Democratic Constitutional Rally
|Democratic Constitutional Rally|
|التجمع الدستوري الديمقراطي|
|French name||Rassemblement constitutionnel démocratique|
|Former presidents||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Mohamed Ghannouchi|
|Founded||27 February 1988|
|Dissolved||9 March 2011|
|Preceded by||Socialist Destourian Party|
|Succeeded by||several offshoots|
|International affiliation||Socialist International|
|Politics of Tunisia
The Democratic Constitutional Rally or Democratic Constitutional Assembly (Arabic: التجمع الدستوري الديمقراطي At-Tajammu‘ Ad-Dustūrī Ad-Dīmuqrāṭī, French: Rassemblement Constitutionnel Démocratique, sometimes also called Constitutional Democratic Rally in English), also referred to by its French initials RCD, formerly called Neo Destour then Socialist Destourian Party, was the ruling party in Tunisia from independence in 1956 until it was overthrown and dissolved in the Tunisian revolution in 2011.
History and profile
In 1920, Tunisian nationalists formed the Destour (Constitutional) Party in opposition to French rule. As the party developed, a schism occurred within the party, leading to the founding of the Neo Destour Party in 1934 by Habib Bourguiba and several younger members of the old Destour. Under his leadership, the Neo Destour Party successfully garnered independence from France in 1956. Eight years later, in 1964, the Neo Destour Party became the Destourian Socialist Party (PSD). From 1963–1981, the PSD was the only legal political party in Tunisia.
In 1981, the PSD faced opposition from Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Islamic Tendency Movement, the Tunisian Communist Party, the Movement for Popular Unity and student groups, weakening its influence. On 7 November 1987, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, who had been named Prime Minister only a month earlier, became president after Bourguiba was declared medically unfit for office. The following year, President Ben Ali instituted economic reforms increasing economic privatization and renamed the party the Democratic Constitutional Rally (RCD).
In the 2009 general election, the last held before the revolution, the RCD won 161 of 214 seats with the remaining 53 seats going to minority parties. These elections, like virtually all others in the country since independence, were widely seen as fraudulent. The outcry over the elections proved to be a major cause of the revolution which forced President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to resign and leave Tunisia.
In response to the RCD government's attempt to suppress the protests, the Socialist International expelled the RCD on 17 January 2011—three days after Ben Ali fled the country. In order to placate protesters and designated coalition participants, the incumbent president and prime minister resigned from their memberships in the RCD on 18 January and all remaining RCD-aligned ministers resigned their party memberships on 20 January, the effect of which left the RCD with only a parliamentary majority. On 27 January, Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi carried out a major reshuffle, removing all former RCD members other than himself from the government. On 9 March, the party was finally dissolved by the Tunisian courts.
- Habib Bourguiba (1934–1987) (Leader of Neo Destour Party: 1934–1964; Leader of Socialist Destourian Party: 1964–1987)
- Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (1987–2011) (Leader of Socialist Destourian Party: 1987–1988)
- Mohamed Ghannouchi (2011)
- 29–31 July 1993
- 29–31 July 1998
- 30 August – 2 September 1998
- 28–31 July 2003
|Election date||Party candidate||Number of votes received||Percentage of votes|
|1989||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||2,087,028||100%|
|1994||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||2,987,375||100%|
|1999||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||3,269,067||99.4%|
|2004||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||4,204,292||94.4%|
|2009||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||4,238,711||89.6%|
|Election date||Party leader||Number of votes received||Percentage of votes||Number of deputies|
|1989||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||1,633,004||80.6%||141|
|1994||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||2,768,667||97.7%||144|
|1999||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||Unknown||Unknown||148|
|2004||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||3,678,645||87.5%||152|
|2009||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||3,754,559||84.5%||161|
- Geography and Map of Tunisia About.com
- Dictatorship and Neo-Liberalism: The Tunisian People's Uprising Mahdi Darius Nazemroaya, Global Research, 19 January 2011
- Entry for "Democratic Constitutional Rally" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "Minister of Interior Suspends the RCD party awaiting its dissolution". Tunis Afrique Presse (in Arabic). 7 February 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- "Tunisia dissolves Ben Ali party". Al-Jazeera English. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Tunisia: Politics, Government and Taxation". Encyclopedia of Nations. 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- Paul Delaney (9 November 1987). "Senile Bourguiba Described in Tunis". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "Final Results of Presidential and Legislative Elections". Presidential and Legislative Elections in Tunisia. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Empathy for Tunisian discontent in France Euronews, 13 January 2011
- SI decision on Tunisia Socialist International, 17 January 2011
- "State TV: 2 top officials depart Ben Ali's party In Tunisia". CNN. 19 January 2011.
- Lin Noueihed and Matthew Jones (20 January 2011). "All Tunisian ministers quit ruling party- state TV". Reuters.