Dimitri Progoni

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Dimitri Progoni (Progonati)
Lord of Kruja[1]
princeps Arbanorum[2]
(Prince of Albania/
the Albanians)
Prince of the Albanians, 1208–1216
Predecessor Gjin
Successor Komnena Nemanjić
Spouse Komnena Nemanjić

Issue

None
Titles and styles
archon,[3] princeps[2] (Prince, lord)
judex[2]
panhypersebastos[4]
Noble family Progon
Father Progon of Kruja
Died 1215 or 1216
Occupation
  • Vassal to Serbian Kingdom (fl. 1208–1216)
  • Vassal to Republic of Venice (fl. 1208–1212)
  • Vassal to Despotate of Epirus (fl. 1212–1216)

Dimitri Progoni[a] (Albanian: Dhimitër Progoni) was the third and the last Prince of the Albanians of the Progon family, reigning from 1208 to 1216. He ruled the mountain stronghold at Kruja (Arbanon),[5] succeeding his older brother Gjin, and he managed to bring Arbanon to its maximum. Dimitri ruled in the alliances of the Republic of Ragusa, Venice and Serbian Kingdom; he married Komnena, the daughter of Stefan Nemanjić.[3] He was later turned against Venice.

Background[edit]

Further information: History of Albania

According to some[who?], Progon's realm was the first Albanian state during the Middle Ages.[6][7][8] Little is known about archon Progon who was the first ruler of Kruja and its surroundings,[9] between 1190 and 1198.[10] The Kruja fortress stayed in the possession of the Progon family, and Progon was succeeded by his sons Gjin, and later Dimitri.[11] Before 1204, Arbanon was an autonomous principality of the Byzantine Empire.[12] The titles archon (held by Progon) and panhypersebastos (held by Dimitri) is a sign of Byzantine dependence.[4]

Life[edit]

Family, and titles[edit]

Dimitri, the son of Progon of Kruja, was the third and last lord of the Progon family, reigning between 1208 and 1216. He succeeded his brother Gjin and brought the principality to its climax.[13] Contemporary Western sources attribute the titles judex ("judge") and princeps Arbanorum ("prince of the Albanians") to him,[2] while Byzantine records refer to him as megas archon ("grand lord").[14]

Alliances and conflicts[edit]

In 1208, Dimitri married Komnena Nemanjić, the daughter of Serbian Grand Prince, later King Stefan Nemanjić (r. 1196–1228).[3][15][16] This resulted in an alliance, and vassalage to Serbia amidst conflicts with the Republic of Venice.

At the same time, George Nemanjić, in Zeta, allied himself with Venice. The struggle between the two Nemanjić branches (between Vukan and Stefan) continued under George.[5] The Gëziq inscription mention the Progon family as judices, and notes their dependence to Mladen and George.[4] George promised military support if Dimitri would attack Venetian territory, in a treaty signed on 3 July 1208.[5][17] The alliance and conflict may have been related to the Rascian-Zetan struggle, for Dimitri had close ties with Serbia, having married Komnena Nemanjić,[17] the daughter of Stefan.[5] By 1212, the Venetians had left Arbanon, abandoning it to Michael Angelos, in circumstances that remain uncertain.[17] Arbanon remained to its traditional fidelites, Byzantine and Serbian, Orthodox; when Dimitri died, Gregory Kamonas succeeded in ruling Arbanon, and took Komnena as his second wife; ties were strengthened with Serbia, with which ties had been weakened by a Serbian attack on Scutari following the collapse of the Venetian duchy of Durazzo.[17]

In search for allies, Dimitri signed a treaty with the Republic of Ragusa in 1209 and began negotiations with Pope Innocent III regarding his and his subjects’ conversion to Catholicism. This is considered a tactful move, which Dimitri undertook to establish ties with Western Europe against Venice. The friendship with the pope was of short duration, and soon turned into ill-feeling.[16]

Dimtri's closest ally was an archon named Dhimiter Gaba III.[18][verification needed]

Death and aftermath[edit]

After Dimitri died in 1215, the power was left to Komnena,[19] who soon married Greek-Albanian Gregory Kamonas, who took power of Kruja, strengthening relations with Serbia, which had been weakened after a Serbian assault on Scutari.[17][20] Arbanon remained to its traditional fidelites, Byzantine and Serbian, Orthodox.[17] Komnena had a daughter with Kamonas that married Golem.[21]

Pipa and Repishti conclude that Arbanon was the first sketch of an "Albanian state", and that it retained semi-autonomous status as the western extremity of an empire (under the Doukai of Epirus or the Laskarids of Nicaea).[22]

Dimitri Progoni
Died: 1216
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Gjin Progoni
Lord of Kruja/
Prince of Albania

1208–1216
Succeeded by
Gregory Kamonas

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ Name: His first name is mostly rendered as Dimitri, and his surname as Progoni. His name in Albanian is Dhimitër Progoni. His first name is also rendered Demetrius,[23] other variants of his full name include: Demetrios Progonos,[24] Demetrii Progoni, Dimitrije Progonov, Dimitrije Progon (Димитрије Прогон),[3] Demetrio Progoni.
  2. ^ Titles: His title in Latin was princeps Arbanorum, meaning "Prince/Lord of Albania" or "the Albanians".
    • archon:
    • judex:
    • panhypersebastos:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fine 1994, p. 52
  2. ^ a b c d Fontes 1943, p. 338
  3. ^ a b c d Bogdanović-Samardžić 1990, p. 37: "Димитрије Прогон се назива „архонтом Арбанаса" и ступа у међународне везе - са Дубровником, Венецијом и, најзад немањићком Србијом; ожењен је Комнином, кћерком Стефана Првовенчаног."
  4. ^ a b c Abulafia, p. 780
  5. ^ a b c d Fine, pp. 49-50
  6. ^ Clements 1992, p. 31 "By 1190, Byzantium's power had so receded that the archon Progon succeeded in establishing the first Albanian state of the Middle Ages, a principality"
  7. ^ Pickard-Çeliku 2008, p. 16
  8. ^ Norris 1993, p. 35
  9. ^ Fine, p. 51
  10. ^ Frashëri 1964, p. 42 "The territories of this principality extended over the present- day districts of central Albania. Its capital was at Kruja. The first ruler of the Principality of Arberia was Archon Progon (1190-1198) about whose life and doings we know.."
  11. ^ Anamali & Prifti 2002, p. 215
  12. ^ Ellis 2007, p. 134
  13. ^ Anamali & Prifti 2002, p. 198
  14. ^ Atmaca 2007, p. 44
  15. ^ Jordan 2003, p. 114
  16. ^ a b Frashëri 1964, p. 43
  17. ^ a b c d e f Abulafia, p. 786
  18. ^ Zeqo, Moikom. Kur lindi shteti tek shqiptarët?. Albasoul.com
  19. ^ Nicol 1957, p. 48
  20. ^ Abulafia, p. 156
  21. ^ The Genealogist, Volumes 1-2
  22. ^ Pipa-Repishti 1983, pp. 7-14
  23. ^ Curta, p. 340
  24. ^ Nicol, p. 160

Sources[edit]