Demographics of Cuba
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Cuba, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The 2002 census figures supplied by the government claim that 65% of Cubans were white.
According to the 2002 census, Cuba's population was 11,177,743, whereas the 2012 census numbered the population at 11,167,325. The drop between the 2002 and 2012 censuses was the first drop in Cuba's population since Cuba's war of independence. This drop was due to low fertility and emigration, as during this time (fiscal years 2003-2012), 332,028 Cubans received legal permanent residence in the United States.
Evolution of Cuba's population
|Census history |
|First Census was in 1774.
1899 Census taken by the U.S.
|Official 1775-1899 Cuba Census |
|According to the Census, the Chinese were counted as white.|
Cuba has a multitude of faiths reflecting the island's diverse cultural elements. Catholicism, which was brought to the island by Spanish colonialists at the beginning of the 16th century, is the most prevalent professed faith. After the revolution, Cuba became an officially atheistic state and restricted religious practice. Since the Fourth Cuban Communist Party Congress in 1991, restrictions have been eased and, according to the National Catholic Observer, direct challenges by state institutions to the right to religion have all but disappeared, though the church still faces restrictions of written and electronic communication, and can only accept donations from state-approved funding sources. The Roman Catholic Church is made up of the Cuban Catholic Bishops' Conference (COCC), led by Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino, Cardinal Archbishop of Havana. It has eleven dioceses, 56 orders of nuns and 24 orders of priests. In January 1998, Pope John Paul II paid a historic visit to the island, invited by the Cuban government and Catholic Church.
Afro-Cuban religions, a blend of native African religions and Roman Catholicism, are widely practiced in Cuba. This diversity derives from West and Central Africans who were transported to Cuba, and in effect reinvented their African religions. They did so by combining them with elements of the Catholic belief system, with a result very similar to Brazil
Protestantism, introduced from the United States in the 18th century, has seen a steady increase in popularity. 300,000 Cubans belong to the island's 54 Protestant denominations. Pentecostalism has grown rapidly in recent years, and the Assemblies of God alone claims a membership of over 100,000 people. The Episcopal Church of Cuba claims 10,000 adherents. Cuba has small communities of Jews, Muslims, Buddhists and members of the Bahá'í
The ancestry of Cubans comes from many sources:
During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Spanish immigrants from Canary Islands, Catalonia, Andalusia, Galicia, and Asturias emigrated to Cuba. Between 1882 and 1898, a total of 508,455 people left Spain, and more than 750,000 Spanish immigrants left for Cuba between 1899 and 1923, with many returning to Spain.
The Slave trade brought Africans to Cuba during its early history: Between 1842 and 1873, 221,000 African slaves entered Cuba.
Other European people that have contributed include:
People from Asia:
Between 1842 and 1873, 124,800 Chinese arrived.
There is also a small number of Jews living in Cuba.
A 1995 study done on the population of Pinar del Rio, found that 50% of the Mt-DNA lineages (female lineages) could be traced back to Europeans, 46% to Africans and 4% to Native Americans. This figure is consistent with both the historical background of the region, and the current demographics of it.
Regarding Y-chromosome haplogroups (male lineages), 78.8% of the sequences found in Cubans are of West Eurasian origin, 19.7% of African origin and 1.5% of East Asian origin. Among the West Eurasian fraction, the vast majority of individuals belong to West European haplogroup R1b. The African lineages found in Cubans have a Western (haplogroups E1, E2, E1b1a ) and Northern (E1b1b-M81 ) African origin. The "Berber" haplogroup E1b1b1b (E-M81), is found at a frequency of 6.1%.
According to Fregel et al. (2009), the fact that autochthonous male North African E-M81 and female U6 lineages from the Canaries have been detected in Cuba and Iberoamerica, demonstrates that Canary Islanders with indigenous ancestors actively participated in the American colonization.
Origins of Cuban Spanish
Of all the regional variations of the Spanish language, traditional Cuban Spanish is most similar to, and originates largely from the Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands. Cuba owes much of their speech patterns to the Canarian migration, which in the 19th and early 20th century was heavy and continuous. There was also migrations of Galicians and Asturians as well, but they did not leave a mirror image on their accent on the Cuban accent like the Canarian people did. Much of the typical Cuban replacements for standard Spanish vocabulary stems from Canarian lexicon. For example, guagua (bus) differs from standard Spanish autobús the former originated in the Canaries and is an onomatopoeia stemming from the sound of a Klaxon horn (wah-wah!). An example of Canarian usage for a Spanish word is the verb fajarse  ("to fight"). In standard Spanish the verb would be pelearse, while fajar exists as a non-reflexive verb related to the hemming of a skirt.
Demographic statistics from the Official 2002 Cuba Census
|Part of a series on|
|Life in Cuba|
|Median age||Total: 39.5 years
|Population growth rate||-0.01% (2006 est.)|
|Birth rate||11.89 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)|
|Death rate||7.22 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)|
|Net migration rate|
|Infant mortality rate||Total: 6.32 deaths/1,000 live births
|Life expectancy at birth||Total population: 77.41 years
|Total fertility rate||1.66 children born/woman (2006 est.)|
|Religions||Nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to the Revolution; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Muslims, Jews, and Santeria are also represented.|
|Literacy||Total population: 99.8% (2002 census)
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Illicit migration is a continuing problem. Cubans require Cuban government documentation to leave, and this is commonly refused. Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US including direct flights to Miami and overland via the southwest US/Mexican border, and islands adjacent to Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.
Cuban census 2002
The 2002 census is the most recent official census of Cuba (as of 2011).
Population by region
|Population and Area by region|
|Province||Area (km²)||Area (%)||Population||Population (%)||Density|
|Pinar del Río||10,904.03||9.92||726,574||6.50||66.63|
|Ciudad de la Habana||721.01||0.66||2,201,610||19.70||3053.49|
|Ciego de Ávila||6,783.13||6.17||411,766||3.68||60.70|
|Santiago de Cuba||6,156.44||5.60||1,036,281||9.27||168.32|
|Isla de la Juventud||2,419.27||2.20||86,559||0.77||35.78|
Largest cities or towns of Cuba
Santiago de Cuba
|2||Santiago de Cuba||Santiago de Cuba||423,392|
|5||Santa Clara||Villa Clara||210,220|
|8||Victoria de Las Tunas||Las Tunas||143,582|
- Cuban American
- Spanish people
- Canarian people
- Catalan people
- Chinese Cuban
- Jewish Cuban
- Women in Cuba
- Ranked list of Cuban provinces
- The 1899 Official Census. Page 72.
- CUBA: population growth of the whole country
- The 1899 Cuba Census. See Page 97.
- Catholic church in Cuba strives to reestablish the faith National Catholic Observer
- La inmigración entre 1902 y 1920
- Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D.; Lott, Marie T.; Newman, Nancy J.; Wallace, Douglas C. (1995). "African, Native American, and European mitochondrial DNAs in Cubans from Pinar del Rio Province and implications for the recent epidemic neuropathy in Cuba". Human Mutation 5 (4): 310–7. doi:10.1002/humu.1380050407. PMID 7627185.
- Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies found in Cuba (132 individuals) grouped according to their phylogeographic origin, Mendizabal et al. (2008)
- Fregel, Rosa; Gomes, Verónica; Gusmão, Leonor; González, Ana M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Amorim, António; Larruga, Jose M et al. (2009). "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European". BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 181. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181. PMC 2728732. PMID 19650893.
- fajar at Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.
- CIA - The World Factbook - Cuba
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".