Demographics of Colombia

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Colombia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The Demography of Colombia is characterized for being the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Mexico and Brazil. Colombia experienced rapid population growth like most countries, but four decades of an armed conflict pushed millions of Colombians out of the country. However, a rebound economy in the 2000s in urban centres (perhaps the most urbanized Latin American nation) improved the situation of living standards for Colombians in a traditional class stratified economy. In the years following 2002 the safety has been improving throughout the country. Young citizens now invest in education so they can stay and contribute to the country's future. Today the country has lots of economic potential. [1]

Census[edit]

The population density of Colombia. Red showing concentration of population.
Demographics of Colombia, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

2005 Census[edit]

According to the 2005 census, there are 46,219,699 Colombians in the world (42,888,592 living in the national territory and 3,331,107 living abroad).

# Department Capital Area Population
1 Amazonas Leticia 109,665 km² 56,036
2 Antioquia Medellín 63,612 km² 5,671,689
3 Arauca Arauca 23,818 km² 208,605
4 Atlántico Barranquilla 3,388 km² 2,112,128
5 Bogotá, Distrito Capital Bogotá 1,587 km² 6,778,691 (not metropolitan)
6 Bolívar Cartagena 25,978 km² 1,860,445
7 Boyacá Tunja 23,189 km² 1,211,186
8 Caldas Manizales 7,888 km² 908,841
9 Caquetá Florencia 88,965 km² 404,896
10 Casanare Yopal 44,640 km² 282,452
11 Cauca Popayán 29,308 km² 1,244,886
12 Cesar Valledupar 22,905 km² 879,914
13 Chocó Quibdó 46,530 km² 441,395
14 Córdoba Montería 25,020 km² 1,472,699
15 Cundinamarca Bogotá 24,210 km² 2,228,478 (without Bogotá)
16 Guainía Inirida 72,238 km² 30,232
17 Guaviare San José del Guaviare 53,460 km² 81,411
18 Huila Neiva 19,890 km² 1,006,797
19 La Guajira Riohacha 20,848 km² 623,250
20 Magdalena Santa Marta 23,188 km² 1,136,901
21 Meta Villavicencio 85,635 km² 789,276
22 Nariño Pasto 33,268 km² 1,531,777
23 Norte de Santander Cúcuta 21,658 km² 1,228,028
24 Putumayo Mocoa 24,885 km² 299,286
25 Quindío Armenia 1,845 km² 518,691
26 Risaralda Pereira 4,140 km² 863,663
27 San Andrés and Providencia San Andrés 52 km² 59,573
28 Santander Bucaramanga 30,537 km² 1,916,336
29 Sucre Sincelejo 10,670 km² 765,285
30 Tolima Ibagué 23,562 km² 1,335,177
31 Valle del Cauca Cali 22,140 km² 4,060,196
32 Vaupés Mitú 54,135 km² 27,124
33 Vichada Puerto Carreño 100,242 km² 55,158
Total 1,141,748 km² 42,888,592

UN estimates[edit]

According to the 2010 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 46,295,000 in 2010, compared to only 12,000,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 28.7%, 65.6% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 5.6% was 65 years or older .[2]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 12 000 40.7 53.9 5.4
1955 13 825 44.7 52.1 5.2
1960 16 005 44.2 50.6 5.2
1965 18 556 44.7 50.0 5.3
1970 21 330 43.8 50.7 5.5
1975 23 961 41.4 52.8 5.7
1980 26 875 38.8 55.3 5.9
1985 29 994 36.1 57.8 6.1
1990 33 203 34.5 59.2 6.3
1995 36 453 32.8 60.7 6.5
2000 39 764 30.8 62.4 6.7
2005 43 041 28.8 64.2 7.1
2010 46 295 26.7 65.6 7.6

Urbanization[edit]

Movement from rural to urban areas was very heavy in the middle of the twentieth century, but has since tapered off. The urban population increased from 31% of the total population in 1938, to 57% in 1951 and about 70% by 1990. Currently the figure is about 77%. Thirty cities have a population of 100,000 or more. The nine eastern lowlands departments, constituting about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two people per sq. mi.).

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[edit]

The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [2]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950-1955 608 000 213 000 395 000 47.2 16.6 30.6 6.76 123 50.6 49.0 52.3
1955-1960 673 000 197 000 476 000 45.2 13.3 31.9 6.76 105 55.2 53.5 56.9
1960-1965 758 000 198 000 560 000 43.9 11.5 32.4 6.76 92 57.9 56.2 59.7
1965-1970 813 000 200 000 613 000 40.8 10.1 30.6 6.18 82 60.0 58.3 61.8
1970-1975 784 000 198 000 586 000 34.6 8.9 25.7 5.00 73 61.7 59.6 63.9
1975-1980 836 000 196 000 640 000 32.9 7.8 25.1 4.34 57 64.0 61.7 66.3
1980-1985 862 000 187 000 675 000 30.3 6.6 23.7 3.68 43 66.8 63.6 70.2
1985-1990 888 000 198 000 690 000 28.1 6.3 21.8 3.24 35 68.0 64.5 71.7
1990-1995 917 000 216 000 701 000 26.3 6.2 20.1 3.00 28 68.7 64.5 73.0
1995-2000 914 000 221 000 693 000 24.0 5.8 18.2 2.75 24 70.3 66.5 74.2
2000-2005 911 000 231 000 680 000 22.0 5.6 16.4 2.55 21 71.7 68.0 75.5
2005-2010 921 000 246 000 675 000 20.6 5.5 15.1 2.45 19 72.9 69.2 76.7
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[3]


Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1981-83 3,65
1984-86 3,19
1990 26,1 2,9 25,7 2,5 27,0 3,8
1995 26 3,0 25 2,5 30 4,3
2000 22,7 2,6 21,6 2,3 25,6 3,8
2005 20,4 2,4 19,0 2,1 24,3 3,4
2010 18 2,1 17 2,0 20 2,8

Registered births and deaths[edit]

Ethnic diversity[edit]

The country has a diverse population that reflects its colourful history and the peoples that have populated here from ancient times to the present. The historic amalgam of three main groups are the basics of Colombia's current demographics: indigenous Amerindians, European immigrants, and African slaves, have intermingled without limitation in its history.

Many of the indigenous peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remaining 700,000 currently represent over 85 distinct cultures. Today, less than 1% of the population can be identified as fully indigenous on the basis of language and customs. Most of the indigenous population live in the country's flatlands in the south and east.

The European immigrants were Spanish colonists, but many other Europeans (i.e. the Italians, Germans, the French, the Swiss, Poles and Russians). In smaller numbers, Belgian, Lithuanian, Dutch, British, Portuguese and Croatian communities. Most of the Europeans immigrated in the 19th century, during the First and the Second World War (1939–1945) and the Cold War (1945–1990) as well fleeing the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s.

Other immigrant populations include Asians and Middle Easterners, particularly Arabs (esp. Lebanese and Syrians but also Palestinians), Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Southeast Asians (esp. Vietnam after the end of the Vietnam War), Armenians arrived in large numbers after World War I, and East Indians or Pakistanis settled in Colombia. The Venezuelan population is increasing in Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cúcuta, Medellín, Santa Marta and Cartagena de Indias.

In the 1990s and 2000s, about half a million immigrants from Europe and North America (mainly the United States) usually are retired came to settle in urban areas and coasts of Colombia. It is not a new phenomenon, when about 5,000 Americans settled the Caribbean region in the late 19th century.[citation needed]

Colombia is ethnically diverse

The Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the sixteenth century, and continuing into the nineteenth century. After abolition, a national ideology of mestizaje encouraged the mixing of the indigenous and white people into a single mestizo ethnic identity [2].

Colombian culture, cuisine, music and social life are from the polyglot ethnic and racial balance. One famous Colombian emigrant, pop music singer Shakira of Barranquilla is herself of Italian, French and Lebanese ancestry.

According to the 2005 census by the DANE the population of Colombia was composed of these racial groups:[4][5][6]

Other ethnic groups include Arabs counted with the Whites (Lebanese, Palestinians and Syrians), Chinese, Romani from Eastern Europe, and South Asians (East Indians). However a number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War. Today is a major migration trend of Venezuelans, due to the political and economic situation in Venezuela.[7][8]

Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Palestinian, Lebanese, and other Arabs, Sephardi Jews and Romanies. There are also important communities of Chinese and Japanese.

Languages[edit]

Spanish (2nd largest population of Spanish speakers after Mexico), the official language, small communities of European languages, such as German, French, English, Italian and Portuguese in urban areas. There are 65 indigenous languages and two Creole languages: one in San Basilio de Palenque and one in San Andrés. There are 5,000 speakers of Romani in Colombia.[3]

Migration[edit]

Main article: Colombian diaspora

Historically, a sizable percentage of Colombian emigration has also been motivated by the need to escape from political persecution and bipartisan violence during the periods of "La Violencia" (1948–1958), and later due to the effects of the nation's current conflict (since 1964). This has resulted in numerous applications for political asylum abroad.

Colombians have emigrated in comparably high rates to the United States. Other Colombians migrated to Canada and Europe (most to Spain, but also to France and Italy, and the United Kingdom). Among other locations.[citation needed]

Today millions of Colombians have returned to their country thanks to improvements in security, Colombia is now a country on the road to recovery. Colombia is creating an economy that is today considered attractive and prosperous by many national and international investors. There are policies of the Colombian Government to help Colombians with housing loans. There is a support system for returning migrants. Certificates of competency are issued and there is a free employment service to help people find job. [9][10][11][1]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[12]

Population[edit]

44,725,543 (July 2011 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 27.7 years

male: 26.7 years

female: 28.6 years (2010 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15–64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate[edit]

0.7% (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS[edit]

170,000 (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths[edit]

9,800 (2007 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Colombia adjective: Colombian(s)

Religions[edit]

Roman Catholic 90%, Other 10% (Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Mormon, Jewish and Muslim).

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.4%

male: 93.1%

female: 93.7% (2005 census)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Can Young People Rebuild Colombia's Social Capital?". theglobalist.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  3. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/dhs#_r=&collection=&country=&dtype=&from=1890&page=4&ps=&sk=&sort_by=nation&sort_order=&to=2014&topic=&view=s&vk=
  4. ^ Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: 87. Washingtion D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  5. ^ "White Colombians". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  6. ^ [1] (Spanish) DANE: 2005 Census
  7. ^ Análisis de la migración venezolana a Colombia durante el gobierno de Hugo Chávez (1999–2011). Identificación de capital social y compensación económica | Echeverry Hernández | Revista Análisis Internacional. Revistas.utadeo.edu.co (10 February 2012). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
  8. ^ Llegaron los venezolanos, Articulo Impreso Archivado. Semana.com (11 March 2012). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
  9. ^ "Opportunities for Colombians who are returning to the country" (in Spanish). conexioncolombia.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  10. ^ "Colombia provides opportunities for the development of its citizens in the country" (in Spanish). conexioncolombia.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Entrepreneurship and employment programme for those who return to the country" (in Spanish). elempleo.com. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  12. ^ The World Factbook - Colombia

External links[edit]