Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils
One of earliest editions of book 16 of Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils
|Publisher||Ming Pao, Nanyang Siang Pau|
|3 September 1963|
|Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils|
|Literal meaning||The Deva, the Nāga, the Eight Sections|
Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils is a wuxia novel by Jin Yong (Louis Cha). It was first serialised concurrently from 3 September 1963 to 27 May 1966 in the newspapers Ming Pao in Hong Kong and Nanyang Siang Pau in Singapore. The novel has since spawned several adaptations in film and television in both mainland China and Hong Kong. The novel's title has also been a challenge for translators for years. Its major characters are based on the eight races of non-human entities described in Hindu-Buddhist cosmology, who are collectively known in Chinese as the "Tian Long Ba Bu", hence the novel's Chinese title. The eight races are Deva, Nāga, Yaksha, Asura, Garuda, Kinnara, Gandharva and Mahoraga. In Buddhism, these demi-gods and semi-devils are ranked higher than mortals but are still bound to Saṃsāra by their own desires. It is said that Jin Yong originally modelled each major character after one of the races, but as he continued writing, the complexity of the story made it impossible for such a simplistic mapping.
The main thematic element of the novel concerns the complex, troubled relationships between the great multitude of characters from various kingdoms and sects, and the inherent bond that underlies the struggles of each. The novel examines the cause and effect that forms and breaks these bonds on five uniquely corresponding levels: self, family, society, ethnic group, and country (dominion). The novel's historical setting is in the Northern Song dynasty, and includes the non-Han Chinese empires of Liao, Dali, Western Xia and Tubo. There is an appearance of Wanyan Aguda, a Jurchen chieftain destined to become the founder of the Jin dynasty.
The plot is made up of several separate yet intertwining story lines, revolving around three protagonists, who are sworn brothers: Qiao Feng the Warrior, Duan Yu the Prince and Xuzhu the Monk. The complex narrative shifts from the initial perspective of Duan Yu to the other characters' and sometimes back.
Duan Yu's story
Duan Yu is a young, naive prince of the Kingdom of Dali. Despite the long tradition of the practice of martial arts in the royal family, he refuses to learn martial arts due to Buddhist influence and his disdain for bloodshed. When his father tries to force him to learn martial arts, he runs away from home. Ironically, for survivals, circumstances would force Duan to learn how to defend himself, acquiring three of the most powerful martial arts in the novel and ultimately becoming a formidable pugilist himself whose prowess is on par with his sworn siblings. In addition, he becomes immune to poison after consuming the Zhuha, a poisonous toad known as the "king of all venomous creatures".
During his adventures, he encounters several beautiful young maidens, whom he becomes romantically entangled with. However, one by one, these maidens are revealed to be actually his half-sisters due to his father's past illicit affairs with several women. Of these maidens, he is extremely obsessed with Wang Yuyan, who resembles a statue of a fairy-like lady he chanced upon before. He tries to win her heart but she has no feelings for him as she has a crush on her cousin Murong Fu. After a twist of events, Duan Yu finds out that he is actually not Duan Zhengchun's biological son. Duan Yu's love life ends on a happy note when Wang finally realises that he is the one who truly loves her and they become married. (In the latest revision, Duan Yu and Wang Yuyan's romance is marred by a series of incidents, causing the couple to be separated.)
Qiao Feng's story
Qiao Feng is the charismatic chief of the Beggars' Sect, who possesses strong leadership qualities and exceptional prowess in martial arts. He falls from grace after he is revealed to be a Khitan, and after he is wrongly accused of murdering several fellow martial artists to conceal his identity. He becomes an outcast and the prime enemy of the Han Chinese wulin (martial artists' community). He is forced to sever ties with them and engages them in a one-man bloody battle in which he kills many, including some old friends and acquaintances.
Qiao Feng leaves to verify the claims that he is a Khitan and investigate the mysterious murders. He is accompanied by A'zhu, who is in love with him and stands by him. After a long journey in disguise, he finally concludes that he is indeed a Khitan and he assumes his ancestral name "Xiao Feng". Tragically, he makes a major blunder after being tricked into believing that Duan Zhengchun (A'zhu's father) is responsible for his parents' death. He kills A'zhu by mistake, who is in disguise to defend her father.
Xiao Feng regrets and has since left Song territory with A'zi, A'zhu's younger sister, whom he had promised to take care of. A'zi has a strong crush on him, which Xiao Feng do not reciprocates for her mischievousness and sadism in additions unwilling to move on from his past romance. Xiao Feng wanders into Liao territory, where he becomes a powerful noble after forging a strong friendship with the ruler, Yelü Hongji. When Yelü Hongji decides to invade Song, Xiao Feng attempts to dissuade him as he still values his past relations with the Han Chinese. Ultimately, Xiao Feng commits suicide to prevent war between Song and Liao after taking Yelü Hongji hostage and making him swear that he will never invade Song for as long as he lives.
Xuzhu is a monk from the Shaolin Sect, described to have a kind-hearted and submissive nature. He believes strongly in following the Buddhist code of conduct and refuses to break it even when faced with life-threatening situations. He follows his elders to a meeting once, which marks the start of his adventures. Coincidentally, and by sheer luck, Xuzhu breaks a weiqi formation and becomes the successor of the Carefree Sect and inherits the powers of Wuyazi. Subsequently, he encounters Tianshan Tonglao and other acquaintances of Wuyazi and learns martial arts from them. He becomes the leader of several unorthodox sects in the jianghu by chance again.
Overwhelmed by the sudden influx of heavy responsibilities and his major leap in martial prowess, Xuzhu desires to detach himself from all these duties and return to his former monastic life. However, he is unable to wrench himself free from the various tribulations and dangers that lie ahead; he is no longer regarded as a Shaolin student and has no choice but to accept his fate. Xuzhu has a pitiful parentage, as he is revealed to be the illegitimate son of Shaolin's abbot Xuanci and Ye Erniang of the "Four Evils". His reunion with his parents is fated to be the first and also the last. Again by coincidence, Xuzhu becomes the prince consort of Western Xia due to a previous affair with Princess Yinchuan, to whom he is happily married.
Ni Kuang's additions
Jin Yong went on travel for a short period of time during the writing of the novel, so Ni Kuang took over the serialisation and made additions amounting to more than 40,000 words. One notable extension by Ni Kuang is the episode in which A'zi is blinded. Since the novel was published as a serial, Jin Yong had to continue from where Ni Kuang stopped after he returned from his trip. In his revision, Jin Yong excised most of the parts added by Ni Kuang but retained the story about A'zi losing her sense of sight, since that chapter had become a crucial point in the plot's development.
|Year||Production||Main cast||Additional information|
|1977||Shaw Brothers Studio (Hong Kong)||Danny Lee, Tanny Tien, Lam Jan-kei, Wai Wang||See The Battle Wizard|
|1982||Hong Kong||Norman Chu, Kent Tong, Felix Wong, Idy Chan, Lam Jan-kei, Austin Wai||See Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils (1982 film)|
|1994||Hong Kong||Brigitte Lin, Gong Li, Sharla Cheung, Frankie Lam||See The Dragon Chronicles – The Maidens|
|Year||Production||Main cast||Additional information|
|1982||TVB (Hong Kong)||Bryan Leung, Kent Tong, Felix Wong, Idy Chan, Wong Hang-sau, Chan Fuk-sang, Sharon Yeung||See Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils (1982 TV series)|
|1991||CTV (Taiwan)||Austin Wai, Eddie Kwan, Sung Kang-ling, Chang Yung-yung|
|1997||TVB (Hong Kong)||Felix Wong, Benny Chan, Louis Fan, Carman Lee||See Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils (1997 TV series)|
|2003||Ciwen Film & TV Production Co. Ltd. (Mainland China)||Hu Jun, Jimmy Lin, Gao Hu, Liu Yifei, Liu Tao, Chen Hao||See Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils (2003 TV series)|
|2013||Zhejiang Huace Film & TV Production Co. Ltd. (Mainland China)||Wallace Chung, Kim Ki-bum, Han Dong, Zhang Meng, Jia Qing, Zong Fengyan, Mao Xiaodan, Zhao Yuanyuan, Canti Lau||See The Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils (2013 TV series)|
- Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils is a single player RPG released in 2002. The player takes on the role of an unrelated protagonist (default name Lei Zhen) and meets characters from the novel. His choices and actions will affect how the story progresses.
- Dragon Oath, also known as TLBB in China, is a MMORPG developed by Changyou and Sohu, and was launched in 2007.
- Tian Long Ba Bu: Shen Bing Hai Yu (天龙八部:神兵海域) is a MMORPG developed by Changyou and Sohu, and was launched in China on 25 October 2012. The game is endorsed by Hu Ge and Cecilia Liu, who appeared as Duan Yu and Wang Yuyan respectively in a short video promoting the game and other promotional material.
- The date conforms to the data published in Chen Zhenhui (陳鎮輝), Wuxia Xiaoshuo Xiaoyao Tan (武俠小說逍遙談), 2000, Huizhi Publishing Company (匯智出版有限公司), pg. 58.
- Preface of the novel
- (Chinese) Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils (RPG) on Baidu Baike
- (Chinese) Dragon Oath at ChangYou.com
- (Chinese) 《天龙八部》10月25日 “神兵海域”深海公测！
- (simplified Chinese) Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils at cnnovels.com