parts of Delray and divided the community into two pieces. Middle and working class Hungarians moved to Allen Park, Lincoln Park, Melvindale, and Riverview. The Holy Cross parish school closed.[10]

The Holy Cross Hungarian Church was scheduled to observe its 75th anniversary on September 17, 2000. By August of that year, renovations and polishing were underway.[13]

Education[edit]

Public schools[edit]

Residents of Delray are zoned to Detroit Public Schools (DPS). Clemente Elementary and Phoenix K-8 serve Delray for elementary school.[25] Phoenix K-8 serves Delray for middle school.[26] All residents are zoned to Western International High School.[27]

Histories of public schools[edit]

From 1894–1999, James McMillan School was located on West End Street in central Delray. Originally opened as an elementary school, it was absorbed into DPS in 1907. It was converted into a high school but back into an elementary school for the district in 1916. McMillan Elementary School operated until the end of the 1999 school year, when DPS shut down the school. After it was closed, it remained unused with no intentions of being reopened. It subsequently became heavily vandalized and polluted, suffering a number of fires and eventually a gas line explosion, until the building itself was torn down in 2009.[28] The neighborhood is home also to the now-abandoned Cary Elementary School.

Students at the elementary level (grades preK–5) previously attended Roberto Clemente Elementary or Phoenix Elementary.[29] Students in grades 6–8 attended Mark Twain Elementary School or Earhart Middle School.[30] High school students attended Southwestern High School or Western International High School.[31] At 6921 West Fort Street, Southwestern High School can be considered part of the Delray neighborhood, although most properties along this stretch of Fort Street are not normally included as part of the Delray neighborhood.

Public libraries[edit]

In September 1907, Branch 8 of the Detroit Public Library system opened as the Delray Branch on West End Avenue. In January 1922, the branch was replaced with the James Valentine Campbell Branch on M-85 (West Fort Street). The branch operated until its closure in December 1996. In July 1999, the Campbell Annex Branch opened at the Holy Redeemer Cultural Center and closed in August 2004, only to reopen as the Campbell Branch at Lawndale Station. The neighborhood currently contains no libraries but is closest served by the Campbell Branch Library. It is located outside of the neighborbood at 8733 West Vernor in the Springwells neighborhood.[32]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Coryat, John (1996–2009). "48209 zip code". Retrieved May 12, 2010. 
  2. ^ City-Data.com (2010). "Delray neighborhood in Detroit, Michigan (MI), 48209 detailed profile". Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f DetroitBlogger John (October 21, 2009). "Last Call?: A Beautiful Old Bar with a Storied Past Hangs in Limbo". Metro Times (Detroit). Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2009. 
  4. ^ City-Data.com (2010). "Boynton neighborhood in Detroit, Michigan (MI), 48217 detailed profile". Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d Beynon 1935, p. 755
  6. ^ a b c d e Lowery, Fred (June 17, 1994). "Delray Could Have Been Named 'Belgrade Beach'". Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c Carlisle, John (DetroitBlogger John) (October 24, 2007). "Losing Grace: A Magnificent Church’s Last Masses". Metro Times (Detroit). Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2009. 
  8. ^ Bruce, Joseph & Echlin, Hobey (2003). "Rude Boy and the Magical Land of Toxic Waste". In Fostey, Nathan. ICP: Behind the Paint (2nd ed.). Royal Oak, MI: Psychopathic Records. p. 115. ISBN 0-9741846-0-8. 
  9. ^ a b Woodford 2001, p. 186
  10. ^ a b c Collum & Krueger 2012, p. 177
  11. ^ "Suburban". Detroit Free Press. July 15, 1904. p. 2 . Retrieved November 24, 2013. "Delray Hungarians have formed a society, with about sixty members, for the purpose of raising funds for the erection of a Lutheran church. Officers have been" 
  12. ^ "Cannot Agree on a Site: Delray Hungarians at Loggerheads over Church; Committee Divided Between West End and Dearborn Avenues". Detroit Free Press. October 28, 1905. p. 12. Retrieved November 26, 2013. "Delray Hungarians cannot agree on a site for the proposed Catholic church and the committee will have to hold several more meetings. They want a church and a school. A plot of ground 200 feet [61 m] front and 150 feet [46 m] deep is needed for the buildings." 
  13. ^ a b c "Church Anniversary Celebration Planned". The Detroit News. August 30, 2000. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Defnd [sic] Colony of Hungarians". Detroit Free Press. October 18, 1911. p. 3. Retrieved November 24, 2013. "Detroit's Hungarian colony in Delray, which claims a membership of 5000 persons, sces [sic] some forces at work which menace its existence just as the national[...]" 
  15. ^ "Hungarians Fight Police". Detroit Free Press. May 15, 1906. p. 11. Retrieved November 14, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Going Home to Europe: Hungarians in the Suburbs Fear Dearth of Work, Frightened by Recent Flurry in Money Market, Many Allens Seek to Save Cash By Spending Winter in Native Land—Will Return". Detroit Free Press. November 19, 1907. p. 10. Retrieved November 25, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c d Beynon 1935, p. 756
  18. ^ a b Beynon 1935, p. 757
  19. ^ Beynon 1935, p. 759
  20. ^ "Hungarians Had Celebration". Detroit Free Press. March 20, 1905. p. 5. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  21. ^ Beynon 1935, pp. 755–756
  22. ^ Godzak 2000, p. 38
  23. ^ Beynon 1935, p. 761
  24. ^ Tutag & Hamilton 1987, p. 65
  25. ^ Detroit Public Schools (PDF). Elementary Boundaries: 2012/13 School Year (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by DPS . Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6Br2IOVdP. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  26. ^ Detroit Public Schools (PDF). Middle School Boundaries: 2012/13 School Year (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by DPS. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6Br2MbiXC. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  27. ^ Detroit Public Schools (PDF). High School Boundaries: 2012/13 School Year (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by DPS. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6Br2SY4Mu. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
  28. ^ "James McMillan School, Delray, Detroit, Michigan". Belle River Nation. 2003–2005. Retrieved May 22, 2010. [dead link]
  29. ^ Detroit Public Schools (2009) (PDF). DPS Elementary School Boundary Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by DPS. http://www.detroit.k12.mi.us/schools/docs/school_boundaries_elementary.pdf. Retrieved October 20, 2009.[dead link]
  30. ^ Detroit Public Schools (2009) (PDF). DPS Middle School Boundary Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by DPS. http://www.detroit.k12.mi.us/schools/docs/school_boundaries_middle.pdf. Retrieved October 20, 2009.[dead link]
  31. ^ Detroit Public Schools (2009) (PDF). DPS High School Boundary Map (Map). Scale not given. http://www.detroit.k12.mi.us/schools/docs/school_boundaries_high.pdf. Retrieved October 20, 2009.[dead link]
  32. ^ "Campbell Branch Library". Detroit Public Library. Retrieved April 18, 2009. 

Works cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]