Demographics of Egypt

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Population density

Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the third-most populous on the African continent (after Nigeria and Ethiopia). Nearly 100% of the country's 82.5 million[1] (2012 est.) people live in three major regions of the country: Cairo and Alexandria and elsewhere along the banks of the Nile throughout the Nile delta, which fans out north of Cairo; and along the Suez Canal. These regions are among the world's most densely populated, containing an average of over 3,820 persons per square mile (1,540 per km².), as compared to 181 persons per sq. mi. for the country as a whole.

Small communities spread throughout the desert regions of Egypt are clustered around oases and historic trade and transportation routes. The government has tried with mixed success to encourage migration to newly irrigated land reclaimed from the desert. However, the proportion of the population living in rural areas has continued to decrease as people move to the cities in search of employment and a higher standard of living.

According to the Peterson Institute for International Economics and other proponents of demographic structural approach (cliodynamics), the basic problem Egypt has is unemployment driven by a demographic youth bulge: with the number of new people entering the job force at about 4% a year, unemployment in Egypt is almost 10 times as high for college graduates as it is for people who have gone through elementary school, particularly educated urban youth, who comprised most of the people that were seen out in the streets during 2011 Egyptian revolution. An estimated 75% of Egyptians are under the age of 25 with just 3% over the age of 65, making it one of the most youthful populations in the world.[2][3]

Population[edit]

Recent population growth in Egypt, Data of FAO, year 2005; number of inhabitants in thousands.
Egyptian Population Density and Distribution[dated info]
Historical populations in thousands
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1805 4,000 —    
1882 6,712 +0.67%
1897 9,669 +2.46%
1907 11,190 +1.47%
1917 12,718 +1.29%
1927 14,178 +1.09%
1937 15,921 +1.17%
1947 18,967 +1.77%
1960 26,085 +2.48%
1966 30,076 +2.40%
1976 36,626 +1.99%
1986 48,254 +2.80%
1996 59,312 +2.08%
2006 72,798 +2.07%
2013 84,314 +2.12%
Source: Population in Egypt[4]

Egypt has a population of 94 million (22/2/2014).[5] According to the OECD/World Bank statistics population growth in Egypt from 1990 to 2008 was 23.7 million and 41%.[6]

Age distribution[edit]

[7]

Percentage Distribution of Population in Censuses by Age Group

Age group 2006 1996 1986 1976
Less than 5 years old 10.6 11.6 15.3 13.8
5- 10.5 12.9 13.2 12.8
10- 10.6 13.3 11.6 13.4
15- 11.8 11.6 10.6 10.9
20- 10.8 8.6 8.9 8.4
25- 8.8 7.4 7.7 7.3
30- 6.5 6.7 6.4 5.8
35- 6.4 6.5 6.1 5.6
40- 5.6 5.3 4.4 5.1
45- 5.1 4.5 4.0 4.2
50- 4.2 3.4 3.5 4.0
55- 3.1 2.5 2.6 2.4
60- 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.7
65- 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.4
70- 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2
75+ 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.0

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01/07/2010) :

Age group Male Female % Total
Less than 5 years old 4,282 4,072 10.6 8,354
5- 4,265 4,007 10.5 8,272
10- 4,330 4,023 10.6 8,353
15- 4,738 4,501 11.7 9,239
20- 4,358 4,155 10.8 8,513
25- 3,412 3,498 8.8 6,910
30- 2,614 2,503 6.5 5,117
35- 2,498 2,536 6.4 5,034
40- 2,237 2,186 5.6 4,423
45- 2,029 1,942 5.0 3,971
50- 1,668 1,640 4.2 3,308
55- 1,312 1,136 3.1 2,448
60- 971 871 2.3 1 842
65- 693 597 1.6 1 290
70- 435 419 1.1 854
75+ 408 392 1.0 800
Total 40,250 38,478 100 78,728

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01/07/2012) :

Age group Male Female % Total
Less than 5 years old 4,780 4,410 11.17 9,190
5- 4,534 4,192 10.60 8,726
10- 3,970 3,706 9.33 7,676
15- 3,970 3,746 9.37 7,710
20- 4,236 4,024 10.04 8,260
25- 4,084 3,924 9.73 8,008
30- 3,346 3,249 8.01 6,595
35- 2,589 2,524 6.21 5,113
40- 2,262 2,206 5.43 4,468
45- 2,077 2,037 5.00 4,114
50- 1,821 1,798 4.40 3,619
55- 1,494 1,480 3.61 2,974
60- 1,105 1,113 2.69 2,218
65- 767 785 1.89 1,552
70- 501 517 1.24 1,018
75+ 522 536 1.29 1,058
Total 42,058 40,247 100 82,305

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01/01/2013) :

Age group Male Female % Total
Less than 5 years old 4,861 4,481 11.17 9,342
5- 4,610 4,259 10.60 8,869
10- 4,038 3,765 9.33 7,803
15- 4,038 3,805 9.37 7,843
20- 4,309 4,089 10.04 8,398
25- 4,152 3,987 9.73 8,139
30- 3,403 3,300 8.01 6,703
35- 2,633 2,564 6.21 5,197
40- 2,300 2,241 5.43 4,541
45- 2,113 2,069 5.00 4,182
50- 1,852 1,827 4.40 3,679
55- 1,519 1,504 3.61 3,023
60- 1,124 1,130 2.69 2,254
65- 781 797 1.89 1,578
70- 510 525 1.24 1,035
75- 291 303 0.71 594
80+ 239 242 0.57 481
Total 42,773 40,888 100 83,661
Age group 2013/01/01 2012/07/01 2010/07/01 2006 1996 1986 1976
0-14 31.1 (26,014,000) 31.1 (25,592,000) 31.7 (24,979,000) 31.7 37.8 40.1 40
15-64 64.49 (53,959,000) 64.48 (53,085,000) 64.6 (50,805,000) 64.6 58.7 56.6 56.4
65+ 4.41 (3,688,000) 4.42 (3,628,000) 3.7 (2,944,000) 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.6

Egyptians abroad[edit]

According to the International Organization for Migration, an estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad and contribute actively to the development of their country through remittances (US$ 7.8 in 2009), circulation of human and social capital, as well as investment. Approximately 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries (923,600 in Saudi Arabia, 332,600 in Libya, 226,850 in Jordan, 190,550 in Kuwait with the rest elsewhere in the region) and the remaining 30% are living mostly North America (318,000 in the United States, 110,000 in Canada) and Europe (90,000 in Italy).[8]

Vital statistics[edit]

Vital statistics:[9][10]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1934 15,449 651,663 429,851 221,812 42.2 27.8 14.4
1935 15,624 645,760 412,197 233,563 41.3 26.4 14.9
1936 15,801 698,186 455,832 242,354 44.2 28.8 15.3
1937 16,009 694,086 434,208 259,878 43.4 27.1 16.2
1938 16,300 704,376 429,248 275,128 43.2 26.3 16.9
1939 16,598 696,746 429,033 267,713 42.0 25.8 16.1
1940 16,900 697,700 444,448 253,252 41.3 26.3 15.0
1941 17,208 695,016 440,981 254,035 40.4 25.6 14.8
1942 17,522 658,324 494,358 163,966 37.6 28.2 9.4
1943 17,842 689,771 492,644 197,127 38.7 27.6 11.0
1944 18,167 722,166 472,234 249,932 39.8 26.0 13.8
1945 18,498 787,502 512,003 275,499 42.6 27.7 14.9
1946 18,835 776,000 484,000 292,000 41.2 25.7 15.5
1947 19,197 834,557 408,577 425,980 43.5 21.3 22.2
1948 19,529 832,728 397,976 434,752 42.6 20.4 22.3
1949 19 989 831,310 410,524 420,786 41.6 20.5 21.1
1950 21,514 904,941 388,944 515,997 44.2 19.0 25.2
1951 22,020 934,584 402,158 532,426 44.6 19.2 25.4
1952 22,562 969,443 380,633 588,810 45.2 17.8 27.5
1953 23,138 934,830 429,097 505,733 42.6 19.6 23.0
1954 23,747 957,158 401,306 555,852 42.6 17.9 24.7
1955 24,387 926,500 405,663 520,837 40.3 17.6 22.7
1956 25,057 958,880 384,974 573,906 40.7 16.4 24.4
1957 25,756 914,494 429,512 484,982 38.0 17.8 20.1
1958 26,480 1,013,743 409,197 604,546 41.1 16.6 24.5
1959 27,228 1,078,947 411,188 667,759 42.8 16.3 26.5
1960 27,998 1,113,888 437,822 676,066 43.0 16.9 26.1
1961 28,786 1,166,620 420,158 746,462 43.9 15.8 28.1
1962 29,591 1,125,798 486,699 639,099 41.3 17.9 23.4
1963 30,410 1,196,388 431,673 764,715 42.8 15.4 27.4
1964 31,242 1,205,785 449,375 756,410 42.1 15.7 26.4
1965 32,084 1,220,658 411,636 809,022 41.5 14.0 27.5
1966 32,937 1,234,976 477,021 757,955 41.0 15.8 25.1
1967 33,799 1,210,214 440,161 770,053 39.2 14.2 24.9
1968 34,660 1,206,585 509,430 697,155 38.1 16.1 22.0
1969 35,511 1,197,245 468,017 729,228 36.8 14.4 22.4
1970 36,342 1,161,539 500,626 660,913 34.9 15.0 19.8
1971 37,152 1,186,350 445,192 741,158 34.8 13.1 21.8
1972 37,945 1,187,286 499,628 687,658 34.1 14.3 19.7
1973 38,734 1,259,004 459,816 799,188 35.3 12.9 22.4
1974 39,534 1,287,614 457,620 829,994 35.4 12.6 22.8
1975 40,359 1,331,799 456,041 875,758 36.0 12.3 23.7
1976 41,213 1,378,917 444,228 934,689 36.4 11.7 24.7
1977 42,094 1,447,402 457,558 989,844 37.3 11.8 25.5
1978 43,006 1,479,698 415,605 1,064,093 37.2 10.5 26.8
1979 43 951 1,633,674 444,753 1,188,921 40.0 10.9 29.1
1980 44,932 1,569,247 421,227 1,148,020 37.3 10.0 27.3 5.3
1981 45 946 1,593,698 432,264 1,161,434 36.8 10.0 26.8
1982 46,991 1,601,265 441,621 1,159,644 34.1 9.4 24.7
1983 48,072 1,666,915 412,700 1,254,215 34.7 8.6 26.1
1984 49,190 1,797,206 400,600 1,396,606 36.5 8.1 28.4 4.9
1985 50,347 1,903,022 442,258 1,460,764 37.8 8.8 29.0
1986 51 545 1,907,975 455,888 1,452,087 37.0 8.8 28.2
1987 52 777 1,902,604 466,161 1,436,443 36.0 8.8 27.2
1988 54,011 1,912,765 427,018 1,485,747 35.4 7.9 27.5 4.4
1989 55,207 1,722,934 414,214 1,308,720 31.2 7.5 23.7
1990 51,911 1,687,000 393,250 1,293,750 32.5 7.6 24.9
1991 52,985 1,636,551 391,588 1,244,963 30.9 7.4 23.5 4.1
1992 54,082 1,496,866 382,465 1,114,401 27.7 7.1 20.6
1993 55,201 1,600,549 380,000 1,220,549 29.0 6.9 22.1
1994 56 344 1,610,652 385,296 1,225,356 28.6 6.8 21.7
1995 57,642 1,604,835 384,548 1,220,287 27.8 6.7 21.2 3.6
1996 58 835 1,662,065 379,983 1,282,082 28.2 6.5 21.8
1997 60,053 1,654,695 389,301 1,265,394 27.6 6.5 21.1 3.3
1998 61,296 1,687,252 399,772 1,287,480 27.5 6.5 21.0 3.4
1999 62,565 1,693,025 401,433 1,291,592 27.1 6.4 20.6
2000 63,860 1,751,854 404,699 1,347,155 27.4 6.3 21.1 3.5
2001 65,182 1,741,308 404,531 1,336,777 26.7 6.2 20.5
2002 66,628 1,766,589 424,034 1,342,555 26.5 6.4 20.2
2003 67,965 1,777,418 440,149 1,337,269 26.2 6.5 19.7 3.2
2004 69,304 1,779,500 440,790 1,338,710 25.7 6.4 19.3
2005 70,653 1,800,972 450,646 1,350,326 25.5 6.4 19.1 3.1
2006 72,009 1,853,746 451,863 1,401,883 25.7 6.3 19.5
2007 73,644 1,949,569 450,596 1,498,973 26.5 6.1 20.4
2008 75 194 2,050,704 461,934 1,588,770 27.4 5.9 21.5 3.0
2009 76,925 2,217,409 476,592 1,740,817 28.8 6.2 22.6
2010 78,685 2,261,409 483,385 1,778,024 28.7 6.1 22.6
2011 80,530 2,442,094 493,086 1,949,008 30.3 6.1 24.2
2012 82,550 2,629,769 529,247 2,100,522 31.9 6.4 25.5
2013 84,629 2,621,957 511,847 2,110,110 31.0 6.0 25.0
2014 3.5

Source: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS)[11]

Ethnic groups[edit]

The vast majority of the population of Egypt consists of ethnic Egyptians The vast majority of Egyptians are native speakers of modern Egyptian Arabic.

Ethnic minorities in Egypt include the Bedouin Arab tribes of the Sinai Peninsula and the eastern desert, the Berber-speaking community of the Siwa Oasis and the Nubian people clustered along the Nile in the southernmost part of Egypt. There are also sizable minorities of Beja and Dom.

The country was host to many different communities during the colonial period, including Greeks, Italians, Syrians, Jews and Armenians, though most either left or were compelled to leave after political developments in the 1950s. The country still hosts some 90,000 refugees and asylum seekers, mostly Palestinians and Sudanese.

The CIA World factbook lists "Egyptians" as 99.6%, and "other" as 0.4% (2006 census). "Other" refers to people who are not citizens of Egypt, who come to Egypt to work for international companies, diplomats, etc.

Other sources[citation needed] give more detailed statistics, including Bedouins, the Beja (ca. 1 million), the Nubians (ca. 300,000 in 1996), Dom (ca. 230,000 in 1996), Berbers (ca. 5,000).

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Egypt

Arabic (official; see also Egyptian Arabic and Sa'idi Arabic); English widely understood as well.

Religions[edit]

According to the CIA World Factbook, approximately 91% of the population is Muslim and 9% is Christian (8% Coptic Orthodox, 1% other Christian).

[12][13][14]

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Egypt

The literacy rate in modern Egyptian society is highly debated. Education is free through university and compulsory from ages six through 15, though enforcement may be lax. Rates for primary and secondary education have strengthened in recent years. The vast majority of children enter primary school though a significant number drop out. There are approx. 200,000 primary and secondary schools with some 10 million students, 13 major universities with more than 500,000 students, and 67 teacher colleges. Major universities include Cairo University (100,000 students), Ain Shams University, Alexandria University, the 1,000-year-old Al-Azhar University, one of the world's major centers of Islamic learning and the AUC (American University in Cairo), . The former first lady has created many project towards the advancement of Egyptian education and the efforts to force education to the remaining 7-9% of students who drop out illegally. Child labor is a contributing factor to these dropouts but it is considered a serious crime to work children under the legal age and charges are taken very seriously at this time.

CIA World Factbook Demographic Statistics[edit]

Population pyramid in 2005. Many of those 30 and younger are educated citizens who are experiencing difficulty finding work.

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Infant mortality rate[edit]

23.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 71.5 years
male: 69.5 years
female: 74.8 years (2010 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.4%
male: 83%
female: 59.4% (2005 est.)[3],

Genetics[edit]

Y-Chromosome[edit]

Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Egypt.[16]

Haplogroup n A B E1a E1b1a E1b1b1 E1b1b1a E1b1b1a1 E1b1b1a1b E1b1b1a2 E1b1b1a3 E1b1b1a4 E1b1b1b E1b1b1c F G I J1 J2 K L O P,R Q R1a R1b1a R1b1b R2 T
Marker M33 M2 M35 M78 V12 V32 V13 V22 V65 M81 M34 M89 M201 V88 M269 M70
Egypt 370 1.35 - 0.54 2.43 3.24 0.81 7.03 1.62 0.81 9.19 2.43 11.89 6.76 1.08 5.68 0.54 20.81 6.75 0.27 0.81 0.27 0.54 0.27 2.16 2.97 2.97 0.54 6.22

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "population clock". Egypt Central Agency for Public Mobilization And Statistics. 
  2. ^ Korotayev A., Zinkina J. Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis. Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar 13 (2011): 139-169.
  3. ^ "The long-term economic challenges Egypt must overcome". Marketplace. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  4. ^ "Population in Censuses by Sex & Sex Ratio (1882–2006)". Egypt State Information Service. 
  5. ^ http://www.sis.gov.eg/Ar/Templates/Articles/tmpArticles.aspx?ArtID=9
  6. ^ CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
  7. ^ http://www.capmas.gov.eg/pdf/EgyptInFigure/EgyptinFigures/Tables/English/pop/population/index.html
  8. ^ International Organization for Migration, http://www.egypt.iom.int/Doc/IOM%20Migration%20and%20Development%20in%20Egypt%20Facts%20and%20Figures%20(English).pdf
  9. ^ [1] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  10. ^ [2] Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics
  11. ^ CAPMAS - Vital Statistics
  12. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2006 - Egypt
  13. ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2007 - Egypt
  14. ^ CIA World Factbook - Egypt
  15. ^ a b https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html
  16. ^ Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Pestano J, et al. (2013) Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775

External links[edit]