Demographics of Berlin

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Berliners at the Tiergarten

In December 2013, the city-state of Berlin had a population of 3,517,424 registered inhabitants (+47, 800)[1] in an area of 891.82 square kilometers (344.33 sq mi).[2] The city's population density was 3,944 inhabitants per km². Berlin is Germany´s largest city and the second most populous city in the European Union, as calculated by city-proper population.

Berlin's urban area stretches beyond the city limits, comprising about 3.7 million people in 2001. The Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan area is home to about 4.3 million in an area of 5,370 km2 (2,070 sq mi). In 2004, The Larger Urban Zone was home to around 5 million people in an area of 17,385 km².[3]

National and international migrations into the city have a long history. In December 2013, 538,729 residents (15.3 percent of the population) were of foreign nationality from 190 countries.[4]

History[edit]

The city responded to the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France with the Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years. The 1920 Greater Berlin Act incorporated many suburbs and surrounding cities, forming most of the region comprising modern Berlin. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 km2 (25 sq mi) to 883 km2 (341 sq mi) and its population from 1.9 million to 4 million.

Asylum policies in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration during the 1960s and 1970s. Berlin is home to about 250,000 Turks (especially in Kreuzberg, Neukölln and Wedding, a locality in the borough of Mitte),[5] the largest Turkish community outside Turkey.

During the 1990s, the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of residents of the former Soviet Union. Ethnic Germans from countries from the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community.[6] Immigration continues from a number of Western countries, particularly by young people from other parts of the EU. Berlin has seen an increase in the number of African immigrants during the last two decades.[7]

Chart showing Berlin's population fluctuations since 1880. The spike in population in 1920 is a result of the Greater Berlin Act.
Year Population
1250 1,200
1307 7,000
1400 8,500
1576 12,000
1600 9,000
1631 8,100
1648 6,000
1685 17,500
1709 57,000
1750 113,289
1775 136,137
1800 172,132
1825 219,968
December 3, 1840 ¹ 322,626
December 3, 1846 ¹ 408,500
December 3, 1849 ¹ 418,733
Year Population
December 3, 1852 ¹ 426,600
December 3, 1855 ¹ 442,500
December 3, 1858 ¹ 463,600
December 3, 1861 ¹ 524,900
December 3, 1864 ¹ 632,700
December 3, 1867 ¹ 702,400
December 1, 1871 ¹ 826,341
December 1, 1875 ¹ 969,050
December 1, 1880 ¹ 1,122,330
December 1, 1885 ¹ 1,315,287
December 1, 1890 ¹ 1,578,794
December 2, 1895 ¹ 1,678,924
December 1, 1900 ¹ 1,888,848
December 1, 1905 ¹ 2,042,402
December 1, 1910 ¹ 2,071,257
December 1, 1916 ¹ 1,712,679
Year Population
December 5, 1917 ¹ 1,681,916
October 8, 1919 ¹ 1,902,509
June 16, 1925 ¹ 4,024,286
June 16, 1933 ¹ 4,242,501
May 17, 1939 ¹ 4,338,756
August 12, 1945 ¹ 2,807,405
October 29, 1946 ¹ 3,170,832
December 31, 1950 3,336,026
December 31, 1960 3,274,016
December 31, 1970 3,208,719
December 31, 1980 3,048,759
December 31, 1990 3,433,695
December 31, 2000 3,382,169
September 30, 2005 3,394,000
December 31, 2010 3,460,725
December 31, 2013 3,517,424

Population by borough[edit]

Map of Berlin's twelve boroughs and their 96 localities.
People in Kreuzberg
Borough Population
30 September 2010
Area
in km²
Largest Non-German ethnic groups
Mitte 332,100 39.47 Turks, Arabs, Kurds, many Asians, Africans and Western Europeans.
Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg 268,831 20.16 Turks, Arabs, African, Kurds, Chinese
Pankow 368,956 103.01 Poles, Italians, French, Americans, Vietnamese, British
Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf 320,014 64.72 Turks, Africans, Russians, Arabs, others.
Spandau 225,420 91.91 Turks, Africans, Russians, Arabs, others.
Steglitz-Zehlendorf 293,989 102.50 Poles, Turks, Croats, Serbs, Koreans
Tempelhof-Schöneberg 335,060 53.09 Turks, Croats, Serbs, Koreans, Africans
Neukölln 310,283 44.93 Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Russians, Africans, Poles
Treptow-Köpenick 241,335 168.42 Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, Vietnamese
Marzahn-Hellersdorf 248,264 61.74 Russians, Vietnamese, several other Eastern Europeans.
Lichtenberg 259,881 52.29 Vietnamese, Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Chinese
Reinickendorf 240,454 89.46 Turks, Poles, Serbs, Croats, Arabs, Italians
Total Berlin 3,450,889 891.82 Turks, Arabs, Russians, Vietnamese, Poles, Africans

Population by nationality[edit]

Significant foreign born populations[8]
Country of Birth Population (2012)
 Turkey 101,061
 Poland 46,945
 Italy 19,771
 Serbia 18,544
 Russia 17,596
 Bulgaria 15,933
 France 15,253
 United States 14,395
 Vietnam 13,959
 United Kingdom 11,480
 Spain 11,473
 Greece 10,953
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 10,680
Unknown Citizenship 10,325
 Austria 10,058
 Croatia 10,025
 Romania 8,843
 Ukraine 8,791
 Lebanon 7,094
 China 6,084
 Thailand 4,975
 Macedonia 4,960
 Netherlands 4,911
 Iran 4,192
 Sweden 3,519
 Portugal 3,405
 Hungary 3,317
 Israel 3,302
 Brazil 3,231
 South Korea 3,195
 Latvia 3,152
 Japan 2,987
 Denmark 2,979
 Republic of Kosovo 2,957
 India 2,739
 Syria 2,471

As of December 2013 there were approximately 1,000,000 people (about 30 percent of the population) with an immigrant background living in Berlin, with significant differences in their distribution. The immigrant community is diverse, with Middle Easterners (including Turks and Arabs), Eastern Europeans and smaller numbers of East Asians, Sub-Saharan Africans and other European immigrants forming the largest groups.[9][10] About 70,000 Afro-Germans live in Berlin.[11]

There are more than 25 non-indigenous communities with a population of at least 10,000 people, including Turkish, Polish, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Austrian, Ghanaian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities.[12]

Ethnic groups in 2011  % of population[12][13]
European: 82.0
Ethnic German 71.0
Polish 3.0
former Soviet Union (primarily Russians) 3.0
former Yugoslavia 2.0
European Other (primarily Southern Europeans) 3.0
Middle Eastern: 9.0
Turkish 5.5
Arab 2.0
Iranian 0.5
other 2.0
Asian: 3.0
Southeast Asian 1.5
East Asian 1.0
South Asian 0.5
Afro-German or Black African 2.0
Mixed or unspecified background 2.0
Other groups (primarily the Americas) 2.0
Total population 3,496,082

These lists are based on official statistics regarding the foreign background of Berlin residents, rather than ethnicity; therefore, there may be a lower percentage of ethnic Germans. Fifty percent of children and teenagers have an immigrant background;[14] in Neukölln, the percentage is higher (nearly 80 percent).[15]

Berlin is estimated to have from 100,000 to 250,000 illegal immigrants.[16] Since the accession of Romania and Bulgaria to the European Union there has been a Romani influx, and social-welfare offices are working to integrate them (and other migrants) with German-language and job-skills courses.[17]

On 31 December 2010 the largest groups by foreign nationality were citizens from Turkey (104,556), Poland (40,988), Serbia (19,230), Italy (15,842), Russia (15,332), United States (12,733), France (13,262), Vietnam (13,199), Croatia (10,104), Bosnia and Herzegovina (10,198), UK (10,191), Greece (9,301), Austria (9,246), Ukraine (8,324), Lebanon (7,078), Spain (7,670), Bulgaria (9,988), the People's Republic of China (5,632), Thailand (5,037).[18] There is also a large Arabic community, mostly from Lebanon, Palestine and Iraq. Additionally, Berlin has one of the largest Vietnamese communities outside Vietnam, with about 80,000 people of Vietnamese origin.[19]

Country of origin Population
Turkey 250,000-300,000[20] (see: Turks in Berlin)
Russia (including Russian-Germans) est.200,000[21]
Poland est.200,000- 240.000[22]
Arab World est.70,000[23] (see: Arabs in Berlin)
Vietnam est. 20,000-40,000 (with Residence permission or German citizenship/without Residence permission)[24]
Ghana est. 20,000 (estimations vary from 15,000-25,000). Actually there are about 1,800 Ghanaian citizens residing in Berlin, however, there are many Germans of Ghanaian and other West-African origin or with one parent being German and the other being from Ghana.[25]
China, Croatia, Serbia, United States, Italy, Bosnia, Iran, Greece almost or at least 20,000[26]


Languages[edit]

The most-commonly-spoken foreign languages in Berlin are Turkish, Russian, Arabic, Polish, Kurdish, Vietnamese, English, Serbian, Croatian, Greek and other Asian languages. Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Serbian and Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities; Vietnamese, Russian and Polish have more native speakers in eastern Berlin.[27]

Berlin dialect[edit]

Main article: Berlinerisch dialect

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bevölkerungsstand in Berlin am 31. Dezember 2013 nach Bezirken". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). 18 February 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "Berlin statistical figures". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  3. ^ "City Profiles Berlin". Urban Audit. Retrieved 20 August 2008. 
  4. ^ "Foreign residents of Berlin" (PDF). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 5 February 2011. 
  5. ^ Spooner, Andrew (13 May 2007). "Berlin: Shish And Sauerkraut To Go". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  6. ^ Berlin is speaking Russians' language. The Russia Journal. 10 March 2001.
  7. ^ "Berlin wird farbiger. Die Afrikaner kommen – Nachrichten WELT am SONNTAG – WELT ONLINE". Die Welt (in German). 28 October 2001. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  8. ^ "Foreign residents of Berlin" (PDF). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  9. ^ http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/Publikationen/Stat_Berichte/2011/SB_A1-5_hj02-10_BE.pdf
  10. ^ "Migration – Jeder vierte Berliner hat ausländische Wurzeln – Berlin Aktuell – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin". Morgenpost.de. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  11. ^ Yonis Ayeh. "ISD Online • Initiative Schwarze Menschen in Deutschland". Isdonline.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  12. ^ a b http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/statis/login.do?guest=guest&db=EWRBEE
  13. ^ http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/Publikationen/Stat_Berichte/2012/SB_A01-05-00_2011h02_BE.pdf
  14. ^ "Schlagworte der Integrationsdebatte". Berlin.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  15. ^ "deine inform@tion zone: Mach dich stark für starke Kinder". wob4u.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  16. ^ Von Andrea Dernbach (23 February 2009). "Migration: Berlin will illegalen Einwanderern helfen – Deutschland – Politik – Tagesspiegel". Tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  17. ^ "Die Roma von Berlin-Neukölln – Nachrichten welt_print – Politik – WELT ONLINE" (in German). Welt.de. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  18. ^ http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/pms/2011/11-02-04.pdf
  19. ^ "The Asia Pacific Times Online - Little Hanoi". Asia-pacific-times.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  20. ^ "General information about Berlin". Havetravelfun.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  21. ^ "Wie leben Russen in Berlin? | rbb Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg". Rbb-online.de. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  22. ^ von Daniela Martens (2010-04-18). "Polen in Berlin: Unter Nachbarn - Berlin - Tagesspiegel" (in German). Tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  23. ^ http://www.schule-ohne-rassismus.org/fileadmin/pdf/stadt_der_vielfalt_bf.pdf
  24. ^ [1][dead link]
  25. ^ http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/publikationen/Stat_Berichte/2010/SB_A1-6_hj2-09_BE.pdf
  26. ^ "US-Wahlparty: Exil-Amerikaner in Berlin wählen Obama und McCain - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  27. ^ "Studie – Zwei Millionen Berliner sprechen mindestens zwei Sprachen – Wirtschaft – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin". Morgenpost.de. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 

External links[edit]