Delta IV

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Delta IV (Delta 9000)
Delta IV Medium Rocket DSCS.jpg
Delta IV Medium launch carrying DSCS III-B6
Function Orbital launch vehicle
Manufacturer Boeing IDS
United Launch Alliance
Country of origin United States
Size
Height 63-72 m (206-235 ft)
Diameter 5 m (16.4 ft)
Mass 249,500-733,400 kg (550,000-1,616,800 lb)
Stages 2
Capacity
Payload to LEO 9,420-28,790 kg [1] (20,750-63,450 lb)
Payload to
GTO
4,440-14,220 kg (8,500-28,620 lb)
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites SLC-37B, Cape Canaveral
SLC-6, Vandenberg AFB
Total launches 26
Medium: 3
Medium+ (4,2): 11
Medium+ (5,2): 1
Medium+ (5,4): 4
Heavy: 7
Successes 25
Medium: 3
Medium+ (4,2): 11
Medium+ (5,2): 1
Medium+ (5,4): 4
Heavy: 6
Partial failures 1 (Heavy)
First flight Medium: 11 March 2003
Medium+ (4,2): 20 November 2002
Medium+ (5,2): 3 April 2012
Medium+ (5,4): 6 December 2009
Heavy: 21 December 2004
Boosters (Medium+ Variants) - GEM 60
No. boosters Medium: 0; M+4,2: 2; M+5: 2 or 4
Engines 1 Solid
Thrust 826.6 kN
Specific impulse 275 seconds (2.70 km/s)
Burn time 90 seconds
Fuel Solid
Boosters (Heavy) - CBC
No. boosters 2
Engines 1 RS-68A
Thrust SL: 3,140 kN (705,000 lbf)
Specific impulse Sea level: 360 sec
Vacuum: 412 sec
Burn time 242 seconds[1]
Fuel LH2/LOX
First stage - CBC
Engines 1 RS-68A
Thrust SL: 3,140 kN (705,000 lbf)
Specific impulse Sea level: 360 sec
Vacuum: 412 sec
Burn time 245 seconds (328 seconds in Heavy configuration)[1]
Fuel LH2/LOX
Second stage - DCSS
Engines 1 RL10-B-2
Thrust 110 kN (24,740 lbf)
Specific impulse 462 seconds (4.53 km/s)
Burn time 850 - 1,125 seconds
Fuel LH2/LOX

Delta IV is an active expendable launch system in the Delta rocket family. Delta IV uses rockets designed by Boeing's Integrated Defense Systems division and built in the United Launch Alliance (ULA) facility in Decatur, Alabama. Final assembly is completed at the launch site by ULA.[2] The rockets were designed to launch payloads into orbit for the United States Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program and commercial satellite business. Delta IV rockets are available in five versions: Medium, Medium+ (4,2), Medium+ (5,2), Medium+ (5,4), and Heavy, to cover a range of payload size and weight. Delta IV was primarily designed to satisfy the needs of the U.S. military.

The rockets are assembled at the Horizontal Integration Facility for launches from SLC-37B at Cape Canaveral, and in a similar facility for launches from SLC-6 at Vandenberg Air Force Base.

History[edit]

The Delta IV entered the space launch market when global capacity was already much higher than demand. Furthermore, as an unproven design it has had difficulty finding a market in commercial launches, and the cost to launch a Delta IV is somewhat higher than that for competing vehicles. In 2003, Boeing pulled the Delta IV from the commercial market, citing low demand and high costs. In 2005, Boeing stated that it may return the Delta IV to commercial service; however as of 2006 no further announcements have been made regarding this.[3] All but one of the first launches have been paid for by the U.S. Government, with a cost of between $140 million and $170 million.

Comparable rockets: Angara - Ariane 5 - Atlas V - Falcon 9 - Falcon Heavy - GSLV III - H-IIB - Long March 5 (or Chang Zheng 5) - Proton

Recent history[edit]

The United States Air Force (USAF) funds Delta IV engineering, integration, and infrastructure through contracts with Boeing Launch Services (BLS). On August 8, 2008 the USAF Space and Missile Systems Center increased the "cost plus award fee" contract with BLS for $1,656 million to extend the period of performance through the end of FY09. In addition a $557.1 million option was added to cover FY10.[4]

2012 upper stage anomaly[edit]

An anomalous event with the Delta IV launch system occurred October 4, 2012, when a leak developed above the narrow throat portion of the thrust chamber in the RL10B-2 engine within the Delta's upper stage. The payload's small mass and the upper stage's excess fuel load coupled with the fault tolerant guidance software - which recalculated and fired the engine longer than planned - resulted in the satellite being placed into the intended orbit. The investigation into the anomaly delayed subsequent Delta IV launches and the next Atlas V launch (AV-034) due to commonality between the engines used on both vehicles' upper stages. The root cause of the leak had not been determined by March 2013.[5] Though the root cause of the fault was not fully understood, the rocket was cleared for launch on May 10, 2013.[6]

However, a year after the anomaly and following three successful Delta IV launches, further investigation into the same anomaly led to the delay of Delta flight 365 with the GPS IIF-5 satellite. The launch was originally planned to take place on October 15, 2013[7] eventually lifting off four months later on February 21, 2014.[8]

Vehicle description[edit]

Delta IV first stage[edit]

Main article: Common Booster Core

The first stage of a Delta IV consists of one, or in the Heavy variety three, Common Booster Cores (CBC) powered by a Rocketdyne RS-68 engine. Unlike many first-stage rocket engines, which use solid fuel or kerosene, the RS-68 engines burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.

In 2002 the RS-68 became the first large, liquid-fueled rocket engine designed in the U.S. since the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in the 1970s.[9] The primary goal for the RS-68 was to reduce cost versus the SSME. Some sacrifice in chamber pressure and specific impulse was made, hurting efficiency; however, development time, part count, total cost, and assembly labor were reduced to a fraction of the SSME, despite the RS-68's significantly larger size. Typically, the RS-68 runs at 102% rated thrust for the first few minutes of flight, and then throttles down to 58% rated thrust before main engine cutoff.[10] On the Heavy variant, the main CBC's engine throttles down to 58% rated thrust around 50 seconds after liftoff, while the strap-on CBCs remain at 102%. This allows the main CBC to conserve propellant and burn longer. After the strap-on CBCs separate, the main CBC's engine throttles back up to 102% before throttling back down to 58% prior to main engine cutoff.[11]

The RS-68 engine is mounted to the lower thrust structure of the vehicle by a four-legged (quadrapod) thrust frame, and enclosed in a protective composite conical thermal shield. Above the thrust structure is an aluminum isogrid (a grid pattern machined out of the inside of the tank to reduce weight) liquid hydrogen tank, followed by a composite cylinder called the centerbody, an aluminum isogrid liquid oxygen tank, and a forward skirt. Along the back of the CBC is a cable tunnel to hold electrical and signal lines, and a feedline to carry the liquid oxygen to the RS-68 from the tank. The CBC is of a constant, 5-meter, diameter.[9]

Delta Cryogenic Second Stage[edit]

The upper stage of the Delta IV, or DCSS, is based on the Delta III upper stage, but with increased propellant capacity. The 4-meter version uses lengthened propellant tanks, while the 5-meter version has a 5-meter diameter liquid hydrogen tank and a further lengthened liquid oxygen tank. The second stage is powered by a RL10B2 engine, which features an extendable carbon-carbon nozzle to improve specific impulse.[12] Depending on variant, two different interstages are used to mate the first and second stages. A tapering interstage which narrows down from 5-meters to 4-meters in diameter is used on 4-meter variants, where a cylindrical interstage is used on 5-meter variants. Both interstages are built from composites.[13][14]

Guidance, navigation, control and communications[edit]

The L-3 Communications Redundant Inertial Flight Control Assembly (RIFCA) guidance system used on the Delta IV is common to that carried on the Delta II, although the software is different because of the differences between the Delta II and Delta IV. The RIFCA features six ring laser gyroscopes and accelerometers each, to provide a higher degree of reliability.[15]

Payload encapsulation[edit]

To encapsulate the satellite payload, a variety of different payload fairings are available. A stretched Delta III 4-meter composite payload fairing is used on 4-meter variants, while an enlarged, 5-meter composite fairing is used on 5-meter variants. A longer version of the latter is standard on the Heavy variant, and a Boeing-built Titan IV-derived, 5-meter, aluminum isogrid payload fairing is also available for the Heavy.[16] The Delta IV is over 205 ft (63 m) tall.

Variants[edit]

Delta IV Small[edit]

During the Delta IV's development, a Small variant was considered. This would have featured the Delta II second stage, an optional Thiokol Star 48B third stage, and the Delta II payload fairing, all atop a single CBC.[17] The Small variant was dropped by 1999.[18][19]

Delta IV Medium[edit]

The Delta IV Medium (Delta 9040) is the most basic Delta IV. It features a single CBC and a modified Delta III second stage, with 4-meter liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks and a 4-meter payload fairing. The Delta IV Medium is capable of launching 4,200 kg to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO). The GTO orbit is 1804 m/s away from GEO. The mass of fairing and payload attach fittings have been subtracted from the gross performance.[20]

The Delta IV Medium+ (4,2) (Delta 9240) is similar to the Medium, but uses two Alliant-built 1.5-m (60-in) diameter solid rocket strap-on Graphite-Epoxy Motors (GEM-60s) to increase payload capacity to 6,150 kg to GTO.[20]

The Delta IV Medium+ (5,2) (Delta 9250) is similar to the Medium+ (4,2), but has a 5-m–diameter payload fairing for larger payloads and a modified second stage with a 5-meter liquid hydrogen tank and stretched liquid oxygen tank. Because of the extra weight of the larger payload fairing and second stage, the Medium+ (5,2) can launch 5,072 kg to GTO.[20]

The Delta IV Medium+ (5,4) (Delta 9450) is similar to the Medium+ (5,2), but uses four GEM-60s instead of two, enabling it to lift 6,882 kg to GTO.[20]

Delta IV Heavy[edit]

Main article: Delta IV Heavy
Delta IV Heavy launching

The Delta IV Heavy (Delta 9250H) is similar to the Medium+ (5,2), except that it uses two additional CBCs instead of using GEMs. These are strap-on boosters which are separated earlier in the flight than the center CBC. The Delta IV Heavy also features a stretched 5-meter composite payload fairing.[21] An aluminum trisector (three-part) fairing derived from the Titan IV fairing is also available.[22] This was first used on the DSP-23 flight.

Capacity of the Delta IV Heavy:

Delta IV evolution

RS-68A upgrade[edit]

An upgrade of the Delta IV Heavy, using the higher-performance RS-68A engine, was successfully flight tested in a launch on June 29, 2012.[24] ULA plans to phase in RS-68A on all variants by 2015, with the engine's higher thrust allowing use of a single CBC design for all Delta IV Medium and M+ versions. This upgrade will reduce cost and increase flexibility, since any standardized CBC can be configured for zero, two, or four solid boosters; this CBC will necessitate a slight performance loss for most medium configurations.[25] The Delta IV Heavy will still require non-standard CBCs for the core and boosters.[26]

RS-68A

Version Fairing CBCs SRBs Payload to LEO

407 km x 51.6°

Payload to GTO

1800 m/s residual

Launches to date
Medium 4 m 1 0 8,510 kg[27] 4,440 kg[1] 0
M+(4,2) 4 m 1 2 12,000 kg[27] 6,390 kg[1] 0
M+(5,2) 5 m 1 2 10,220 kg[27] 5,490 kg[1] 0
M+(5,4) 5 m 1 4 12,820 kg[27] 7,300 kg[1] 0
Heavy 5 m 3 0 25,980 kg[27] 14,220 kg[1] 1

RS-68

Version

Fairing

CBCs

SRBs

Payload to LEO

407 km x 51.6°

Payload to GTO

1800 m/s residual

Launches to date

Medium 4 m 1 0 8,800 kg[27] 4,540 kg[28] 3
M+(4,2) 4 m 1 2 11,920 kg[27] 6,270 kg[28] 11
M+(5,2) 5 m 1 2 10,580 kg[27] 5,430 kg[28] 1
M+(5,4) 5 m 1 4 13,450 kg[27] 7,430 kg[28] 4
Heavy 5 m 3 0 22,980 kg[27] 13,400 kg[28] 6

*Masses include Payload Attach Fitting weighing from 240 kg to 1221 kg depending on payload.[1]

Future Variants[edit]

Possible future upgrades for the Delta IV include adding extra strap-on solid motors to boost capacity, higher-thrust main engines, lighter materials, higher-thrust second stages, more (up to six) strap-on CBCs, and a cryogenic propellant cross feed from strap on boosters to the common core. These modifications could potentially increase the mass of the payload delivered to LEO to 100 tonnes.[21]

At one point NASA planned to use Delta IV to launch a Crew Exploration Vehicle,[29] with the CEV changed from a winged spacecraft to an Apollo-like capsule with the Ares I launch vehicle, based on Space Shuttle components. After the change only the Delta IV's RS-68 engine was considered by NASA for the new cryogenically-fueled Ares V rocket. A Delta IV Heavy rocket launch is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle on an unmanned test flight, known as EFT-1, for the spring of 2014.[30]

In 2009 The Aerospace Corporation reported on NASA results of a study to determine the feasibility of modifying Delta IV to be human-rated for use in NASA human spaceflight missions. According to Aviation Week the study, "found that a Delta IV heavy [...] could meet NASA's requirements for getting humans to low Earth orbit."[31]

The possibility of an extra-heavy variant was indicated in a 2006 RAND Corporation study of national security launch requirements out to 2020,[32] which noted, "...only the Delta IV Heavy has the performance to lift the ten NSS launch requirements that require a heavy-lift capability... the production capacity for Delta IV, with one possible exception, can satisfy the entire projected NSS launch demand. The exception involves the requirement to increase the Delta IV Heavy lift capability to accommodate a single NRO (National Reconnaissance Office) payload. The best solution to this requirement is currently under study."

A possible upgrade to the Delta IV family is the creation of new variants by the addition of extra solid motors. One such modification, the Medium+(4,4), would pair the four GEM-60s of the M+(5,4) with the upper stage and fairing of the (4,2). This would theoretically provide a GTO payload of 7,500 kg (16,600 lb) and an LEO payload of 14,800 kg (32,700 lb). This is the simplest variant to implement and is available within 36 months of the first order. Two other possible versions, the Medium+(5,6) and (5,8), would add two or four extra GEM-60s to the (5,4) variant, respectively. These would provide significantly higher performance (up to 9,200 kg/20,200 lb to GTO for the M+(5,8)) but would require more extensive modifications to the vehicle, such as adding the extra attach points and changes to cope with the different flight loads. They would also require pad and infrastructure changes. The Medium+(5,6) and (5,8) can be available within 48 months of the first order.[33]

Launch sites[edit]

First Delta IV Heavy with three CBCs prior to launch

Delta IV launches occur from either of two rocket launch sites. On the East coast of the United States, Space Launch Complex 37 (SLC-37) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. On the West coast, polar-orbit and high-inclination launches use Vandenberg Air Force Base's Space Launch Complex 6 (SLC-6) pad.

Launch facilities at both sites are similar. At the pad is a Mobile Service Tower (MST), which provides service access to the rocket and protection from the weather. There is a crane at the top of the MST, which allows the payload and GEM-60 solid motors to be attached to the vehicle. The MST is rolled away from the rocket several hours before launch. At Vandenberg, the launch pad also has a Mobile Assembly Shelter (MAS), which completely encloses the vehicle; at CCAFS, the vehicle is partly exposed near its bottom.

Beside the vehicle is a Fixed Umbilical Tower (FUT), which has two (VAFB) or three (CCAFS) swing arms. These arms carry electrical, hydraulic, environmental control, and other support functions to the vehicle through umbilical lines. The swing arms retract at T-0 seconds to prevent them from hitting the vehicle.

Under the vehicle is a Launch Table, with six Tail Service Masts (TSMs), two for each CBC. The Launch Table supports the vehicle on the pad, and the TSMs provide further support and fueling functions for the CBCs. The vehicle is mounted to the Launch Table by a Launch Mate Unit (LMU), which is attached to the vehicle by bolts that sever at launch. Behind the Launch Table is a Fixed Pad Erector (FPE), which uses two long-stroke hydraulic pistons to raise the vehicle to the vertical position after being rolled to the pad from the Horizontal Integration Facility (HIF). Beneath the Launch Table is a flame duct, which deflects the rocket's exhaust away from the rocket or facilities.

The Horizontal Integration Facility (HIF) is situated some distance from the pad. It is a large building that allows the Delta IV CBCs and second stages to be mated and tested before they are moved to the pad. The horizontal rocket assembly of the Delta IV are similar to the ones with the assembly of Soyuz launch vehicles; they are also assembled horizontally, unlike the Space Shuttles, the past Saturn launch vehicles and the upcoming Space Launch System, where they are assembled and rolled out to the launch pad entirely vertically.

Movement of the Delta IVs among the various facilities at the pad is facilitated by Elevating Platform Transporters (EPTs). These rubber-tired vehicles can be powered by either diesel engines or electric power. Diesel EPTs are used for moving the vehicles from the HIF to the pad, while electric EPTs are used in the HIF, where precision of movement is important.[34]

Vehicle processing[edit]

Delta IV 4-Meter Second Stage

Delta IV CBCs are assembled at ULA's factory in Decatur, Alabama. They are then loaded onto the M/V Delta Mariner, a roll-on/roll-off cargo vessel, and shipped to either launch pad. There, they are offloaded and rolled into a Horizontal Integration Facility (HIF), where they are mated with the second stages, which were shipped separately to the pad on the Delta Mariner. Also, in the HIF, the three CBCs of Heavy variant are mated to each other.

Various tests are performed, and then the vehicle is rolled horizontally to the pad, where the Fixed Pad Erector (FPE) is used to raise the vehicle to the vertical position, inside the MST. At this time, the GEM-60 solid motors, if any are required, are rolled to the pad and attached to the vehicle. After further testing, the payload (which has already been enclosed in its fairing) is transported to the pad, hoisted into the MST by a crane, and attached to the vehicle. Finally, on launch day, the MST is rolled away from the vehicle, and the vehicle is ready for launch.[35]

Delta IV launches[edit]

For more details on this topic, see List of Thor and Delta launches (2000–2009).
For more details on this topic, see List of Thor and Delta launches (2010–2019).
No. Date/Time
(UTC)
Type Serial-no. Startplace Payload Type of payload Orbit Outcome Remarks
1 2002-11-20
22:39
Medium+(4,2) 293 CCAFS SLC-37B Eutelsat W5 Commercial communications satellite GTO Success First Delta IV launch
2 2003-03-11
00:59
Medium 296 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-167 (DSCS-3 A3) Military communications satellite GTO Success First Delta IV Medium launch
First USAF EELV mission
3 2003-08-29
23:13
Medium 301 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-170 (DSCS-3 B6) Military communications satellite GTO Success
4 2004-12-21
21:50
Heavy 310 CCAFS SLC-37B DemoSat[36] / 3CS-1 / 3CS-2 Demonstration payload GSO (planned) Partial failure
  • First Delta IV Heavy launch
  • Premature cutoff of CBCs
  • DemoSat reached incorrect orbit, 3CS failed to reach orbit[37][38]
5 2006-05-24
22:11
Medium+(4,2) 315 CCAFS SLC-37B GOES 13 (GOES-N) Weather satellite GTO Success
6 2006-06-28
03:33
Medium+(4,2) 317 VAFB SLC-6 USA-184 (NROL-22) Reconnaissance satellite Molniya Success First Delta IV launch from Vandenberg[39]
7 2006-11-04
13:53
Medium 320 VAFB SLC-6 USA-192 (DMSP F17) Military weather satellite SSO Success First Delta IV launch into a LEO/SSO
8 2007-11-11
01:50
Heavy 329 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-197 (DSP-23) Missile Warning satellite GSO Success First Delta IV launch contracted by United Launch Alliance
Launch delayed due to damage to launch pad caused by a liquid oxygen leak[40]
9 2009-01-18
02:47[41][42]
Heavy 337 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-202 (NROL-26) Reconnaissance satellite GSO Success[43]
10 2009-06-27
22:51[44]
Medium+(4,2) 342 CCAFS SLC-37B GOES 14 (GOES-O) Weather satellite GTO Success[45]
11 2009-12-06
01:47[46]
Medium+(5,4) 346 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-211 (WGS-3) Military communications satellite GTO Success[46] First Delta IV Medium+ (5,4) launch
12 2010-03-04
23:57
Medium+(4,2) 348 CCAFS SLC-37B GOES 15 (GOES-P) Weather satellite GTO Success[47]
13 2010-05-28
03:00
Medium+(4,2) 349 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-213 (GPS IIF-1) Navigation Satellite MEO Success[48]
14 2010-11-21
22:58[41]
Heavy 351 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-223 (NROL-32) Reconnaissance satellite GSO Success[49]
15 2011-01-20
21:10
Heavy 352 VAFB SLC-6 USA-224 (NROL-49) Reconnaissance satellite LEO Success[50] First Delta IV Heavy launch from Vandenberg[50]
16 2011-03-11
23:38[41]
Medium+(4,2) 353 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-227 (NROL-27) Reconnaissance satellite GTO Success[51]
17 2011-07-16
06:41
Medium+(4,2) 355 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-231 (GPS IIF-2) Navigation Satellite MEO Success[52]
18 2012-01-20
00:38
Medium+(5,4) 358 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-233 (WGS-4) Military communications satellite GTO Success
19 2012-04-03
23:12
Medium+(5,2) 359 VAFB SLC-6 USA-234 (NROL-25) Reconnaissance satellite LEO Success First flight in the Medium+(5,2) version
20 2012-06-29
13:15
Heavy 360 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-237 (NROL-15) Reconnaissance satellite GSO Success[24] First flight of the RS-68A engine[24]
21 2012-10-04
12:10
Medium+(4,2) 361 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-239 (GPS IIF-3) Navigation Satellite MEO Success[53] Upper stage (DCSS) anomaly caused by fuel leak, payload still reached reached planned orbit[54]
22 2013-05-25
00:27
Medium+(5,4) 362 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-243 (WGS-5) Military communications satellite GTO Success[55]
23 2013-08-08
00:29
Medium+(5,4) 363 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-244 (WGS-6) Military communications satellite GTO Success[56]
24 2013-08-28
18:03
Heavy 364 VAFB SLC-6 USA-245 (NROL-65) Reconnaissance satellite LEO Success[57]
25 2014-02-21
01:59
Medium+(4,2) 365 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-248 (GPS IIF-5) Navigation Satellite MEO Success[58]
26 2014-05-17
00:03
Medium+(4,2) 366 CCAFS SLC-37B USA-251 (GPS IIF-6) Navigation Satellite MEO Success[59]

List Date: May 17, 2014

For planned launches, see:
List of Thor and Delta launches (2010–2019)

Notable past launches[edit]

GOES-N launch on a Medium+ (4,2)
A unique aerial view of NROL-22 launch from SLC-6

The first payload launched with a Delta IV was the Eutelsat W5 communications satellite. The launch vehicle was a Medium+ (4,2) variant, launched from Cape Canaveral. It carried the communications satellite into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) on November 20, 2002.

Heavy Demo was the first launch of the Heavy variant in December 2004 after significant delays due to bad weather. Due to cavitation in the propellant lines, sensors registered depletion of propellant. The strap-on, and later core CBC engines shut down prematurely, even though sufficient propellant remained to continue the burn as scheduled. The second stage attempted to compensate for the under-burn, until it ran out of propellant. This flight was a test launch carrying a payload of:

  • DemoSat – 6020 kg; an aluminum cylinder filled with 60 brass rods – planned to be carried to GEO; however due to the sensor faults, the satellite did not reach this orbit.
  • NanoSat-2, carried to low Earth orbit (LEO) – a set of two very small satellites of 24 and 21 kg, nicknamed Sparky and Ralphie – planned to orbit for one day. Given the under-burn, the two most likely did not reach a stable orbit.[60]

NROL-22 was the first Delta IV launched from SLC-6 at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). It was launched aboard a Medium+ (4,2) in June 2006 carrying a classified satellite for the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO).

DSP-23 was the first launch of a valuable payload aboard a Heavy vehicle. This was also the first Delta IV launch contracted by the United Launch Alliance, a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin. The main payload was the 23rd and final Defense Support Program missile-warning satellite, DSP-23. Launch from Cape Canaveral occurred on November 10, 2007.[61]

NROL-26 was the first "heavy" EELV launch for the NRO. It carried USA 202, a classified reconnaissance satellite, on a Delta IV Heavy that lifted off January 18, 2009.[62]

NROL-32 was a "heavy" launch, carrying a satellite for NRO. The payload is speculated to be the largest satellite sent into space. The rocket lifted off on November 21, 2010;[63] the launch was delayed from October 19.

NROL-49 lifted off from Vandenberg AFB on January 20, 2011.[41] It was the first Delta IV Heavy mission to be launched out of Vandenberg. This mission was for the NRO and its details are classified.[64]

Planned launches[edit]

  • Several GPS Block IIF satellites will be launched using Medium+ (4,2) rockets (as well as Atlas V 401 rockets). The first of these was launched in May 2010.[41][48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Delta IV User's Guide". ULA. June 2013. Archived from the original on July 2014. Retrieved July 2014. 
  2. ^ "Boeing and Lockheed Martin Complete United Launch Alliance Transaction" (Press release). Boeing. December 1, 2006. 
  3. ^ "Boeing's Delta IV may return to commercial launches". Orange County Register. March 25, 2005. 
  4. ^ "DefenseLink Contracts for Friday, August 08, 2008". US Department of Defense. 8 August 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
  5. ^ "WGS-5 Launch Aboard a Delta IV Confirmed for May 8". Air Force Space Command. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  6. ^ http://www.ulalaunch.com/site/pages/News.shtml#/138/
  7. ^ "Delta IV to Launch GPS IIF-5". United Launch Alliance. 18 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 
  8. ^ "United Launch Alliance Successfully Launches 25th Delta IV Mission Carrying Global Positioning System Satellite for the U.S. Air Force". United Launch Alliance. 21 Feb 2014. Retrieved 21 Feb 2014. 
  9. ^ a b "Space Launch Report: Delta IV Data Sheet". Ed Kyle. September 5, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Delta IV GOES-N Launch Timeline". Spaceflight Now. June 9, 2005. 
  11. ^ "Delta IV Heavy Demo Launch Timeline". Spaceflight Now. December 1, 2004. 
  12. ^ "Delta IV Payload Planners Guide". United Launch Alliance. September 2007. pp. 1–5 to 1–6. 
  13. ^ "ATK Composite and Propulsion Technologies Help Launch Defense Weather Satellite". Alliant Techsystems. November 2006. 
  14. ^ "ATK Propulsion Technologies Help Launch Boeing’s Delta IV Heavy Rocket". Alliant Techsystems. November 2007. 
  15. ^ "L-3 Space & Navigation's RIFCA Trihex"
  16. ^ "Delta IV Payload Planners Guide". United Launch Alliance. September 2007. pp. 1–7. 
  17. ^ "Delta IV Small" Astronautix.com
  18. ^ Gunter's Space page - Delta IV
  19. ^ "Boeing Signs agreement for Delta IV Integration Facility" (Press release). Boeing. January 28, 1999. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f "Delta IV Launch Services User's Guide". United Launch Alliance. June 2013. pp. 2–10,5–3. 
  21. ^ a b "Delta Launch 310 – Delta IV Heavy Demo Media Kit - Delta Growth Options". Boeing. 
  22. ^ US Air Force - EELV Fact Sheets
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference guide2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ a b c "United Launch Alliance Upgraded Delta IV Heavy rocket successfully Launches Second Payload in Nine Days for the National Reconnaissance Office" (Press release). United Launch Alliance. 2012-06-29. 
  25. ^ "New Delta 4 Engine Variant is Part of ULA Cost Cutting Strategy". spacenews.com. 
  26. ^ "Ongoing Launch Vehicle Innovation at United Launch Alliance". ULA. March 2010. Archived from the original on March 2014. Retrieved July 2014. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Delta IV". SpaceLaunchReport.com. 
  28. ^ a b c d e "Delta IV Payload Planner's Guide". September 2007. 
  29. ^ Whitesides, Loretta Hidalgo (July 9, 2008). "Why NASA Isn’t Trying to Human-Rate the Atlas V or Delta IV Rockets". Wired. "You could launch a smaller human vehicle on a current expendable rocket [...] In fact, before the Columbia disaster NASA teams were working on an Orbital Space Plane (OSP) designed to do just that." 
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