Demographic history of Poland
The Poles come from different tribes living on territories belonging later to Poland in the early Middle Ages (see: Prehistory of Poland). The Poland's demography in the past was much more diverse than nowadays – for many centuries the Polish population consisted of many ethnic minorities.
- 1 Kingdom of Poland (966–1569)
- 2 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
- 3 Partitions (1795–1918)
- 4 Second Polish Republic (1918–1939)
- 5 Post-Second World War (1945–present)
- 6 General statistics. Tables
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Kingdom of Poland (966–1569)
Around the year 1000, the population of Polish lands is estimated at about 1,000,000 to 1,250,000. Around 1370 Poland had 2 millions inhabitants with a population density of 8.6 per square kilometre. Poland was less affected by the Black Death than western Europe.
Although the population of the Kingdom of Poland in late Middle Ages consisted mostly of Poles, influx of other cultures was significant: particularly notable were Jewish and German settlers, who often formed significant minorities or even majorities in urban centers. Sporadically migrants from other places like Scotland, Netherlands settled in Poland as well. At that time other notable minorities included various incompletely assimilated people from other Slavic tribes (some of whom would eventually merge totally into the Polish people, while others merged into neighboring nations).
Around 1490, combined population of Poland and Lithuania, in a personal union (the Polish–Lithuanian union) since the Union of Krewo a century before, is estimated at about 8 million. An estimate for 1493 gives the combined population of Poland and Lithuania at 7.5 million, breaking them down by ethnicity at 3.25 million Poles, 3.75 million Ruthenians and 0.5 million Lithuanians. The Ruthenians composed most of the Grand Duchy population; this is the reason why the late GDL is often called a Slavic country, alongside Poland, Russia etc. In time, the adjective "Lithuanian" came to denote a Slav of the Grand Duchy. Eventually the Lithuanian speakers came to be known as Samogitians (see also Samogitian nobility), after the province in which they were the dominant majority. Another estimate for the combined population at the beginning of the 16th century gives 7.5 million, roughly split evenly, due to much larger territory of the Grand Duchy (with about 10-15 people per square km in Poland and 3-5 people per square km in the Grand Duchy, and even less in the south-east Cossack borderlands). By 1500, about 15% of Poland's population lived in urban centers (settlements with over 500 people).
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
By 1600, about 25% of Poland's population lived in urban centers (settlements with over 500 people). Major towns in Poland included: Gdańsk (Danzig) (70,000), Kraków (28,000), Warsaw (20,000-30,000), Poznań (20,000), Lwów (Lviv) (20,000), Elbląg (Elbing) (15,000), Toruń (Thorn) (12,000), Sandomierz (4,000-5,000), Kazimierz Dolny (4,000-5,000) and Gniezno (4,000-5,000).
The population of the Commonwealth of both nations was never overwhelmingly either Roman Catholic or Polish. This resulted from Poland's possession of Ukraine and federation with Lithuania; in both these countries ethnic Poles were a distinct minority. The Commonwealth comprised primarily three nations: Poles, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians and Belarusians (the latter two usually referred to together as Ruthenians). Shortly after the Union of Lublin (1569), at the turn of the 16th to 17th century, the Commonwealth population was around 7 million, with a rough breakdown of 4.5m Poles, 0.75m Lithuanians, 0.7m Jews and 2m Ruthenians. In 1618, after the Truce of Deulino the Commonwealth population increased together with its territory, reaching 12 millions that could be roughly divided into: Poles - 4.5m, Ukrainians - 3.5m, Belarusians - 1.5m, Lithuanians - 0.75m, Prussians - 0.75m, Jews - 0.5m, Livionians - 0.5m; at that time nobility formed 10% and burghers, 15%. Population losses of 1648-1667 are estimated at 4m. Coupled with further population and territorial losses, in 1717 Commonwealth population had fallen to 9m, roughly 4.5m Poles, 1.5m Ukrainians, 1.2m Belarusians, 0.8m Lithuanians, 0.5m Jews, 0.5m others The urban population was hit hard, falling to below 10%.
To be Polish, in the non-Polish lands of the Commonwealth, was then much less an index of ethnicity than of religion and rank; it was a designation largely reserved for the landed noble class (szlachta), which included Poles but also many members of non-Polish origin who converted to Catholicism in increasing numbers with each following generation. For the non-Polish noble such conversion meant a final step of Polonization that followed the adoption of the Polish language and culture. Poland, as the culturally most advanced part of the Commonwealth, with the royal court, the capital, the largest cities, the second-oldest university in Central Europe (after Prague), and the more liberal and democratic social institutions has proven an irresistible magnet for the non-Polish nobility in the Commonwealth.
As a result, in the eastern territories a Polish (or Polonized) aristocracy dominated a peasantry whose great majority was neither Polish nor Roman Catholic. Moreover, the decades of peace brought huge colonization efforts to Ukraine, heightening the tensions among nobles, Jews, Cossacks (traditionally Orthodox), Polish and Ruthenian peasants. The latter, deprived of their native protectors among the Ruthenian nobility, turned for protection to cossacks that facilitated violence that in the end broke the Commonwealth. The tensions were aggravated by conflicts between Eastern Orthodoxy and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church following the Union of Brest, overall discrimination of Orthodox religions by dominant Catholicism, and several Cossack uprisings. In the west and north, many cities had sizable German minorities, often belonging to Reformed churches. The Commonwealth had also one of the largest Jewish diasporas in the world.
Until the Reformation, the szlachta were mostly Catholic or Eastern Orthodox. However, many families quickly adopted the Reformed religion. After the Counter-Reformation, when the Roman Catholic Church regained power in Poland, the szlachta became almost exclusively Roman Catholic, despite the fact that Roman Catholicism was not a majority religion (the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches counted approximately 40% of the population each, while the remaining 20% were Jews and members of various Protestant churches). The Counter-Reformation in Poland, influenced by the Commonwealth tradition of religious tolerance, was based mostly on Jesuit propaganda, and was very peaceful when compared to excesses such as the Thirty Years' War elsewhere in Europe.
In the late 18th century, first statistical estimates of Commonwealth population appeared. Aleksander Busching estimated the number of Commonwealth population for 8,5 millions; Józef Wybicki in 1777 for 5,391,364; Stanisław Staszic in 1785 for 6 millions; and Fryderyk Moszyński in 1789 for 7,354,620. Modern estimates tend to be higher; by 1770, on the eve of the partitions, Commonwealth had a population of about 11m-14m, about 10% of that - Jewish. The nobility comprised about 10%, the burghers, about 7-8%.
By the First Partition in 1772, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth lost about 211 000 km² (30% of its territory, amounting at that time to about 733 000 km²), with a population of over four to five million people (about a third of its population of 14 million before the partitions).
After the Second Partition, Commonwealth lost about 307 000 km², being reduced to 223 000 km². Only about 4 million people remained in Poland at that time, which makes for a loss of another third of its original population, about a half of the remaining.
After the Third Partition, overall, Austria had gained about 18 percent of the former Commonwealth territory (130,000 km²) and about 32 percent of the population (3.85 million people). Prussia had gained about 20 percent of the former Commonwealth territory 149,000 km²) and about 23 percent of the population (2.6 million people). Russia had gained about 62 percent of the former Commonwealth territory (462,000 km²) and about 45 percent of the population (3.5 million people).
An estimate for 1815 gives 11 million Poles, out of which 5m were under Russian control (4 million in Congress Poland and 1 million in the territories incorporated into the Russian Empire), 3.5m in the Prussian partition territories and 3m in the Austrian partition territories.
Congress Poland had a population of about 4.25 million around 1830. In the Russian partition, the Pale of Settlement resulted in resettlement of many Russian Jews to the western fringes of Russian Empire, which now included part of Poland. This further increased the sizable community of Polish Jews. By 1914, about 31 million people inhabited the territories that would become the Second Polish Republic, the First World War saw the population of those territories drop to 26 million.
Second Polish Republic (1918–1939)
Before World War II, the Polish lands were noted for the richness and variety of their ethnic communities. Following the Polish-Soviet War, a large part of its population belonged to national minorities. The census of that year allocates 30.8% of the population in the minority. In 1931, the population of Poland was 31,916,000, including 15,428,000 males and 16,488,000 females. By January 1939, the population of Poland increased to 35,100,000. This total included 240,000 in Zaolzie which was under Polish control from October 1938 until August 1939. The population density was 90 persons per square km. In 1921, 24% of the population lived in towns and cities, by 1931 the ratio grew to 27%. Altogether, in 1921, there were 611 towns and cities in the country, by 1931 there were 636 municipalities. The six biggest cities of Poland (as for January 1, 1939) were Warsaw, Łódź, Lwów, Poznań, Kraków and Vilnius (Wilno). In 1931, Poland had the second largest Jewish population in the world, and one-fifth of all Jews resided within Poland's borders (approx. 3,136,000, roughly 10% of the entire Polish population).
Norman Davies gives the results of Polish census of 1931 "according to linguistic criteria" as follows: Poles, 68.9% of the population, Ukrainians, 13.9%, Jews, 8.7%, Belarusians, 3.1%, Germans, 2.3%, and Other, 3.1%. The results of Polish census of 1931 according to language and religion are as follows.
Breakout of Total 1931 Polish Population by Language and Religion
|Language||Total||Roman Catholics||Greek Catholics||Eastern Orthodox||Evangelical(Luthern)||Other Christian||Jewish||Other|
Figures may not add due to rounding. Source:U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954
Breakout of Total 1931 Polish Population by Language and Religion Figures as % of Total Population
|Language||Total||Roman Catholics||Greek Catholics||Eastern Orthodox||Evangelical||Other Christian||Jewish||Other|
Figures may not add due to rounding. Source:U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954
In the southeast, Ukrainian settlements were present in the regions east of Chełm and in the Carpathians east of Nowy Sącz. The three main native higlander populations were Łemkowie, Bojkowie and Huculi. In all the towns and cities there were large concentrations of Yiddish-speaking Jews. The Polish ethnographic area stretched eastward: in eastern Lithuania, Belarus, and western Ukraine, all of which had a mixed population, Poles predominated not only in the cities but also in numerous rural districts. There were significant Polish minorities in Daugavpils (in Latvia), Minsk (in Belarus), Bucovina (in Romania), and Kiev (in Ukraine) (see Polish minority in the Soviet Union, Polish Autonomous District).
Second World War (1939–1945)
In the beginning of the war (September 1939) the territory of Poland was divided between the Nazi Germany and the USSR. By the late-1941 the Soviets were overrun by Nazi Germany over entire territory of the former Second Polish Republic but the 1944-1945 the Red Army's offensive drove the Nazi forces out.
After both occupiers divided the territory of Poland between themselves, they conducted a series of actions aimed at suppression of Polish culture and repression of much of the Polish people. In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated Poland's dead (including Polish Jews) at between 5.47 and 5.67 million (due to German actions) and 150,000 (due to Soviet), or around 5.62 and 5.82 million total. About 90% of Polish Jews were murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust; many others emigrated in the succeeding years.
|Description (see: Legend)||Total||Poles||Jews||Germans||Others
|1. Population 1939 (by Language Spoken)||35,000,000||24,300,000||3,200,000||800,000||6,700,000|
|2. Natural Increase 1939-1945||1,300,000||1,000,000||300,000|
|3. Transfer of German Population||(760,000)||(760,000)|
|4 A. Deaths Due to German Occupation||(5,670,000)||(2,770,000)||(2,800,000)||(100,000)|
|4 B. Deaths Due to Soviet Occupation||(150,000)||(150,000)|
|5. Population Remaining in the USSR||(7,800,000)||(1,000,000)||(100,000)||0||(6,700,000)|
|6. Emigration to the West||(480,000)||(280,000)||(200,000)|
|7. Population gain Recovered Territories||1,260,000||1,130,000||0||130,000||0|
|8. Re-Immigration 1946-50||200,000||200,000||0||0||0|
|9. Natural Increase 1946-1950||2,100,000||2,100,000||0||0||0|
|10. Population 1950||25,000,000||24,530,000||100,000||170,000||200,000|
1. Population 1939 -Polish sources allocate the population by the primary language spoken, not by religion. Most Jews spoke Yiddish, however included with the Poles are about 200,000 Polish speaking Jews who are classified with the Polish group. Included with the Poles are 1,300,000 Eastern Orthodox & Greek Catholic adherents who are sometimes classified with the Ukrainian and Belarusian groups.
2. Natural Increase October 1939-December 1945 -After the war Polish demographers calculated the estimated natural population growth that occurred during the war.
3. Transfer of German Population Most of the ethnic German population fled during the war. In 1950 only about 40,000 of the pre-war ethnic German group remained in Poland in 1950, most of whom emigrated later in the 1950s.
4. War Dead In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) put the figure of Poland's dead at between 5,620,000 and 5,820,000. The IPN's figures include 3 million Polish Jews who died in the Holocaust(200,000 included with Polish speakers); as well as 150,000 victims of Soviet repression. The figures also include Poles killed in 1943-44 during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia
Deaths Due to German Occupation
Poles-The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) figure for deaths of Poles due the German occupation is 2,770,000. This figure includes "Direct War Losses" -543,000; "Murdered in Camps and in Pacification" -506,000; "Deaths in prisons and Camps" 1,146,000; "Deaths outside of prisons and Camps" 473,000; "Murdered in Eastern Regions" 100,000; "Deaths in other countries" 2,000. These figures include about 200,000 Polish speaking Jews who are considered Poles in Polish sources.
Jews-Polish researchers have determined that the Nazis murdered 1,860,000 Polish Jews in the extermination camps in Poland, plus another 1.0 million Polish Jewish deaths in prisons and ghettos. In addition 970,000 Jews from other nations were murdered in the Nazi extermination camps in Poland.
Included in the Polish figures of war dead are 2.0 million Polish citizens in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union Contemporary Russian sources also include these losses with Soviet war deaths.
Deaths Due to Soviet Occupation
The Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation. Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.
5. Population Remaining in the USSR The number of Poles and Jews who remained in the USSR after the war was estimated at about 1.4 million by Polish scholar and historian Krystyna Kersten. Included with the Poles remaining in the USSR are about 700,000 Eastern Orthodox & Greek Catholic adherents who are sometimes classified with the Ukrainian and Belarusian groups.
6. Emigration to the West Poles and Jews who remained in non communist countries after the war.
7. Population gain Recovered Territories Germans remaining in Poland after the war in the Recovered Territories. This group included 1,130,000 bi-lingual Polish-German persons who declared their allegiance to Poland. Also remaining in 1950 were 94,000 German nationals, 36,000 Germans from pre-war Danzig and 1,500 ethnic Germans of other nations. Most of this group emigrated to Germany after 1956. The ethnic German population remaining in the 1990s was about 300,000.
8. Reimmigration 1946-50 Poles resident in western Europe before the war, primarily in Germany and France, who returned to Poland after the war.
10. Population December 1950 Per Census The total population per the December 1950 census was 25 million. A breakdown by ethnic group was not given. However, we can estimate the Jewish population based on the postwar census taken by the Jewish community.Data for the Germans and others who remained in Poland after the war can be estimated using the 1946 Polish census
Post-Second World War (1945–present)
Early post-war period
Before World War II, a third of Poland's population was composed of ethnic minorities. After the war, however, Poland's minorities were mostly gone, due to the 1945 revision of borders, and the Holocaust. Under the National Repatriation Office (Państwowy Urząd Repatriacyjny), millions of Poles were forced to leave their homes in the eastern Kresy region and settle in the western former German territories. At the same time approximately 5 million remaining Germans (about 8 million had already fled or had been expelled and about 1 million had been killed in 1944-46) were similarly expelled from those territories into the Allied occupation zones. Ukrainian and Belarusian minorities found themselves now mostly within the borders of the Soviet Union; those who opposed this new policy (like the Ukrainian Insurgent Army in the Bieszczady Mountains region) were suppressed by the end of 1947 in the Operation Vistula.
The population of Jews in Poland, which formed the largest Jewish community in pre-war Europe at about 3.3 million people, was all but destroyed by 1945. Approximately 3 million Jews died of starvation in ghettos and labor camps, were slaughtered at the German Nazi extermination camps or by the Einsatzgruppen death squads. Between 40,000 and 100,000 Polish Jews survived the Holocaust in Poland, and another 50,000 to 170,000 were repatriated from the Soviet Union, and 20,000 to 40,000 from Germany and other countries. At its postwar peak, there were 180,000 to 240,000 Jews in Poland, settled mostly in Warsaw, Łódź, Kraków and Wrocław.
According to the national census, which took place on February 14, 1946, population of Poland was 23 930 000, out of which 32% lived in cities and towns, and 68% lived in the countryside. The 1950 census (December 3, 1950) showed the population rise to 25 008 000, and the 1960 census (December 6, 1960) placed the population of Poland at 29 776 000. In 1950, Warsaw was the biggest city of the country, with population of 804 000. Second was Lodz (pop. 620 000), third Kraków (pop. 344 000), fourth Poznan (pop. 321 000), and fifth Wroclaw (pop. 309 000).
Females were in the majority in the country. In 1931, there were 105.6 women for 100 men. In 1946, the difference grew to 118.5/100, but in subsequent years, number of males grew, and in 1960, the ratio was 106.7/100.
Most Germans were expelled from Poland and the annexed east German territories at the end of the war, while many Ukrainians, Rusyns and Belarusians lived in territories incorporated into the USSR. Small Ukrainian, Belarusian, Slovak, and Lithuanian minorities reside along the borders, and a German minority is concentrated near the southwestern city of Opole and in Masuria. Groups of Ukrainians and Polish Ruthenians also live in western Poland, where they were forcefully resettled by communists.
As a result of the migrations and the Soviet Unions radically altered borders under the rule of Joseph Stalin, the population of Poland became one of the most ethnically homogeneous in the world. Virtually all people in Poland claim Polish nationality, with Polish as their native tongue. Ukrainians resp. Rusyns, the largest minority group, are scattered in various northern districts. Lesser numbers of Belarusians and Lithuanians live in areas adjoining Belarus and Lithuania. The Jewish community, almost entirely Polonized, has been greatly reduced. In Silesia a significant segment of the population, of mixed Polish and German ancestry, tends to declare itself as Polish or German according to political circumstances. Minorities of Germans remain in Pomerania, Silesia, East Prussia, and Lubus.
Small populations of Polish Tatars still exist. Some Polish towns, mainly in northeastern Poland have mosques. Tatars arrived as mercenary soldiers beginning in the late 14th century. The Tatar population reached approximately 100,000 in 1630 but is less than 500 in 2000. See also Islam in Poland.
A recent large migration of Poles took place following Poland's accession to the European Union and opening of the EU's labor market; with an approximate number of 2 million primarily young Poles taking up jobs abroad.
General statistics. Tables
Changes of Poland's population through centuries
|2006||38 125 000||122,0||Poland|
|2000||38 253 955||122,0||Poland|
|1995||38 610 000||Poland|
|1990||38 183 000||Poland|
|7 XII 1988||37 879 000||121,1||People's Republic of Poland|
|7 XII 1978||35 061 000||112,2||People's Republic of Poland|
|8 XII 1970||32 642 000||104,4||People's Republic of Poland|
|6 XII 1960||29 776 000||95,3||People's Republic of Poland|
|3 XII 1950||25 008 000||80,0||People's Republic of Poland|
|14 II 1946||23 930 000||76,6||People's Republic of Poland|
|31 XII 1938||34 849 000||89,7||Second Polish Republic|
|9 XII 1931||32 107 000||82,6||Second Polish Republic|
|30 IX 1921||27 177 000||69,9||Second Polish Republic|
|1911||22 110 000||Partitioned Poland|
|1846||11 107 000||Partitioned Poland|
|c. 1772||14 000 000||19||Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth|
|c. 1650||11 000 000||Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth|
|c. 1500||7 500 000||15 in Poland
5 in Grand Duchy
|1370||2 500 000||9,3||Kingdom of Poland|
|1320||1 750 000||8||Kingdom of Poland|
|c. 1000||1 800 000||7||Kingdom of Poland|
Urban demographics statistics
Changes in the population of major Polish cities.
- Note that this table contains information on some cities that are not within the borders of modern Poland, and others that have not been within those borders for many centuries. See Territorial changes of Poland for more details on that issue.
|Year/City||Warszawa (Warsaw)||Kraków||Poznań||Wrocław (Breslau)||Gdańsk (Danzig)||Toruń||Szczecin (Stettin)||Lublin||Wilno (Vilnius)||Lwów (Lviv)||Kijów (Kiev)|
- Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-55917-0, Google Print, p.6
- Henryk Łowmiański, Economic problems of the early feudal Polish State, Acta Poloniae Historica, III (1960), p.7-32.
- Aleksander Gieysztor, Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in Christopher Allmand (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-38296-3, Print, p.727
- Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-55917-0, Google Print, p.6
- Based on 1493 population map (p.92) from Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Poland a Historical Atlas, Hippocrene Books, 1987, ISBN 0-88029-394-2
- Stephen R. Burant and Voytek Zubek, Eastern Europe's Old Memories and New Realities: Resurrecting the Polish–Lithuanian Union, East European Politics and Societies 1993; 7; 370, online, p.4
- Amdrzej Janeczek, Town and Country in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in S. R. Epstein, Town and Country in Europe, 1300-1800, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-54804-7, Google Print, p.156
- Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-16112-6, Google Print, p.129
- Total and Jewish population based of Frazee; others are estimations from Pogonowski (see following reference). Charles A. Frazee, World History the Easy Way, Barron's Educational Series, ISBN 0-8120-9766-1, Google Print, 50
- Based on 1618 population map (p.115), 1618 languages map (p.119), 1657-1667 losses map (p.128) and 1717 map (p.141) from Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Poland a Historical Atlas, Hippocrene Books, 1987, ISBN 0-88029-394-2
- Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-16112-6, Google Print, p.151
- Linda Gordon, Cossack Rebellions: Social Turmoil in the Sixteenth Century Ukraine, SUNY Press, 1983, ISBN 0-87395-654-0, Google Print, p.51
- Aleksander Gella, Development of Class Structure in Eastern Europe: Poland and Her Southern Neighbors, SUNY Press, 1998, ISBN 0-88706-833-2, Google Print, p.13
- "Poland, history of" Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.  [Accessed February 10, 2006]. and "Ukraine" Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.  [Accessed February 14, 2006].
- Edward Fram, Ideals face reality: Jewish law and life in Poland, 1550-1655, Hebrew Union College Press, 1997, ISBN 0-87820-420-2, Google Print, p.16-18
- Haig A. Bosmajian (2006). Burning Books. McFarland. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7864-2208-1.
- Robert Bideleux; Ian Jeffries (10 April 2006). A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Routledge. pp. 150–154. ISBN 978-1-134-71984-6.
- Czesław Domański Zasłużeni statystycy dla nauki
- Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-16112-6, Google Print, p.155
- Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-925340-4, Google Print, p.132
- Jerzy Lukowski; W. H. Zawadzki (2001). A Concise History of Poland: Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki. Cambridge University Press. pp. 96–98. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Davies, Norman (2005). God's Playground. A History of Poland. The Origins to 1795 I (revised ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-19-925339-5.
- Jerzy Lukowski; W. H. Zawadzki (2001). A Concise History of Poland: Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101–103. ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Piotr Stefan Wandycz, The Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the Present, Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 0-415-25491-4, Google Print, p.133
- Based on 1815 population map (p.161-163) from Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, Poland a Historical Atlas, Hippocrene Books, 1987, ISBN 0-88029-394-2
- Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-55917-0, Google Print, p.129
- Joseph Marcus, Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919-1939, Mouton Publishing, 1983, ISBN 90-279-3239-5, Google Books, p. 17
- London Nakl. Stowarzyszenia Prawników Polskich w Zjednoczonym Królestwie , Polska w liczbach. Poland in numbers. Zebrali i opracowali Jan Jankowski i Antoni Serafinski. Przedmowa zaopatrzyl Stanislaw Szurlej. The Polish government in exile also included the 240,000 inhabitants of Cieszyn with the Polish population.
- Norman Davies, God's Playground, Columbia University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-231-12819-3, Google Print, p.299
- U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington- 1954
- Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota (eds.).Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami.Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction reproduced here)
- Piesowicz, Kazimierz. Demographic effects of World War II. [Demograficzne skutki II wojny swiatowej.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/87, 1987. 103-36 pp. Warsaw, Poland. (Piesowicz put the total war dead at 6.0 million. He also notes that all the figures are approximated.)
- Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami.Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6
- U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington-1954
- U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington-1954. ( In 1938 the birth rate was 2.45%, natural deaths 1.4%. The birth rate (1938 =100)in 1939=98,1940=93, 1941=88,1942=84,1943=78,1944=80 1945=90 If we take these birth rates and the 1.4% natural death rate of 1938 as being constant, we will derive an increase of 1.300 million from 1939-45.)
- Stanisław Jankowiak, Wysiedlenie i emigracja ludności niemieckiej w polityce władz polskich w latach 1945-1970, p.211-212, Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2005, ISBN 83-89078-80-5
- Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami .Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6,
- Polskie Radio August 28,2009 Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) has published a new report
- Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, no. 1.This article is available for purchase from the Central and Eastern European Online Library at http://www.ceeol.com
- Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami .Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, Pages 29-30
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Maria Trzeciakowska, Lech Trzeciakowski, W dziewiętnastowiecznym Poznaniu. Życie codzienne miasta 1815-1914, Poznań 1982, Wydawnictwo Poznańskie ISBN 83-210-0316-8
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