Demographics of Bahrain

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bahrain, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Bahrain, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Most of the population of Bahrain is concentrated in the two principal cities, Manama and Al Muharraq. According to the 2010 census 70.2% of the population, including non-nationals, are Muslim and over 99% of Bahraini citizens are Muslim.[1]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Regarding the ethnicity of Bahrainis, a Financial Times article published on 31 May 1983 found that "Bahrain is a polyglot state, both religiously and racially. Discounting temporary immigrants of the past ten years, there are at least eight or nine communities on the island". These may be classified as:

Community Description
Afro-Arabs Descendants of Africans, primarily from East Africa and of mostly Sunni faith
Ajam of Bahrain Persians of Shia faith, a minority are from the Bahai faith.
Baharna Ethnocultural group of mostly Shia faith, described by some scholars as being the island's "indigenous" inhabitants.
Banyan (Bania) Indians who traded with Bahrain and settled before the age of oil (formerly known as the Hunood or Banyan, Arabic: البونيان‎), of mostly Hindu faith
Bahraini Jews Jews have inhabited Bahrain for centuries. Most native Bahraini Jews are of Mesopotamian and Persian descent.
Hola Sunnis from Persia; many of them are ethnic Persians,[2][3] whereas a small portion are ethnic Arabs.[4][5]
Tribal Urbanized Sunni Bahrainis of Bedouin ancestry, such as the Utoob, Dawasir etc.

Non-nationals make up more than half of the population of Bahrain. Of those, the vast majority come from South and Southeast Asia: according to various media reports and government statistics dated between 2005-2009 roughly 290,000 Indians,[6] 125,000 Bangladeshis,[7] 45,000 Pakistanis,[8] 45,000 Filipinos,[9] and 8,000 Indonesians.[10]

[1] Bahraini Other Arabs African American Asian European TOTAL
Population 568,399 66,903 19,548 4,623 563,335 11,763 1,234,571
Percentage 46.0% 5.4% 1.6% 0.4% 45.6% 1.0% 100%

Population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1950 116,000 —    
1960 162,000 +39.7%
1970 212,000 +30.9%
1980 358,000 +68.9%
1990 493,000 +37.7%
2000 638,000 +29.4%
2010 1,262,000 +97.8%
2020 1,885,000 +49.4%
Source:[11]

Population census[12][edit]

Population of Bahrain according to nationality 1941-2010
census year Bahraini non-Bahraini Total population
Number  % Number  % Number
1941 74,040 82.3 15,930 17.7 89,970
1950 91,179 83.2 18,471 16.8 109,650
1959 118,734 83.0 24,401 17.0 143,135
1965 143,814 78.9 38,389 21.1 182,203
1971 178,193 82.5 37,885 17.5 216,078
1981 238,420 68.0 112,378 32.0 350,798
1991 323,305 63.6 184,732 36.4 508,037
2001 405,667 62.4 244,937 37.6 650,604
2010 568,399 46.0 666,172 54.0 1,234,571

Population estimates on July 1[13][edit]

Bahraini Non-Bahraini Total  % Non-Bahraini
2001 409,619 251,698 661,317 38.1%
2002 427,246 283,307 710,554 39.9%
2003 445,634 318,888 764,519 41.7%
2004 464,808 358,936 823,744 43.6%
2005 484,810 404,013 888,824 45.5%
2006 505,673 454,752 960,425 47.3%
2007 527,433 511,864 1,039,297 49.3%
2008 541,587 561,909 1,103,496 50.9%
2009 558,011 620,404 1,178,415 52.6%

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates [14][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 6 000 3 000 3 000 45.0 21.6 23.4 6.97 183
1955-1960 7 000 3 000 4 000 45.7 17.7 27.9 6.97 156
1960-1965 8 000 2 000 6 000 45.7 12.6 33.2 7.18 112
1965-1970 8 000 2 000 7 000 41.6 8.7 32.9 6.97 74
1970-1975 8 000 2 000 7 000 35.2 6.5 28.6 5.95 49
1975-1980 10 000 2 000 9 000 33.0 4.8 28.1 5.23 33
1980-1985 13 000 2 000 11 000 32.9 4.1 28.8 4.63 22
1985-1990 14 000 2 000 13 000 31.3 3.6 27.7 4.08 16
1990-1995 14 000 2 000 12 000 26.3 3.3 23.1 3.35 14
1995-2000 14 000 2 000 12 000 23.1 3.2 19.9 2.89 11
2000-2005 14 000 2 000 12 000 21.1 3.0 18.1 2.62 9
2005-2010 21 000 3 000 18 000 20.7 2.8 18.0 2.63 7
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Registered data[15][16][edit]

Birth registration of Bahrain is available from 1976, death registration started in 1990. Between 1976 and 2011 the number of births roughly doubled, but the birth rate decreased from 32 to 13 per 1,000. The death rate of Bahrain (1.9 per 1,000 in 2011) is among the lowest in the world.

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1976 282 8 984 31.8
1977 302 9 058 30.0
1978 322 9 398 29.2
1979 341 9 664 28.3
1980 358 10 140 28.3
1981 372 10 300 27.7
1982 384 11 037 28.8
1983 394 11 431 29.0
1984 405 11 519 28.5
1985 417 12 314 29.5
1986 431 12 893 29.9
1987 446 12 699 28.5
1988 462 12 555 27.2
1989 478 13 611 28.5
1990 493 13 370 1 552 11 818 27.1 3.1 24.0
1991 507 13 229 1 744 11 485 26.1 3.4 22.7
1992 520 13 874 1 760 12 114 26.7 3.4 23.3
1993 532 14 191 1 714 12 477 26.7 3.2 23.5
1994 545 13 766 1 695 12 071 25.2 3.1 22.1
1995 559 13 481 1 910 11 571 24.1 3.4 20.7
1996 575 13 123 1 780 11 343 22.8 3.1 19.7
1997 593 13 382 1 822 11 560 22.6 3.1 19.5
1998 611 13 381 1 997 11 384 21.9 3.3 18.6
1999 627 14 280 1 920 12 360 22.8 3.1 19.7
2000 638 13 947 2 045 11 902 21.9 3.2 18.7
2001 643 13 468 1 979 11 489 21.0 3.1 17.9
2002 642 13 576 2 035 11 541 21.1 3.2 17.9
2003 647 14 560 2 114 12 446 22.5 3.3 19.2
2004 672 14 968 2 215 12 753 22.3 3.3 19.0
2005 725 15 198 2 222 12 976 21.0 3.1 17.9
2006 811 15 053 2 317 12 736 18.6 2.9 15.7
2007 926 16 062 2 270 13 792 17.4 2.5 14.9
2008 1 052 17 022 2 390 14 632 16.2 2.3 13.9
2009 1 170 17 841 2 387 15 454 15.3 2.0 13.3
2010 1 262 17 500 (e) 2 400 (e) 15 100 (e) 13.9 1.9 12.0
2011 1 324 17 213 2 513 14 700 13.0 1.9 11.1

e=estimate

Religions[edit]

[1] Men Women TOTAL Bahraini Non-Bahraini
Muslims 511,135 355,753 866,888 567,229 299,659
Others 257,279 110,414 367,683 1,170 366,513
Total 768,414 466,157 1,234,571 568,399 666,172
Muslim % 70.2% 99.8% 45.0%

Islam is the official religion. The citizen population is 99.8% Muslim, although the Muslim proportion falls to 70.2% when the non-national population is included.[1] Current census data doesn't differentiate between the other religions in Bahrain, but there are about 1,000[17] Christian citizens and about 40[18] Jewish citizens.

Muslims belong to the Shi'a and Sunni branches of Islam. There are no official figures, but the Shi'a constitute 46-60% of the Bahraini Muslim population.[19][20](p13) Foreigners, overwhelmingly from South Asia and other Arab countries, constituted 54% of the population in 2010.[1] Of these, 45% are Muslim and 55% are non-Muslim,[1] including Christians (primarily: Catholic, Protestant, Syrian Orthodox, and Mar Thoma from South India), Hindus, Bahá'ís, Buddhists, and Sikhs.[21]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[22]

Median age[edit]

Population pyramid of Bahrain in 2012.
Total: 31.1 years
Male: 32.5 years
Female: 28.3 years (2012 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

Urban population: 89% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 7.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.54 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality[edit]

20 deaths/100,000 live births (2010 est.).
county comparison to the world: 139

Health expenditure[edit]

14.5% of total GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 49

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
county comparison to the world: 95
People living with HIV/AIDS: Fewer than 600 (2007 est.)
county comparison to the world: 148
Deaths: Fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
county comparison to the world: 107

Languages[edit]

Arabic
English
Balochi
Persian
Urdu
Malayalam
Hindi
Singhalese
Tamil

Literacy and education[edit]

Bahrain has traditionally boasted an advanced educational system. Schooling and related costs are entirely paid for by the government, and, although not compulsory, primary and secondary attendance rates are high. Bahrain also encourages institutions of higher learning, drawing on expatriate talent and the increasing pool of Bahrainis returning from abroad with advanced degrees. University of Bahrain was established in 1986 for standard undergraduate and graduate study, and the College of Health Sciences—operating under the direction of the Ministry of Health—trains physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and paramedics.

Overall literacy is 94.6% (96.1% for men and 91.6% for women) (2010 census).

Education expenditure[edit]

2.9% of total GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 135

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "General Tables". Bahraini Census 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "Two ethnicities, three generations: Phonological variation and change in Kuwait". Newcastle University. 2010. p. 11. 
  3. ^ Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. Clive Holes. 2001. Page 135. ISBN 90-04-10763-0
  4. ^ Rentz, "al- Baḥrayn.": "A good number of the Sunnīs of Baḥrayn are Arabs or the descendants of Arabs once resident on the Persian coast; such are known as Huwala."
  5. ^ Rentz, G. "al- Kawāsim." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 15 March 2008 [1]
  6. ^ "Indian Community". Indian Embassy. 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "New Bahrain rule may end labour exploitation", The Daily Star, 2009-05-09, retrieved 2009-05-14 
  8. ^ Year Book, Overseas Pakistani Foundation, 2004–2005, retrieved 2009-05-12 
  9. ^ "Bahrain looking to hire more Filipino workers", Manila Times, 5 Feb 2009, retrieved 6 March 2012 
  10. ^ "Indonesians encouraged", Gulf Daily News, 2007-08-07, retrieved 2009-05-12 
  11. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ Sources: Bahrain Central Informatics Organization, population estimate July 1 of each year, and for 2008, 2009
  14. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  15. ^ [3] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  16. ^ [4] Ministry of Health Statistics
  17. ^ "The Catholic Church in Bahrain". Catholic Church in Bahrain. Retrieved 17 March 2012. 
  18. ^ "Low profile but welcome: a Jewish outpost in the Gulf". Independent. 2 Nov 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  19. ^ "UK FCO". UK FCO. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  20. ^ "Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry". BICI. 29 June 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012. 
  21. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report". US State Dept. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  22. ^ Bahrain at the World Factbook

Sources[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".

  • 2003 U.S. Department of State website