Demographics of Albania

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Albanian schoolchildren

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Albania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Population[edit]

Historical[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1600 200,000 —    
1700 300,000 +50.0%
1923 823,000 +174.3%
1990 3,300,000 +301.0%
2001 3,023,000 −8.4%
2011 2,831,741 −6.3%
Source: Maddison (2001)

Population statistics for Albania start with the first census of 1923, when the country had 823,000 inhabitants. Previous censuses carried out by the Ottoman Empire are not yet available. A shift in administrative borders in 1913 makes comparison of various periods more complicated. Maddison (2001) estimates that in the current territory of Albania, about 200,000 people lived up to the year 1600, and that the population grew to 300,000 by 1700, implying an annual average growth rate of 0.4% in that period.

Population growth accelerated from the country's Declaration of Independence in 1913 to 1944 to 0.7% per year. This was due in part because Albania had the largest birth rate and the smallest death rate in Europe at the time.[1] After World War II, population increase policies pursued by the communist government and a large life expectancy fueled a 2.5% annual increase for the following 45 years. Population growth strained economic resources during communism in a Malthusian fashion that led to the collapse of the regime and the emigration of about 20-25% of the population in the following two decades. Albania experienced a demographic transition starting from 1960s, when crude birth rates began a slow decline, despite a government policy that called for a population increase. After the 1990s, the population showed an average decline of about 0.3% per year, caused by emigration. In the 2001 census, the population declined to 3,023,000 from almost 3.3 million in 1990. The next census was scheduled for April 2011, and the results will be published in the following months. However, various minority groups find this proccedure that has been followed unacceptable since according to article 20 of the Census law, there is a $1,000 fine for someone who will declare anything other than what was written down on his birth certificate.[2]

Census results[edit]

Demographics of Albania, Data of FAO, year 2005; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
Census population of Albania[3][4]
Census date total population change (%) males females population density/km2 urban population
1918
15 XI 1923 803,959
25 V 1930 1,003,097
31 XII 1940 1,084,159 +8.1
30 IX 1945 1,122,044 +3.5% 570,361 551,683 39
3 IX 1950 1,218,943 +8.6% 625,935 593,008 42 20.5%
2 X 1955 1,391,499 +14.1% 713,316 678,183 48 27.5%
2 X 1960 1,626,315 +16.9% 835,294 791,021 57 30.9%
1 IV 1969 2,068,200 +27.2% 72 31.5%
7 I 1979 2,590,600 +25.3% 1,337,400 1,253,200 90 33.5%
12 IV 1989 3,182,417 +22.9% 1,638,100 1,544,300 111 35.5%
1 IV 2001 3,069,275 -3.6% 1,530,443 1,538,832 107 42.1%
1 X 2011(p) 2,831,741 -7.7% 1,421,810 1,409,931 99 53.7%

p =provisional figure

Results of the 2001 census[5][edit]

Number of households[edit]

726,895

Registered Voters[edit]

According to CEC,[6] in 2013 elections Registered voters are 3,271,885.

Age structure[edit]

Under 6 years: 10.8%
65 years and older: 7.5%

Sex ratio[edit]

Males: 49.9% of total population
Females: 50.1% of total population

Education[edit]

Percent of population aged 6 and older (2,737,614)

Uncompleted primary: 14.8%
Primary: 18.6%
Junior secondary: 38.4%
Senior secondary: 21.7%
Higher education: 2.9%
Illiterate: 3.6%

2011 census[edit]

Based on the preliminary 2011 Census results, the total population of Albania is 2,831,741.[7] The comparison of the figures shows that the population of Albania has decreased by 7.7% in about ten years. Large scale emigration and fertility decline are supposed to be the main causes of the observed population decrease. A preliminary estimate of the number of persons that refused to participate in the census is 29,355 (1.04%). This figure is based on the number of dwellings for which a refusal was recorded and is included in the total population. The total population is composed of 1,421,810 males (50.2%) and 1,409,931 females (49.8%). For the first time in the history of population censuses in Albania, the population in urban areas is larger than the population of rural areas. According to 2011 census preliminary results, 53.7% of the population lives in urban areas and 46.3% in rural areas.

Ethnic groups and languages[edit]

Regions with a traditional presence of ethnic or linguistic groups other than Albanian.
Ethnic composition of Albania per the 1989 census:
Red - Albanian majority
Green - Greek majority
Yellow - Macedonian majority

Albania recognizes three national minorities, Greeks, Macedonians and Montenegrins, and two cultural minorities, Aromanians and Romani people.[8] As conducting a satisfactory census of ethnic minorities is one of the country's commitments to the European Union, the Albanian government conducted an official census to clarify the ethnic composition of the population in 2011.[9] The last census to include data on ethnic minorities was conducted in 1989 under the communist regime. The census conducted in 2001 did not collect information about ethnic groups and nationalities in the population.[10]

Population of Albania according to ethnic group 1945-2011
Ethnic
group
census 1945 census 1950 census 1955 census 1960 census 1979 census 1989[11] census 20111
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Albanians 1,075,500 95.9 1,186,100 97.3 1,349,100 97.0 1,581745 97.3 2,535,913 97.9 3,117,601 98.0 2,312,356 82.58
3,368 0.12
Greeks 26,535 2.4 29,000 2.4 35,345 2.5 40,000 2.5 49,307 1.9 58,758 1.8 24,243 0.87
Romani - - - - - - - - - - - - 8,301 0.30
Aromanians - - - - - - - - - - - - 8,266 0.30
Macedonians 14,400 1.3 2,273 0.2 3,341 0.2 4,235 0.3 4,097 0.2 4,697 0.15 5,512 0.20
Montenegrins 1,570 0.1 3,713 0.3 300 0.0 1,283 0.0 100 0.00 366 0.01
Other 5,600 0.5 1,261 0.04 2,644 0.11
1 At the 2011 census a total of 390,938 (14% of the total population) did not declare their nationality, while another 44,144 (1.6%) considered the nationality as 'not relevant'.

Mother tongue[edit]

Population by mother tongue
Mother tongue Population %
Albanian 2,765,610 98.8
Greek 15,196 0.5
Macedonian 4,443 0.16
Romani 4,025 0.14
Aromanian 3,848 0.13
Turkish 714 0.03
Italian 523 0.02
Other 1,936 0.07
Not relevant/not stated 3,843 0,13

Vlachs (Aromanians) live in the south of the country,[12] whereas Montenegrins live in the north.[13] Macedonians mostly live in Mala Prespa and the regions along the Macedonian border, known as 'Golo Brdo' and 'Gora'.

Religious affiliation[edit]

Main article: Religion in Albania

In the 2011 census the declared religious affiliation of the population was: 56.7% Muslims, 13.79% undeclared, 10.03% Catholics, 6.75% Orthodox believers, 5.49% other, 2.5% Atheists, 2.09% Bektashis and 0.14% other Christians.[14]

Religion in Albania
Religion Population %
Muslims
Sunni Muslims
Bektashi
1,646,236
1,587,608
58,628
58.79
56.70
2.09
Christians
Catholics
Orthodox
Protestants
Other Christians
475,629
280,921
188,992
3,797
1,919
16.99
10.03
6.75
0.14
0.07
Atheists 69,995 2.50
Prefer not to answer 386,024 13.79
Believers without denomination 153,630 5.49
Not relevant/not stated 68,022 2.43

Vital statistics[edit]

[3][4][15] Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)
1934 1 010 33 884 14 440 19 444 34.7 16.7 18.0
1935 1 012 32 640 13 373 19 267 33.1 17.0 16.1
1936 1 014 34 199 16 788 17 411 33.7 16.6 17.1
1937 1 030 34 829 20 036 14 793 33.8 19.5 14.3
1938 1 048 36 138 18 512 17 626 34.3 17.7 16.6
1939 1 070 29 597 16 013 13 584 27.9 15.0 12.9
1940 1 088 33 651 17 812 15 839 31.3 16.4 14.9
1941 1 100 30 627 18 234 12 393 28.0 16.6 11.4
1942 1 117 36 683 15 899 20 784 32.8 14.2 18.6
1948 1 164 42 141 18 883 23 258 36.2 16.2 20.0
1949 1 183 46 196 14 970 31 226 39.0 12.7 26.4
1950 1 215 47 291 17 215 30 076 38.9 14.2 24.8
1951 1 242 47 813 18 862 28 951 38.5 15.2 23.3
1952 1 270 44 727 19 826 24 901 35.2 15.6 19.6
1953 1 302 53 273 17 822 35 451 40.9 13.7 27.2
1954 1 340 54 635 17 560 37 075 40.8 13.1 27.7
1955 1 379 61 300 20 750 40 550 44.5 15.0 29.4
1956 1 421 59 565 16 370 43 195 41.9 11.5 30.4
1957 1 462 57 241 17 241 40 000 39.2 11.8 27.4
1958 1 507 63 007 14 059 48 948 41.8 9.3 32.5
1959 1 556 65 213 15 305 49 908 41.9 9.8 32.1
1960 1 607 69 686 16 775 52 911 43.4 10.4 32.9 6.57
1961 1 660 68 452 15 445 53 007 41.2 9.3 31.9 6.21
1962 1 711 67 209 18 363 48 846 39.3 10.7 28.5 5.93
1963 1 763 68 967 17 646 51 321 39.1 10.0 29.1 5.88
1964 1 814 68 599 15 811 52 788 37.8 8.7 29.1 5.66
1965 1 864 65 692 16 731 48 961 35.2 9.0 26.3 5.28
1966 1 914 65 127 16 469 48 658 34.0 8.6 25.4 5.06
1967 1 965 69 261 16 565 52 696 35.2 8.4 26.8 5.23
1968 2 019 71 869 16 214 55 655 35.6 8.0 27.6 5.26
1969 2 080 73 458 15 624 57 834 35.3 7.5 27.8 5.56
1970 2 136 69 507 19 774 49 733 32.5 9.3 23.3 5.12
1971 2 188 72 784 17 768 55 016 33.3 8.1 25.1 5.21
1972 2 239 73 607 17 616 55 991 33.3 7.9 25.4 5.22
1973 2 292 69 754 18 032 51 722 30.4 7.9 22.5 4.81
1974 2 346 71 862 17 726 54 136 30.2 7.6 22.6 4.77
1975 2 401 70 688 17 399 53 289 29.6 7.3 22.3 4.66
1976 2 454 70 510 17 029 53 481 29.0 6.9 22.1 4.45
1977 2 508 73 439 16 638 56 801 28.4 6.6 21.8 4.19
1978 2 563 70 594 16 219 54 375 27.5 6.3 21.2 3.81
1979 2 617 72 055 17 421 54 634 27.5 6.7 20.9 3.86
1980 2 671 70 680 16 981 53 699 26.5 6.4 20.1 3.62
1981 2 724 72 180 18 001 54 179 26.5 6.6 19.9 3.44
1982 2 780 77 232 16 521 60 711 27.8 5.9 21.8 3.56
1983 2 838 73 762 17 416 56 346 26.0 6.1 19.9 3.25
1984 2 897 79 177 16 618 62 559 27.3 5.7 21.6 3.38
1985 2 957 77 535 17 179 60 356 26.2 5.8 20.4 3.26
1986 3 016 76 435 17 369 59 066 25.3 5.8 19.6 3.11
1987 3 076 79 696 17 119 62 577 25.9 5.6 20.3 3.16
1988 3 138 80 241 17 027 63 214 25.6 5.4 20.1 3.03
1989 3 199 78 862 18 168 60 694 24.7 5.7 19.0 2.96
1990 3 245 82 125 18 193 63 932 25.2 5.6 19.6 3.03
1991 3 225 77 361 17 743 59 618 24.0 5.5 18.5 3.00
1992 3 179 75 425 18 026 57 399 23.7 5.7 18.1 2.80
1993 3 208 67 730 17 920 49 810 21.1 5.6 15.5 2.57
1994 3 035 72 179 18 342 53 837 23.8 6.0 17.7 2.74
1995 3 030 72 081 18 060 54 021 23.8 6.0 17.8 2.62
1996 3 076 68 354 17 600 50 754 22.2 5.7 16.5 2.54
1997 3 075 61 739 18 237 43 502 20.1 5.9 14.1 2.22
1998 3 055 60 139 18 250 41 889 19.7 6.0 13.7 2.18
1999 3 054 57 948 16 720 41 228 19.0 5.5 13.5 2.10
2000 3 061 50 077 16 421 33 656 16.4 5.4 11.0 2.00
2001 3 064 53 205 19 013 34 192 17.4 6.2 11.2 2.36
2002 3 051 42 527 19 187 23 340 13.9 6.3 7.6 1.94
2003 3 034 45 313 21 294 24 019 14.9 7.0 7.9 1.97
2004 3 015 40 989 20 269 20 720 13.6 6.7 6.9 1.78
2005 2 993 38 898 20 430 18 468 13.0 6.8 6.2 1.60
2006 2 968 35 891 20 852 15 039 12.1 7.0 5.1 1.37
2007 2 941 34 448 20 886 13 562 11.7 7.1 4.6 1.32
2008 2 913 33 445 20 749 12 696 11.5 7.1 4.4 1.41
2009 2 884 34 114 20 428 13 686 11.8 7.1 4.7 1.48
2010 2 857 34 061 20 107 13 954 11.9 7.0 4.9 1.52
2011 2 829 34 285 20 012 14 273 12.1 7.1 5.0 1.54
2012[16] 2 802 35 295 20 849 14 446 12.6 7.4 5.2 1.65
2013p[17] 35 750 20 442 15 308

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[18]

Population

3,020,209 (July 2014 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.3% (male 316,240/female 282,958)
15-24 years: 19.2% (male 297,851/female 282,498)
25-54 years: 40% (male 574,820/female 633,729)
55-64 years: 10.5% (male 157,014/female 158,602)
65 years and over: 11.1% (male 157,143/female 176,643) (2014 est.)
15-24 years: 19.6% (male 300,977/female 287,976)
25-54 years: 39.7% (male 568,330/ female 626,949)
55-64 years: 10% (male 150,665/female 151,068)
65 years and older: 10.8% (male 153,818 /female 172,424) (2013 est.)
0-14 years: 21.4% (male 337,364/female 303,669)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 996,666/female 1,043,472)
65 years and over: 10.5% (male 148,151/female 165,345) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 31.6 years
male: 30.3 years
female: 32.9 years (2014 est.)
total: 31.2 years
male: 29.9 years
female: 32.4 years (2013 est.)
total: 30.4 years
male: 29.2 years
female: 31.6 years (2011 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.96 years
male: 75.33 years
female: 80.86 years (2014 est.)
total population: 77.77 years
male: 75.16 years
female: 80.67 years (2013 est.)
total population: 77.59 years
male: 74.99 years
female: 80.49 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.5 children born/woman (2014 est.)
1.49 children born/women (2013 est.)
1.48 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Literacy

Definition: age 9 and older can read and write
Total population: 98.7%
Male: 99.2%
Female: 98.3% (2001 census)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Britannica Online
  2. ^ "Macedonians and Greeks Join Forces against Albanian Census". balkanchronicle. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  3. ^ a b B.R. Mitchell. European historical statistics, 1750-1975.
  4. ^ a b UN Demographic Yearbooks
  5. ^ Albania: 2001 population census, official web site. Retrieved on 19 June 2009
  6. ^ CEC: Central Election Commission website
  7. ^ http://census.al/Resources/Data/Census2011/Instat_print%20.pdf
  8. ^ World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Albania : Overview
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Individual questionnaire used in the 2001 population census in Albania. Retrieved on 19 June 2009
  11. ^ http://pop-stat.mashke.org/albania-ethnic1989.htm
  12. ^ Farsarotul.org
  13. ^ The Albanian Census of 1918
  14. ^ Albanian census 2011
  15. ^ Institute of Statistics of Albania
  16. ^ http://www.instat.gov.al/media/195035/statistika_4_2012_.pdf
  17. ^ http://www.instat.gov.al/media/235312/buletini_statistikor_4_2013_.pdf
  18. ^ Albania: People, CIA World Factbook, 2012. Retrieved on 6 April 2012

External links[edit]