Demographics of Berlin
In December 2013, the city-state of Berlin had a population of 3,517,424 registered inhabitants (+47, 800) in an area of 891.82 square kilometers (344.33 sq mi). The city's population density was 3,944 inhabitants per km². Berlin is Germany´s largest city and the second most populous city in the European Union, as calculated by city-proper population.
Berlin's urban area stretches beyond the city limits, comprising about 3.7 million people in 2001. The Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan area is home to about 4.3 million in an area of 5,370 km2 (2,070 sq mi). In 2004, The Larger Urban Zone was home to around 5 million people in an area of 17,385 km².
National and international migrations into the city have a long history. In December 2013, 538,729 residents (15.3 percent of the population) were of foreign nationality from 190 countries.
The city responded to the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France with the Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years. The 1920 Greater Berlin Act incorporated many suburbs and surrounding cities, forming most of the region comprising modern Berlin. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 km2 (25 sq mi) to 883 km2 (341 sq mi) and its population from 1.9 million to 4 million.
Asylum policies in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration during the 1960s and 1970s. Berlin is home to about 250,000 Turks (especially in Kreuzberg, Neukölln and Wedding, a locality in the borough of Mitte), the largest Turkish community outside Turkey.
During the 1990s, the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of residents of the former Soviet Union. Ethnic Germans from countries from the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community. Immigration continues from a number of Western countries, particularly by young people from other parts of the EU. Berlin has seen an increase in the number of African immigrants during the last two decades.
Population by borough
Population by nationality
|Significant foreign born populations|
|Country of Birth||Population (2012)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||10,680|
|Republic of Kosovo||2,957|
As of December 2013 there were approximately 1,000,000 people (about 30 percent of the population) with an immigrant background living in Berlin, with significant differences in their distribution. The immigrant community is diverse, with Middle Easterners (including Turks and Arabs), Eastern Europeans and smaller numbers of East Asians, Sub-Saharan Africans and other European immigrants forming the largest groups. About 70,000 Afro-Germans live in Berlin.
There are more than 25 non-indigenous communities with a population of at least 10,000 people, including Turkish, Polish, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Austrian, Ghanaian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities.
|Ethnic groups in 2011||% of population|
|former Soviet Union (primarily Russians)||3.0|
|European Other (primarily Southern Europeans)||3.0|
|Afro-German or Black African||2.0|
|Mixed or unspecified background||2.0|
|Other groups (primarily the Americas)||2.0|
These lists are based on official statistics regarding the foreign background of Berlin residents, rather than ethnicity; therefore, there may be a lower percentage of ethnic Germans. Fifty percent of children and teenagers have an immigrant background; in Neukölln, the percentage is higher (nearly 80 percent).
Berlin is estimated to have from 100,000 to 250,000 illegal immigrants. Since the accession of Romania and Bulgaria to the European Union there has been a Romani influx, and social-welfare offices are working to integrate them (and other migrants) with German-language and job-skills courses.
On 31 December 2010 the largest groups by foreign nationality were citizens from Turkey (104,556), Poland (40,988), Serbia (19,230), Italy (15,842), Russia (15,332), United States (12,733), France (13,262), Vietnam (13,199), Croatia (10,104), Bosnia and Herzegovina (10,198), UK (10,191), Greece (9,301), Austria (9,246), Ukraine (8,324), Lebanon (7,078), Spain (7,670), Bulgaria (9,988), the People's Republic of China (5,632), Thailand (5,037). There is also a large Arabic community, mostly from Lebanon, Palestine and Iraq. Additionally, Berlin has one of the largest Vietnamese communities outside Vietnam, with about 80,000 people of Vietnamese origin.
|Country of origin||Population|
|Turkey||250,000-300,000 (see: Turks in Berlin)|
|Russia (including Russian-Germans)||est.200,000|
|Arab World||est.70,000 (see: Arabs in Berlin)|
|Vietnam||est. 20,000-40,000 (with Residence permission or German citizenship/without Residence permission)|
|Ghana||est. 20,000 (estimations vary from 15,000-25,000). Actually there are about 1,800 Ghanaian citizens residing in Berlin, however, there are many Germans of Ghanaian and other West-African origin or with one parent being German and the other being from Ghana.|
|China, Croatia, Serbia, United States, Italy, Bosnia, Iran, Greece||almost or at least 20,000|
The most-commonly-spoken foreign languages in Berlin are Turkish, Russian, Arabic, Polish, Kurdish, Vietnamese, English, Serbian, Croatian, Greek and other Asian languages. Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Serbian and Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities; Vietnamese, Russian and Polish have more native speakers in eastern Berlin.
- List of metropolitan areas by population
- Larger Urban Zones in the European Union
- Largest urban areas of the European Union
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