Demographics of Argentina
|Demographics of Argentina|
Population of Argentina, 1961–2010
|Growth rate:||1.036% (2010 est.)|
|Birth rate:||17.75 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)|
|Death rate:||7.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)|
|Life expectancy:||77.14 years|
|–female:||80.54 years (2012 est.)|
|Fertility rate:||2.29 children born/woman (2012 est.)|
|Infant mortality rate:||10.52 deaths/1,000 live births|
|Net migration rate:||0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)|
|0-14 years:||25.2% (male 5,450,679/ female 5,200,704)|
|15-64 years:||63.6% (male 13,400,997/ female 13,440,948)|
|65-over:||11.1% (male 1,940,810/ female 2,758,356) (2012 est.)|
|Total:||0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)|
|At birth:||1.05 male(s)/female|
|Under 15:||1.05 male(s)/female|
|15-64 years:||1 male(s)/female|
|Major ethnic:||European —mostly Italian, Spaniard, French, ethnic German and Slavic ancestry— 86.4%|
|Minor ethnic:||Mestizo (mixed Spaniard and Amerindian ancestry) 6.5%, Amerindian 3.4%, Arab 3.3%, other 0.4% |
|Spoken:||German, Italian, English, Welsh, Guarani and many others are also spoken varying by region|
In the 2001 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 36,260,130 inhabitants, and preliminary results from the 2010 census [INDEC] census were of 40,091,359 inhabitants. Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally. Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2008 was estimated to be 0.92% annually, with a birth rate of 16.32 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.54 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants.
The proportion of people under 15, at 24.6%, is somewhat below the world average (28%), and the cohort of people 65 and older is relatively high, at 10.8%. The percentage of senior citizens in Argentina has long been second only to Uruguay in Latin America and well above the world average, which is currently 7%.
Argentina's population has long had one of Latin America's lowest birth rates and population growth rates (recently, about 1% a year), but it enjoys a comparatively low infant mortality rate. The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is of 76 years. According to an official cultural consumption survey conducted in 2006, 42.3% of Argentines speak English (though only 15.4% of those claimed to have a high level of English comprehension).
According to the 2010 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 40,412,000 in 2010, compared to only 17,150,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 24.9%, 64.5% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 10.6% was 65 years or older .
Argentina is highly urbanized, with the ten largest metropolitan areas accounting for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten living in rural areas. About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires proper, and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world. The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each, and six other cities (Mendoza, Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe) have at least half a million people each.
The population is unequally distributed amongst the provinces, with about 60% living in the Pampa region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires Province, and 3 million each in Córdoba Province, Santa Fe Province and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Seven other provinces each have about one million people: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. Tucumán is the most densely populated (with 60 inhabitants/km², the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average), while the southern province of Santa Cruz has less than 1 inhabitant/km².
Most European immigrants settled in the cities which offered jobs, education and other opportunities enabling them to enter the middle class. Many also settled in the growing small towns along the expanding railway system and since the 1930s many rural workers have moved to the big cities. Urban areas reflect the influence of European immigration, and most of the larger ones feature boulevards and diagonal avenues inspired by the redevelopment of Paris. Argentine cities were originally built in a colonial Spanish grid style, centered around a plaza overlooked by a cathedral and important government buildings. Many still retain this general layout, known as a damero, meaning checkerboard, since it is based on a pattern of square blocks. The city of La Plata, designed at the end of the 19th century by Pedro Benoit, combines the checkerboard layout with added diagonal avenues at fixed intervals, and was the first in South America with electric street illumination.
Largest cities 
Largest cities or towns of Argentina
(2007 INDEC estimate)[n 1]
|Rank||City name||Province||Pop.||Rank||City name||Province||Pop.|
|1||Buenos Aires||(Autonomous city)||3,050,728||11||Resistencia||Chaco||377,000||
|3||Rosario||Santa Fe||1,242,000||13||Bahía Blanca||Buenos Aires||304,000|
|4||Mendoza||Mendoza||885,434||14||San Salvador de Jujuy||Jujuy||298,000|
|6||La Plata||Buenos Aires||732,503||16||Paraná||Entre Ríos||268,000|
|7||Mar del Plata||Buenos Aires||604,563||17||Neuquén||Neuquén||255,000|
|8||Salta||Salta||516,000||18||Santiago del Estero||Santiago del Estero||244,733|
|9||Santa Fe||Santa Fe||493,000||19||Merlo||Buenos Aires||244,168|
|10||San Juan||San Juan||453,229||20||Quilmes||Buenos Aires||230,810|
- "3218.0 - Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Argentina, 2006-07". INDEC. 2008-03-31. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
Provinces and districts 
|Flag||Province/District||Capital||Official Language||Population (2010)||Rank||Area (km²)||Rank||Density (/km²)||Rank|
|Buenos Aires City||--||2,891,082||4||203||24||14,241.8||1|
|Buenos Aires Province||La Plata||15,594,428||1||307,571||1||50.7||3|
|Catamarca Province||San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca||367,820||20||102,602||11||3.6||20|
|Corrientes Province||Corrientes||Spanish, Guaraní||993,338||11||88,199||16||11.3||10|
|Entre Ríos Province||Paraná||1,236,300||7||78,781||17||15.7||7|
|Jujuy Province||San Salvador de Jujuy||672,260||14||53,219||20||12.6||8|
|La Pampa Province||Santa Rosa||316,940||22||143,440||8||2.2||23|
|La Rioja Province||La Rioja||331,847||21||89,680||14||3.7||19|
|Río Negro Province||Viedma||633,374||15||203,013||4||3.1||21|
|San Juan Province||San Juan||680,427||13||89,651||15||7.6||13|
|San Luis Province||San Luis||431,588||19||76,748||18||5.6||18|
|Santa Cruz Province||Río Gallegos||272,524||23||243,943||2||1.1||24|
|Santa Fe Province||Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz||3,200,736||3||133,007||10||24.1||5|
|Santiago del Estero Province||Santiago del Estero||896,461||12||136,351||9||6.6||15|
|Tierra del Fuego Province||Ushuaia||126,190||24||21,263a||23||5.8a||16|
|Tucumán Province||San Miguel de Tucumán||1,448,200||6||22,524||22||64.3||2|
Vital statistics 
The table below gives an overview of the number of birth and deaths in Argentina during the past century. Several sources were combined to construct the table. The number of births in 2010 (756,176) was the highest number ever recorded. The number of daths in 2010 also was the highest ever record. However, as the population of Argentina showed a sixfold increase during the past century, the birth and death rates in 2010 (18.7 and 7.9, respectively) were rather low in a histolorical perspective.
|Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate
|Crude death rate
|1910||6 800||260 000||129 000||131 000||38.3||18.9||19.4|
|1911||7 070||268 000||129 000||139 000||37.9||18.2||19.7|
|1912||7 470||288 000||127 000||161 000||38.6||17.0||21.6|
|1913||7 840||298 000||127 000||171 000||38.0||16.2||21.8|
|1914||8 000||294 000||123 000||171 000||36.7||15.4||21.3|
|1915||8 150||288 000||129 000||159 000||35.3||15.8||19.5|
|1916||8 300||293 000||142 000||151 000||35.3||17.1||18.2|
|1917||8 450||284 000||136 000||148 000||33.6||16.1||17.5|
|1918||8 600||283 000||157 000||126 000||32.9||18.2||14.7|
|1919||8 750||286 000||161 000||125 000||32.7||18.4||14.3|
|1920||8 970||290 000||139 000||151 000||32.3||15.5||16.8|
|1921||9 220||302 000||146 000||156 000||32.8||15.8||17.0|
|1922||9 520||315 000||133 000||182 000||33.1||14.0||19.1|
|1923||9 890||336 000||146 000||190 000||34.0||14.8||19.2|
|1924||10 220||335 000||146 000||189 000||32.8||14.3||18.5|
|1925||10 500||334 000||148 000||186 000||31.8||14.1||17.7|
|1926||10 800||337 000||147 000||190 000||31.2||13.6||17.6|
|1927||11 130||342 000||157 000||185 000||30.7||14.1||16.6|
|1928||11 440||352 000||151 000||201 000||30.8||13.2||17.6|
|1929||11 750||355 000||162 000||193 000||30.2||13.8||16.4|
|1930||12 050||355 000||153 000||202 000||29.5||12.7||16.8|
|1931||12 290||350 000||156 000||194 000||28.5||12.7||15.8|
|1932||12 520||352 000||139 000||213 000||28.1||11.1||17.0|
|1933||12 730||332 000||150 000||182 000||26.1||11.8||14.3|
|1934||12 940||319 661||143 065||176 596||24.7||11.1||13.6|
|1935||13 150||322 002||162 768||159 234||24.5||12.4||12.1|
|1936||13 370||318 651||150 092||168 559||23.8||11.2||12.6|
|1937||13 610||319 024||154 275||164 749||23.4||11.3||12.1|
|1938||14 202||325 412||161 555||163 857||22.9||11.4||11.5|
|1939||14 397||329 393||149 153||180 240||22.9||10.4||12.5|
|1940||14 591||339 029||151 856||187 173||23.2||10.4||12.8|
|1941||14 796||340 339||148 947||191 392||23.0||10.1||12.9|
|1942||15 004||338 199||150 030||188 169||22.5||10.0||12.5|
|1943||15 216||358 977||150 166||208 811||23.6||9.9||13.7|
|1944||15 441||380 950||154 093||226 857||24.7||10.0||14.7|
|1945||15 674||388 191||157 785||230 406||24.8||10.1||14.7|
|1946||15 912||387 496||149 895||237 601||24.4||9.4||14.9|
|1947||16 109||398 468||158 059||240 409||24.7||9.7||15.0|
|1948||16 284||413 132||152 648||260 484||25.4||9.4||16.0|
|1949||16 671||419 656||150 604||269 052||25.2||9.0||16.1|
|1950||17 150||438 766||154 540||284 226||25.6||9.0||16.6|
|1951||17 506||444 326||156 406||287 920||25.4||9.0||16.5|
|1952||17 865||446 156||153 887||292 269||25.0||8.6||16.4|
|1953||18 224||459 734||162 217||297 517||25.3||8.9||16.4|
|1954||18 580||457 559||156 347||301 212||24.6||8.4||16.2|
|1955||18 931||461 293||167 357||293 936||24.4||8.8||15.5|
|1956||19 277||474 142||161 321||312 821||24.6||8.4||16.2|
|1957||19 618||478 368||179 578||298 790||24.4||9.2||15.2|
|1958||19 955||472 865||166 235||306 630||23.7||8.3||15.4|
|1959||20 291||476 211||173 409||302 802||23.5||8.5||14.9|
|1960||20 625||473 038||179 266||293 772||22.9||8.7||14.2|
|1961||20 961||476 259||176 477||299 782||22.7||8.4||14.3|
|1962||21 297||490 414||184 013||306 401||23.0||8.6||14.4|
|1963||21 633||491 109||187 492||303 617||22.7||8.7||14.0|
|1964||21 966||496 256||193 141||303 115||22.6||8.8||13.8|
|1965||22 297||481 814||196 467||285 347||21.6||8.8||12.8|
|1966||22 622||479 396||194 450||284 946||21.2||8.6||12.6|
|1967||22 945||480 317||195 265||285 052||20.9||8.5||12.4|
|1968||23 273||493 354||213 313||280 041||21.2||9.2||12.0|
|1969||23 617||580 699||222 937||357 762||24.6||9.4||15.2|
|1970||23 983||544 521||222 113||322 408||22.7||9.3||13.5|
|1971||24 376||564 787||225 000||339 787||23.2||9.2||14.0|
|1972||24 792||559 398||228 000||331 398||22.6||9.2||13.4|
|1973||25 222||561 500||231 000||330 500||22.3||9.2||13.1|
|1974||25 654||590 000||234 000||356 000||23.0||9.1||13.9|
|1975||26 079||620 000||237 000||383 000||23.8||9.1||14.7|
|1976||26 493||656 768||240 764||416 004||24.8||9.1||15.7|
|1977||26 899||661 222||234 430||426 792||24.6||8.7||15.9|
|1978||27 303||665 000||233 482||431 518||24.4||8.6||15.8|
|1979||27 712||647 864||234 926||412 938||23.4||8.5||14.9|
|1980||28 131||697 775||241 125||456 650||24.8||8.6||16.3|
|1981||28 562||680 292||241 904||438 388||23.8||8.5||15.4|
|1982||29 001||663 429||234 926||428 503||22.9||8.1||14.8|
|1983||29 448||655 876||233 071||422 805||22.3||7.9||14.4|
|1984||29 900||635 323||255 591||379 732||21.3||8.6||12.7|
|1985||30 354||650 783||241 377||409 406||21.5||8.0||13.5|
|1986||30 811||675 388||241 004||434 384||22.0||7.8||14.1|
|1987||31 270||668 136||249 882||418 254||21.4||8.0||13.4|
|1988||31 729||680 605||254 953||425 652||21.5||8.1||13.5|
|1989||32 187||667 058||252 302||414 756||20.8||7.9||12.9|
|1990||32 642||678 644||259 683||418 961||20.9||8.0||12.9|
|1991||33 094||694 776||255 609||439 167||21.0||7.7||13.3|
|1992||33 540||678 761||262 287||416 474||20.2||7.8||12.4|
|1993||33 982||667 518||267 286||400 232||19.6||7.9||11.8|
|1994||34 420||673 787||257 431||416 356||19.6||7.5||12.1|
|1995||34 855||658 735||268 997||389 738||18.9||7.7||11.2|
|1996||35 287||675 437||268 715||406 722||19.1||7.6||11.5|
|1997||35 715||692 357||270 910||421 447||19.4||7.6||11.8|
|1998||36 135||683 301||280 180||403 121||18.9||7.8||11.2|
|1999||36 541||686 748||289 543||397 205||18.8||7.9||10.9|
|2000||36 931||701 878||277 148||424 730||19.0||7.5||11.5|
|2001||37 302||683 495||285 941||397 554||18.3||7.7||10.7|
|2002||37 657||694 684||291 190||403 494||18.4||7.7||10.7|
|2003||38 001||697 952||302 064||395 888||18.4||7.9||10.4|
|2004||38 341||736 261||294 051||442 210||19.2||7.7||11.5|
|2005||38 681||721 220||293 529||427 691||18.6||7.6||11.1|
|2006||39 024||696 451||292 313||404 138||17.8||7.5||10.4|
|2007||39 368||700 792||315 852||384 940||17.8||8.0||9.8|
|2008||39 714||746 460||301 801||444 659||18.8||7.6||11.2|
|2009||40 062||745 336||304 525||440 811||18.6||7.6||11.0|
|2010||40 412||756 176||318 602||437 574||18.7||7.9||10.8|
|2011||40 900||758 042||319 059||438 983||18.5||7.8||10.7|
UN estimates 
|1950-1955||459 000||166 000||293 000||25.4||9.1||16.3||3.15||66||62.5||60.4||65.1|
|1955-1960||484 000||174 000||310 000||24.3||8.6||15.7||3.13||60||64.5||62.1||67.4|
|1960-1965||501 000||193 000||308 000||23.2||8.8||14.4||3.09||60||65.2||62.4||68.6|
|1965-1970||522 000||213 000||309 000||22.6||9.1||13.5||3.05||57||65.7||62.7||69.3|
|1970-1975||582 000||228 000||354 000||23.4||8.9||14.4||3.15||48||67.2||64.1||70.7|
|1975-1980||688 000||243 000||445 000||25.6||8.9||16.8||3.44||39||68.6||65.4||72.2|
|1980-1985||668 000||249 000||419 000||23.1||8.5||14.7||3.15||32||70.1||66.8||73.7|
|1985-1990||688 000||266 000||422 000||22.1||8.4||13.8||3.05||27||71.0||67.5||74.6|
|1990-1995||708 000||277 000||431 000||21.2||8.1||13.1||2.90||24||72.1||68.6||75.8|
|1995-2000||701 000||285 000||416 000||19.7||7.8||11.8||2.63||22||73.2||69.6||76.9|
|2000-2005||676 000||298 000||378 000||18.0||7.8||10.2||2.35||15||74.3||70.6||78.1|
|2005-2010||690 000||309 000||381 000||17.5||7.7||9.8||2.25||13||75.3||71.5||78.1|
|* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)|
Ethnic groups 
The vast majority of the population of Argentina are the descendants of immigrants. The indigenous population is little over 1% of the total population. Traditionally European, the ethnic profile of Argentina has changed significantly as a result of immigration from Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru since the 1980s.
Indigenous peoples 
According to the data of INDEC's Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples (ECPI) 2004 - 2005, 600,000 indigenous persons (about 1.4% of the total population) reside in Argentina. The most numerous of these communities are the Mapuches, who live mostly in the south, the Kollas and Wichís, from the northwest, and the Tobas, who live mostly in the northeast.
The officially recognized indigenous population in the country, according to the 2004–05 "Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples", stands at approximately 600,000 (around 1.4% of the total population), the most numerous of whom are the Mapuche people.
Immigration to Argentina 
European settlement 
As with other areas of new settlement such as Canada, Australia, and the United States, Argentina is considered a country of immigrants. Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers and of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe. An estimated 8% of the population is Mestizo, and a further 4% of Argentines are of Arab or Asian heritage. In the last national census, based on self-identification, 600,000 Argentines (1.6% of the population) declared to be Amerindians Most of the 6.2 million European immigrants arriving between 1850 and 1950, regardless of origin, settled in several regions of the country. Due to this large-scale European immigration, Argentina's population more than doubled. Argentina was second only to the United States in the number of European immigrants received.
The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy, Spain, Germany, Wales, Poland, Croatia, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Norway and several other regions. Italian population in Argentina arrived mainly from the northern Italian regions varying between Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania and Calabria; Many Argentines have the gentilic of an Italian city, place, street or occupation of the immigrant as last name, many of them were not necessarily born Italians, but once they did the roles of immigration in Italy the name usually changed. Spanish immigrants were mainly Galicians and Basques. Millions of immigrants also came from France (notably Béarn and the Northern Basque Country), Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Greece, Portugal, Finland, Russia and the United Kingdom. The Welsh settlement in Patagonia, known as Y Wladfa, began in 1865; mainly along the coast of Chubut Province. In addition to the main colony in Chubut, a smaller colony was set up in Santa Fe and another group settled at Coronel Suárez, southern Buenos Aires Province. Of the 50,000 Patagonians of Welsh descent, about 5,000 are Welsh speakers. The community is centered around the cities of Gaiman, Trelew and Trevelin.
Argentines of Croatian descent number over 250,000. History At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries there were 133 settlements, with some 120,000 Croats in Argentina, for the most part hailing from the coastal regions of Dalmatia and the Croatian Littoral, who were among the first European immigrants to settle in the Argentine pampas. The pioneers from the island of Hvar were followed by emigrants from other parts of Dalmatia and the other historic Croatian lands, mostly the present-day Republic of Croatia. The most successful of all the Croats in Argentina was also almost the first to arrive: Nikola Mihanović came to Montevideo, Uruguay in 1867, and, having settled in Buenos Aires, Mihanović owned 350 vessels of one kind or another by 1909, including 82 steamers. By 1918, he employed 5,000 people, mostly from his native Dalmatia Mihanović by himself was thus a major factor in building up a Croat community which remains primarily Dalmatian to this day.
The second wave of Croat immigration was far more numerous, totalling 15,000 by 1939. Mostly peasants, these immigrants fanned out to work the land in Buenos Aires province, Santa Fe, Chaco, and Patagonia. This wave was accompanied by a numerous clergy to attend their spiritual needs, especially Franciscans.
If the first two waves had been primarily economic, the third wave after the Second World War was eminently political. Some 20,000 Croatian political refugees came to Argentina, and most became construction workers on Peron's public works projects until they started to pick up some Spanish. Argentina today has the second largest number of Croatian descendants in Latin America after Chile (380,000 Croats) and the third largest one in the world.
The Welsh settlement in Argentina Y Wladfa which began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia. In the 19th and early 20th century the Argentine government encouraged the immigration of Europeans to populate the country outside the Buenos Aires region; between 1856 and 1875 no fewer than 34 settlements of immigrants of various nationalities were established between Santa Fe and Entre Ríos. In addition to the main colony in Chubut, a smaller colony was set up in Santa Fe by 44 Welsh people who left Chubut, and another group settled at Coronel Suárez in southern Buenos Aires Province. In the early 21st century, around 50,000 Patagonians are of Welsh descent. The Welsh-Argentine community is centred around Gaiman, Trelew and Trevelin. From Chubut's own estimate, the number of Welsh speakers is about 1,500, while other estimates put the number at 5,000.
Scandinavians arrived in Argentina around 1909, the first ones settled in the northeastern area and founded a city called Villa Svea (now called Oberá) and was composed of Swedes, Norwegians and Finns. Russians Germans, English and Danish joined them before and after World War I and spread throughout the country.
Volga Germans 
Argentina has more than 2 000 000 Volga German descendants. Most of them speak German as second language and keep many traditions to this day.
Around 100,000 British immigrants arrived between 1857 and 1940. The British community founded solid institutions like the British Hospital in Buenos Aires, the Herald newspaper, prestigious bilingual schools and clubs as the Lawn Tennis Club, Hurlingham Club, etc. British immigrants had a strong impact on the taste of Argentine sports through the development of football, polo, hockey, rugby, among others. For its part the British immigrant and educator William C. Morris, founder of schools, had a strong presence in education in Argentina.
Bulgarian immigration in Argentina began intensively in the 1920s and had a second boom period between 1937 and 1938. They came mostly farmers in the northern regions of Bulgaria. Most of them settled in the province of Chaco.
German Argentine are one of the largest ethnic groups of Argentina and they had one of the biggest impacts in the Argentine culture.
The influence of German culture has also impacted Argentine cuisine; this trend is especially apparent in the field of desserts. The pastries known as facturas are Germanic in origin: croissants, known as medialunas ("half-moons", from German "Halbmond"), are the most popular of these, and can be found in two varieties: butter- and lard-based. Also German in origin are the "Berliner" known as bolas de Fraile ("friar's balls"), and the rolls called piononos.
The facturas were re-christened with local names given the difficult phonology of German, and usually Argentinized by the addition of a dulce de leche filling. That was also the case of the "Kreppel", which are called torta fritas in Argentina, and were introduced by German immigrants, and similar case with the "Achtzig Schlag" cake, which was translated as Torta Ochenta Golpes in the country. In addition, dishes like chucrut (sauerkraut) and many different kinds of sausage like bratwurst and others have also made it into mainstream Argentine cuisine.
German immigration to Argentina occurred during 5 main time periods: pre–1870, 1870–1914, 1918–1933, 1933–1940 and post–1945. During the first period until 1870.
Argentina and Germany had close ties to each other since the immigration of Germans to Argentina to this day. A flourishing trade developed between Germany and Argentina as early as the German Unification, Germany had a privileged position in the Argentine economy.
Later on, Argentina maintained a strong economic relationship with both Germany and Great Britain and supported them with supplies during World War I.
There are around 50,000 German citizens living in Buenos Aires. Argentina, United States, Canada and Brazil have the biggest number of German descendants in the world.
They arrived in the 19th century and before and after WWII. Their arrival continues over an extended period, from middle to the end of the 19th century until 1960 of the 20th century. Germans, Swiss, Belgian, Luxembourg and French people founded the Colony of Esperanza, Establishing the first agricultural colony and kept founding others.
They emigrated to Argentina in the 19th century, between 1830 and 1875. In 1889 around 500.000 Irish immigrants arrived to the country. They extended throughout the country especially in the provinces of Santa Fe, Entre Rios and Cordoba. In March, they trace their cultural heritage dating back to the Celts, the celebration of the day of its patron, Saint Patrick. The main aim of these celebrations is the social gathering in Buenos Aires Irish pubs. A large group of descendants of Irish families celebrate with traditional Irish dishes. Argentina is one of the five countries with most descendants of Irish people.
The first organized immigration from the Netherlands occurred in 1889, when immigrants came from the area of Friesland. That settled in San Juan, Salta, and Chaco. A second immigration took place around 1924. Most of them settled in Mar del Plata, Bahía Blanca, Comodoro Rivadavia, and Chubut.
Organized Polish immigration began in 1897 and had a decisive influence in the Argentine population. Poland was the third largest net migrants contributor after Italy and Spain. Between the two world wars (1918–1939) large numbers of Poles emigrated, they settled in Llavallol, San Justo, Valentín Alsina, San Martin, Quilmes, and so on. Between 1946 and 1950 around one hundred thousand Poles settled in the country. Today there are between 500,000 and 1 million Argentines of Polish descent.
There are a significant amount of Russians in Argentina. Most reside in the city of Buenos Aires and northeastern areas. The majority of Russian immigrants arrived between 1880 and 1921. A small wave arrived in the country in the early 1990s.
Ukrainians are estimated to number from 305,000 to 500,000 people (the latter figure making Ukrainians up to 1% of the total Argentine population). Currently, the main concentrations of Ukrainians in Argentina are in the Greater Buenos Aires area, with at least 100,000 people of Ukrainian descent, the province of Misiones (the historical heartland of Ukrainian immigration to Argentina), with at least 55,000 Ukrainians, and the province of Chaco with at least 30,000 Ukrainians. In Misiones Province Ukrainians constitute approximately 9% of the province's total population.
Asian-Argentines primarily migrated in three waves. The first wave was composed of Japanese immigrants (largely from Okinawa Prefecture), that arrived in small numbers during the early 20th century. The Japanese-Argentine community, located mostly in Pablo Nougués city where a large temple was built, has fully integrated themselves into Argentine society today. Sources believe that 78% of the 4th generation Japanese-Argentine community is of mixed European ancestry, while the 3rd generation is 66% mixed, and a majority of them have non-Japanese ancestors and relatives. The Japanese-Argentine community is less visible due to the intermixing with the European immigrants that have also settled in Argentina like the Italians, Spaniards, German, French, Irish, Polish and Swiss. Today they are one of the most distinguishable communities in Argentina because of their mixed race. Many of their Asian features are almost not visible due to their ancestry. In Buenos Aires, the "Jardín Japonés" (Japanese Garden and Teahouse) has become a traditional landmark of the city since its opening 30 years ago.
The second wave were primarily Korean entrepreneurs, settling in Buenos Aires during the 1960s. Koreans live primarily in the Balvanera and Flores (where the Koreatown is located) districts of Buenos Aires, and are mainly involved in the manufacturing and selling of textiles.
The third wave consisted mostly of Chinese entrepreneurs, who settled in Buenos Aires during the 1990s. Meanwhile, the Chinese live in Chinatown with a Buddhist temple in Belgrano. Many of them are involved with grocery retailing, which has caused Chinese-owned stores to become a common feature of Buenos Aires. Today, Chinese are the fastest growing community, with 100,000 Chinese-born residing in the largest Argentine cities.
Armenians from Cilicia, Syria and Lebanon escaped from the Ottoman Empire after 1915, between 1917 and 1921, during Russian Civil War, many Armenians from Russia escaped fearing religious prosecution, and lastly, between 1947 and 1954 many Armenians from the Soviet Union, Syria and Lebanon and came to Argentina as a consequence of the Second World War and from Iran because of Iranian Revolution in 1979.
The Armenian community of Argentina has maintained its identity with flying colors thanks to its devotion to the church, school and the family structure.
There are around 1,300,000 Argentines whose ancestry traces back to any of various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity. Arabs are usually considered part of the White population in Argentina. Most Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background, being originating mainly from what is now Lebanon and Syria, but also there are some individuals from the twenty-two countries which comprise the Arab world. The first Arabs settled in Argentina in the 19th century, and most of the Arabs who came during this time period were Sirio-Lebanese Arabs (During that time, Syria and Lebanon were one territory). From 1891 to 1920, 367,348 people of Arabic heritage immigrated into Argentina. When they were first processed in the ports of Argentina, they were classified as Turks because what is modern day Lebanon and Syria was a territory of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Among Arab Argentines, 784,000 are Muslims. The interethnic marriage in the Arab Argentine community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Arab community in Argentina shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language.
The origins of Argentina's Jewish community go back to the days of the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition, when Jews fleeing persecution settled in what is now Argentina. Many of the Portuguese traders in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata were Jewish, but an organized Jewish community developed only after Argentina gained independence from Spain in 1810. At that time, Jews from France and other parts of Western Europe began to settle in Argentina. The current Jewish population is 80% Ashkenazi. Argentina has the largest Jewish population of any country in Latin America.
Today, approximately 250,000 Jews live in Argentina, down from 310,000 in the early 1960s. Most of Argentina's Jews live in Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Rosario. Argentina's Jewish population is the largest Jewish community in Latin America, the third-largest in the Americas (after that of the United States and Canada), and the sixth-largest in the world. By law, the Jews are allowed two days of vacation on Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and the first two and last two days of Passover.
Criticisms of the national census state that data has historically been collected using the category of national origin rather than race in Argentina, leading to undercounting Afro-Argentines and mestizos. The 1887 Buenos Aires census was the last in which blacks were included as a separate category.
Recent immigrants 
According to the INDEC 1,531,940 of the Argentine resident population in 2001 were born outside Argentina, representing 4.22% of the total Argentine resident population. In 2010, 1,805,957 of the Argentine resident population were born outside Argentina, representing 4.50% of the total Argentine resident population.
Illegal immigration has been a recent factor in Argentine demographics. Most illegal immigrants come from Bolivia and Paraguay, countries which border Argentina to the north. Smaller numbers arrive from Peru, Ecuador and Romania. The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program called Patria Grande ("Greater Homeland") to encourage illegal immigrants to regularize their status; so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.
|Rank (2010)||Country of birth||census 2010||census 2001||census 1990|
The official language of Argentina is Spanish, and it is spoken by practically the entire population in several different accents. The most common accent of Castilian in Argentina is Rioplatense Spanish, and it is so named because it evolved in the central areas around the Río de la Plata basin. Its distinctive feature is widespread voseo, the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú for the second person singular.
Non-indigenous minority languages 
Many Argentines also speak other European languages (Italian, Portuguese, French, Welsh, German, Swedish and Croatian, as examples) due to the vast number of immigrants from Europe that came to Argentina.
English language is a required subject in many schools, and there are also many private English-teaching academies and institutions. Young people have become accustomed to English through movies and the Internet, and knowledge of the language is also required in most jobs, so most middle-class children and teenagers now speak, read and/or understand it with various degrees of proficiency. According to an official cultural consumption survey conducted in 2006, 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak some English (though only 15.4% of those claimed to have a high level of English comprehension).
Standard German is spoken by around 500,000 Argentines of German ancestry, though the number may be as high as 3,800,000 according to some sources. German is the third or fourth most spoken language in Argentina.
The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion, but until 1994 the President and Vice President had to be Catholic.
63% of Argentines said to not belong to organized religion, the Jewish population is about 300,000(around 2% of the population). The community numbered about 400,000 after World War II, but the appeal of Israel and economic and cultural pressures at home led many to leave; recent instability in Israel has resulted in a modest reversal of the trend since 2003. Muslim Argentines number about 500,000–600,000, or approximately 1.5% of the population; 93% of them are Sunni. Buenos Aires is home to one of the largest mosques in Latin America. A recent study found that approximately 11% of Argentines are non-religious, including those who believe in God, though not religion, agnostics (4%) and atheists (5%). Overall, 24% attended religious services regularly. Protestants were the only group in which a majority regularly attended services.
Built in 1906 to welcome hundreds of newcomers daily, the Hotel de Inmigrantes is now a national museum.
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