The concept of demographic threat (or demographic bomb) is a term used in political conversation to refer to population increases from within a minority ethnic group in a given country that are perceived as threatening to alter the ethnic identity of that country.
Thousands of Bahraini Shia Muslims protested in March 2011 against the Bahraini government's naturalisation policy of granting citizenships to Sunni Muslims from other countries serving in the military of Bahrain.
There was a demographic competition during 19th and 20th centuries, between a French-speaking Catholic minority and an English-speaking Protestant majority.
In Estonia, one of the causes of the Singing Revolution was the concern over the demographic threat to the national identity posed by the influx of individuals from foreign ethnic groups to work on such large Soviet development projects as phosphate mining.
Alleged mass immigration from Arab and Muslim countries, and the high fertility rate among these immigrants are described by many conservatives as posing a demographic threat to Europe, especially France. Some of those conservatives have claimed that today about a third of newborns in France have Muslim parents.
In Kosovo, Albanian settlement led to Albanian majority during 20th century, complex demographic tensions, and eventually a Republic of Kosovo's declaration of independence in early 21st century.
Many Hindu Indians see Muslims as a "demographic threat" because of their large population growth due to high fertility rates and because of the high rate of illegal immigration from Bangladesh.
In the 1950s, Shoham Melamad found that the high fertility rate of Arabs was viewed as a demographic threat to the Jewish nation. Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, however, stated that Arabs in Israel should be treated equally to any other Israeli citizens and be allowed to have children just like any other citizen. A 1967 Maariv editorial suggested that Jews should be encouraged to have large families, while Palestinians in the West Bank, Gaza Srip and in Israel should be encouraged to adopt birth control measures. Schnitzer also advocated for the adoption of an open policy encouraging Arabs to emigrate from Israel. In 2003, Benjamin Netanyahu opined that if the percentage of Arab citizens of Israel rises above its current level of about 20 percent, Israel would not be able to retain a Jewish demographic majority, the basis of Israel's self-definition as a "Jewish democratic state". Netanyahu's comments were criticized as racist by Arab Knesset members and the Association for Civil Rights in Israel. In May 2009, Michael Oren, the current Israeli Ambassador to the USA, wrote an article in Commentary Magazine in which he discussed the "Arab Demographic Threat" as one of "Seven Existential Threats" facing Israel. Shimon Peres and Benjamin Netanyahu both warned that Bedouin population growth in the Negev was a "demographic" or "palpable" threat to a Jewish majority. Later research revealed that Palestinian Authority census data was wholly unreliable. The birth rate amongst Arabs living under Israeli jurisdiction we falling to parity with a rising Jewish birthrate, and the Jewish birthrate is expected to overtake the Arab birthrate within a generation. Projections predict that an overwhelming Jewish majority in the West Bank could materialize by the middle of the 21st century.
Russia fears the "demographic threat" posed by the potential for "large-scale Chinese immigration" to its thinly populated far east. Illegal immigration of Chinese nationals is a special concern.
Some in the United States have expressed concern about the "demographic threat" posed by millions of illegal immigrants from Mexico and Latin America, and their descendants. George Friedman, the head of Stratfor, predicts that Mexicans will be a majority in the Southwestern United States by the end of the 21st century.
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- In Defence of Democracy: Dynamics and Fault Lines of Nepal's Political Economy, Ram Sharan Mahat, Adroit Publishers, 2005, p. 265
- Estonia and the Estonians, Toivo U. Raun, Hoover Press, 2001, p. 223
- Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-century Eastern Europe, Roger Dale Petersen, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 156
- Europe for the Europeans: the foreign and security policy of the populist radical right, dir. Christina Schori Liang, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008, p. 132; The Islamic challenge in Europe, Raphael Israeli, Transaction Publishers, 2008, p. 47;
- "in France, approximately one birth in three is to a Muslim family" in Jennifer Morse, Acton Institute, 2006-01-25; "a third of the young people in France have been born to Muslim parents" in John Reilly, 2006; "1 out of every 3 babies born in France today is a Muslim baby." in Hugh Fitzgerald, Douce France, jihadwatch, 2004-06-23; "a third of all births [in France] are already Muslim." in Mark Steyn, America Alone: The End of the World as We Know It, Regnery ed, 2006-09-16, ISBN 0-89526-078-6, p. 47;
- Women, States, and Nationalism: At Home in the Nation?, By Sita Ranchod-Nilsson, Mary Ann Tétreault, Routledge, 2000, p. 111
- Why India is concerned about Bangladesh, Ramananda Sengupta | December 22, 2005 
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- Illegal Migration from Bangladesh, Braja Bihārī Kumāra, Astha Bharati, Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research, Astha Bharati, 2006, p. 86
- Shenhav, 2006, p. 191.
- Does A High Arab Birthrate Threaten Israel?
- Masalha, 2000, pp. 200-202.
- Sedan, Gil (18 December 2003). "Netanyahu: Israel's Arabs are the real demographic threat". Haaretz.
- "MKs slam Netanyahu's remarks about Israeli Arabs". 17 December 2003.
- "Seven Existential Threats". www.commentarymagazine.com. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
- Sadiq, Kamal (2005). "When States Prefer Non-Citizens Over Citizens: Conflict Over Illegal Immigration into Malaysia" (PDF). International Studies Quarterly 49: 101–122. doi:10.1111/j.0020-8833.2005.00336.x. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Russia's Far East: a region at risk By Judith Thornton, Charles E. Ziegler, University of Washington Press, 2002, p.22
- Security and Migration in Asia: The Dynamics of Securitisation, By Melissa Curley, Siu-lun Wong, Taylor & Francis, 2007, p. 87
- Keeping Out the Other: A Critical Introduction to Immigration Enforcement Today, David Brotherton, Philip Kretsedemas, Columbia University Press, 2008, p. 17
- Friedman, George - The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century
- Masalha, Nur (2000). Imperial Israel And The Palestinians: The Politics of Expansion. Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-1615-8
- Shenhav, Yehouda (2006). The Arab Jews: A Postcolonial Reading of Nationalism, Religion, and Ethnicity. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5296-6
- Pat Buchanan, The Death of the West (2001)
- Ynet: Demographic threat a myth
- Jewish World Review: Demographic bomb proven a dud
- Arnon Sofer's view
- Haaretz: Netanyahu's use of the term "demographic bomb"
- 'What Counts is the Counting: Statistical Manipulation as a Solution to Israel’s “Demographic Problem”, Middle East Journal, Volume 67, No. 2, Spring 2013 pp. 185-205