Demographics of Belarus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Belarus: Population and rural population 1913-2008 (beginning of year). Source: official statistics from BelStat.

The demographics of Belarus is about the demographic features of the population of Belarus, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. The ethnic majority in Belarus are called Belarusians.

Demographic trends[edit]

The population of Belarus suffered a dramatic decline during World War II, dropping from more than 9 million in 1940 to 7.7 million in 1951. It then resumed its long-term growth, rising to 10 million in 1999.[1] After that the population began a steady decline, dropping to 9.7 million in 2006-2007.[2] Originally a highly agrarian country with nearly 80% of its population in rural areas, Belarus has been undergoing a process of continuous urbanization. The share of its rural population decreased from 70% in 1959 to less than 30% in the 2000s.[3]

Population change in Belarus, 1970 - 2010[4]
BelarusPopChange1970-1989.PNG
BelarusPopulationChange1970-2009.PNG
BelarusPopulationChange1999-2009.png
1970–1989 1970–2010 1999–2010

Ethnic groups[edit]

COB data Belarus.PNG
Belarusians 81.2%, Russians 11.4%, Poles 3.9%, Ukrainians 2.4%, Jews 0.3%, Armenians 0.1%, Lipka Tatars 0.1%, Ruska Roma 0.1%, Lithuanians 0.1%, Azeris 0.1%, others 0.3% (1999 census).[1]

Prior to the Second World War[edit]

Prior to World War II, Jews were the second largest ethnic group in Belarus, and at 400,000 in the 1926 and 1939 censuses they even exceeded the number of Russians (although admittedly by a small margin).[5] Jews accounted for 7%-8% of the total population at that time, comprising more than 40% of the population in cities and towns, where Jews and Poles were the majority, while Belarusians mostly lived in rural areas.

The Poles were the fourth largest ethnic group in Belarussian SSR (current Eastern portion of Belarus), before World War II, comprising 1-2% of the population in the pre-war censuses (less than 100,000).[5]

Population of the Byelorussian SSR according to ethnic group 1926–1939
Ethnic
group
census 19261 census 19392
Number  % Number  %
Belarusians 4,017,301 80.6 4,615,496 82.9
Jews 407,059 8.2 375,092 6.7
Russians 383,806 7.7 364,705 6.6
Ukrainians 34,681 0.7 104,247 1.9
Poles 97,498 2.0 58,380 1.1
Germans 7,075 0.1 8,448 0.2
Latvians 14,080 0.3 8,117 0.2
Tatars 3,777 0.1 7,664 0.1
Lithuanians 6,864 0.1 4,284 0.1
Roma 2,366 0.1 3,632 0.1
Mordvins 1,051 0.0 2,042 0.0
Others 7,682 0.2 16,887 0.3
Total 4,983,240 5,568,994
1 Source: [4]. 2 Source: [5].

After the Second World War[edit]

The Holocaust decimated the Jewish population in Belarus, and after World War II, in 1959, Jews accounted for only 1.9% of the population. Since then, Jewish emigration to Israel and other countries reduced the number of Jews to 0.1% of the population (13,000 in 2009).

After the war, a large number of Poles (including Catholic Belarusians) were forced to move to Poland. In exchange, Belarusians from the former Belastok Voblast, which was returned to Poland in 1945, after being occupied in 1939 were displaced to Belarus. Due to changes in the western border of Belarus and Poland after World War II (see territorial changes of Poland), the number of Poles in Belarus increased to more than 500,000 according to the first post-war census (1959) and to about 400,000 according to the 1999 census. Poles are now the third largest ethnic group in Belarus (see Polish minority in Belarus). There are around 15,000 of Lipka Tatars and Ruska Roma (Russian Gypsies) who account for about 10,000 each.

In the post-war period Belarus experienced an influx of workers from other parts of the Soviet Union, for example Russians and Ukrainians. The decade after independence saw a decline in the population of most of these minority groups, either by assimilation or emigration. The most significant exception to this trend has been a continued (if small-scale) net immigration of Armenians and Azeris, whose numbers increased from less than 2,000 in 1959 to around 10,000 in 1999.[1]

Ethnic composition of Belarus according to 2009 census
Belarusians in Belarus 2009.png
Russians in Belarus 2009.PNG
Poles in Belarus 2009.PNG
Ukrainians in Belarus 2009.PNG
Belarusian Russians Poles Ukrainians
Population of Belarus according to ethnic group 1959-2009
Ethnic
group
census 19591 census 19702 census 19793 census 19894 census 19995 census 20096
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Belarusians 6,532,035 81.1 7,289,610 81.0 7,567,955 79.4 7,904,623 77.9 8,158,900 81.2 7,957,252 83.7
Russians 659,093 8.2 938,161 10.4 1,134,117 11.9 1,342,099 13.2 1,141,700 11.4 785,084 8.3
Poles 538,881 6.7 382,600 4.3 403,169 4.2 417,720 4.1 395,700 3.9 294,549 3.1
Ukrainians 133,061 1.7 190,839 2.1 230,985 2.4 291,008 2.9 237,000 2.4 158,723 1.7
Jews 150,084 1.9 148,011 1.6 135,450 1.4 111,975 1.1 27,800 0.3 12,926 0.1
Armenians 1,751 0.0 2,362 0.0 2,751 0.0 4,933 0.1 10,200 0.1 8,512 0.1
Tatars 8,650 0.1 9,992 0.1 10,851 0.1 12,436 0.1 10,100 0.1 7,316 0.1
Romani 4,662 0.1 6,843 0.1 8,408 0.1 10,762 0.1 9,900 0.1 7,316 0.1
Azerbaijanis 1,402 0.0 1,335 0.0 2,654 0.0 5,009 0.1 6,300 0.1 5,567 0.1
Lithuanians 8,363 0.1 8,092 0.1 6,993 0.1 7,606 0.1 6,400 0.1 5,087 0.1
Others 16,666 0.2 24,493 0.3 29,183 0.3 43,635 0.4 41,200 0.4 261,712 2.8
Total 8,054,648 9,002,338 9,532,516 10,151,806 10,045,200 9,503,807
1 Source: [6]. 2 Source: [7]. 3 Source: [8]. 4 Source: [9]. 5 Source: [10]. 6 Source: [11].

Vital statistics since 1950[6][7][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Abortions. reported
1950 7 745 197 200 62 000 135 200 25.5 8.0 17.5
1951 7 765 198 200 61 200 137 000 25.5 7.9 17.6
1952 7 721 191 100 64 200 126 900 24.8 8.3 16.4
1953 7 690 176 200 61 900 114 300 22.9 8.0 14.9
1954 7 722 193 100 61 600 131 500 25.0 8.0 17.0
1955 7 804 194 400 58 000 136 400 24.9 7.4 17.5
1956 7 880 199 500 56 000 143 500 25.3 7.1 18.2
1957 7 936 200 800 58 000 142 800 25.3 7.3 18.0
1958 8 009 207 700 53 700 154 000 25.9 6.7 19.2
1959 8 112 204 600 62 600 142 000 25.2 7.7 17.5
1960 8 190 200 218 54 037 146 181 24.4 6.6 17.8 2.80 170 787
1961 8 284 194 239 53 682 140 557 23.4 6.5 17.0 2.61 178 290
1962 8 385 185 302 60 676 124 626 22.1 7.2 14.9 2.57 185 554
1963 8 458 173 889 58 291 115 598 20.6 6.9 13.7 2.46 191 137
1964 8 519 161 794 53 967 107 827 19.0 6.3 12.7 2.36 200 534
1965 8 607 153 865 58 156 95 709 17.9 6.8 11.1 2.27 205 999
1966 8 709 153 414 58 265 95 149 17.6 6.7 10.9 2.28 203 430
1967 8 800 147 501 61 263 86 238 16.8 7.0 9.8 2.26 203 722
1968 8 877 146 095 62 354 83 741 16.5 7.0 9.4 2.23 198 955
1969 8 957 142 652 65 912 76 740 15.9 7.4 8.6 2.18 191 637
1970 9 038 146 676 68 974 77 702 16.2 7.6 8.6 2.30 187 935
1971 9 112 149 135 68 511 80 624 16.4 7.5 8.8 2.34 190 169
1972 9 178 147 813 71 866 75 947 16.1 7.8 8.3 2.36 185 101
1973 9 245 144 729 73 927 70 802 15.7 8.0 7.7 2.29 193 503
1974 9 312 146 876 73 181 73 695 15.8 7.9 7.9 2.24 194 247
1975 9 367 146 517 79 701 66 816 15.6 8.5 7.1 2.20 194 710
1976 9 411 147 912 82 400 65 512 15.7 8.8 7.0 2.16 199 121
1977 9 463 148 963 84 565 64 398 15.7 8.9 6.8 2.11 202 146
1978 9 525 151 053 86 612 64 441 15.9 9.1 6.8 2.08 201 619
1979 9 590 151 800 90 837 60 963 15.8 9.5 6.4 2.05 203 446
1980 9 658 154 432 95 514 58 918 16.0 9.9 6.1 2.04 201 852
1981 9 732 157 899 93 136 64 763 16.2 9.6 6.7 2.08 202 340
1982 9 804 159 364 93 840 65 524 16.3 9.6 6.7 2.02 198 011
1983 9 872 173 510 97 849 75 661 17.6 9.9 7.7 2.09 207 461
1984 9 938 168 749 104 274 64 475 17.0 10.5 6.5 2.14 210 844
1985 9 999 165 034 105 690 59 344 16.6 10.6 5.9 2.09 200 888
1986 10 058 171 611 97 276 74 335 17.1 9.7 7.4 2.10 171 114
1987 10 111 162 937 99 921 63 016 16.2 9.9 6.2 2.04 163 761
1988 10 144 163 193 102 671 60 522 16.1 10.1 6.0 2.04 140 921
1989 10 171 153 449 103 479 49 970 15.1 10.2 4.9 2.02 256 041
1990 10 190 142 167 109 582 32 585 14.0 10.8 3.2 1.90 260 839
1991 10 194 132 045 114 650 17 395 13.0 11.2 1.7 1.79 241 138
1992 10 217 127 971 116 674 11 297 12.5 11.4 1.1 1.75 240 387
1993 10 240 117 384 128 544 -11 160 11.5 12.6 -1.1 1.60 217 957
1994 10 227 110 599 130 003 -19 404 10.8 12.7 -1.9 1.51 212 533
1995 10 194 101 144 133 775 -32 631 9.9 13.1 -3.2 1.38 193 280
1996 10 160 95 798 133 422 -37 624 9.4 13.1 -3.7 1.31 174 098
1997 10 118 89 586 136 653 -47 067 8.9 13.5 -4.7 1.23 152 660
1998 10 069 92 645 137 296 -44 651 9.2 13.6 -4.4 1.26 145 339
1999 10 032 92 975 142 027 -49 052 9.3 14.2 -4.9 1.29 135 829
2000 9 988 93 691 134 867 -41 176 9.4 13.5 -4.1 1.31 121 895
2001 9 929 91 720 140 299 -48 579 9.2 14.1 -4.9 1.27 101 402
2002 9 866 88 743 146 665 -57 922 9.0 14.9 -5.9 1.20 89 895
2003 9 797 88 512 143 200 -54 688 9.0 14.6 -5.6 1.22 80 174
2004 9 730 88 943 140 064 -51 121 9.1 14.4 -5.3 1.22 71 700
2005 9 664 90 508 141 857 -51 349 9.4 14.7 -5.3 1.21 64 655
2006 9 605 96 721 138 426 -41 705 10.1 14.4 -4.3 1.29 58 516
2007 9 561 103 626 132 993 -29 367 10.8 13.9 -3.1 1.37 46 287
2008 9 528 107 876 133 879 -26 003 11.3 14.1 -2.7 1.42 42 197
2009 9 507 109 263 135 056 -25 793 11.5 14.2 -2.7 1.51 35 967
2010 9 491 108 050 137 305 -29 255 11.4 14.5 -3.1 1.49 27 662
2011 9 473 109 147 135 099 -25 952 11.5 14.3 -2.7 1.52 26 858
2012 9 464 115 893 126 531 -10 638 12.2 13.4 -1.2 1.62
2013 9 468 118 463 125 872 -7 409 12.5 13.3 -0.8 1.71

(p) provisional

Natural population growth in Belarus, 2010
BirthRate2010Bel.png
DeathRate2010Bel.png
NaturalGrowth2010Bel.png
Birth rate (per 1000) Death rate (per 1000) Natural growth rate (per 1000)


Languages[edit]

Belarusian and Russian are the official languages according to the Constitution of Belarus (Article 17). The constitution guarantees preservation of the cultural heritage of all ethnic minorities, including their languages (Article 15). Russian, and not Belarusian, is the dominant language in Belarus, spoken normally at home by 70% of the population (2009 census).

Languages of Belarus according to 2009 census (green - Belarusian, blue - Russian)
BelarusNativeLanguages2009.PNG
BelarusHomeLanguages2009.PNG
Native languages Spoken languages

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid of Belarus

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless indicated otherwise.

Population[edit]

9,648,533 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Natural increase current[edit]

The number of births during the period January–December 2013 which improve 3017 over the same period in 2012. The birth rate for January–December 2013 was 12,5 children per 1,000 people which is higher than during the period January–December 2012 when the rate was 12.2. Total birth in 2012 :


-Number of births from January–December 2012 = Increase 115,893

-Number of births from January–December 2013 = Increase 118,463

Conversely the number of deaths during the same period was down decreased from 659.[8][8] The mortality rate for the period January–December 2013 was 13.3 and 13.4 for the same period in 2012.

-Number of deaths from January–December 2012 = Decrease 126,531

-Number of deaths from January–December 2013 = Decrease 125,872

Total natural increase during January–December 2013 has halved during the same period from a decrease of -0.8 in 1000 and each -1.2 in 1000 during the period January–December 2012.

Natural increase between January–December 2012 = Decrease -10,638

Natural increase between January–December 2013 = Decrease -7,409

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 13.1% (male 687,550/female 627,560)
15-64 years: 71.0% (male 3,297,253/female 3,527,916)
65 years and over: 15.9% (male 472,746/female 1,021,508) (2012 est.)

Median age[edit]

Total: 38.6 years
Male: 35.6 years
Female: 41.6 years (2009 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

-0.378% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 225

Net migration rate[edit]

0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Urbanization[edit]

Urban population: 73% of total population (2008)
Rate of urbanization: 0% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.47 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

Total: 4.0 Decrease deaths/1,000 live births for 429 death. (2010)
Total: 3.9 Decrease deaths/1,000 live births for 422 death. (2011)
Total: 3.4 Decrease deaths/1,000 live births for 386 death. (2012)
Total: 3.4 Steady deaths/1,000 live births for 402 death. (2013)
Total: 3.5 Decrease deaths/1,000 live births for 362 death. (January–November 2012)
Total: 3.4 Decrease deaths/1,000 live births for 368 death. (January–November 2013)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 70.65 years
country comparison to the world: 141
Male: 64.70 years
Female: 76.90 years (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
People living with HIV/AIDS: 13,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Deaths: 1,100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69

Nationality[edit]

Noun: Belarusian(s)
Adjective: Belarusian

Religions[edit]

According to 1997 estimates, 80% of the religious population belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church and the others are mainly Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Protestants, Muslims, and Jews.[9]

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over who can read and write
Total population: 99.6%
Male: 99.8%
Female: 99.5% (2003 est.)

Education expenditure[edit]

6.1% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 39

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ethnic composition of the population, 1999 Belarus Census.
  2. ^ Population estimates 1995-2007, BelStat
  3. ^ Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Belarus 2007, BelStat, Minsk, 2007
  4. ^ http://pop-stat.mashke.org/belarus-division.htm
  5. ^ a b Ethnic composition of Belarus: 1926 and 1939 censuses
  6. ^ [1] United Nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  7. ^ [2] National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus
  8. ^ a b [3]
  9. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2009 edition".