Demographics of French Guiana

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Historical population estimates and average annual growth rate
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1790 14,520 —    
1839 20,940 +0.75%
1857 25,561 +1.11%
1891 33,500 +0.80%
Source: INSEE estimates
Census population and average annual growth rate
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1936 37,005 —    
1946 25,499 −3.66%
1954 27,863 +1.11%
1961 33,505 +2.67%
1967 44,392 +4.80%
1974 55,125 +3.14%
1982 73,022 +3.58%
1990 114,678 +5.80%
1999 156,790 +3.54%
2009 224,469 +3.65%
Source:[1]

Population[edit]

Demographics of French Guiana.

According to INSEE the population of French Guinana was 239,450 of January 1, 2012.[2] The population is very young: 44% are below the age of 20, while only 1.7% are 75 years or older. The age distribution is a reflection of the high fertility rates of French Guiana.

Nationality[edit]

On January 1, 2010, 64.5% of the population had the French nationality, while 35.5% had a foreign nationality.[3] Of these, Surinamese (13.8% of the total population), Haitians (8.8%) and Brazilians (8.7) were the largest groups. Smaller groups included people with nationality of Guyana (1.7%), China (0.5%), the Dominican Republic (0.4%) and Peru (0.2%).

Vital statistics[1][4][edit]

The total fertility rate in French Guiana has remained high and is today considerably higher than in metropolitan France, and also higher than the average of the French overseas departments. It is largely responsible for the high population growth of French Guiana.[5]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1936 24 355 554 - 199 14.8 23.1 -8.3
1937 24 408 487 - 79 17.0 20.3 -3.3
1938 24 381 649 - 268 15.9 27.0 -11.2
1939 24 333 499 - 166 13.9 20.8 -6.9
1940 24 436 505 - 69 18.2 21.0 -2.9
1941 24 437 626 - 189 18.2 26.1 -7.9
1942 24 453 733 - 280 18.9 30.5 -11.7
1943 24 422 702 - 280 17.6 29.3 -11.7
1944 24 474 627 - 153 19.8 26.1 -6.4
1945 24 620 539 81 25.8 22.5 3.4
1946 24 515 596 - 81 21.5 24.8 -3.4
1947 24 539 623 - 84 22.5 26.0 -3.5
1948 25 529 547 - 18 21.2 21.9 -0.7
1949 25 607 471 136 24.3 18.8 5.4
1950 25 590 384 206 23.6 15.4 8.2
1951 26 558 383 175 21.5 14.7 6.7
1952 27 781 462 319 30.0 17.8 12.3
1953 27 720 426 294 26.7 15.8 10.9
1954 28 900 378 522 32.1 13.5 18.6
1955 29 941 377 564 32.6 13.0 19.5
1956 29 949 411 538 32.1 13.9 18.2
1957 30 993 426 567 33.0 14.2 18.8
1958 31 940 404 536 30.9 13.3 17.6
1959 31 1 043 460 583 34.1 15.0 19.1
1960 32 1 026 451 575 31.4 13.8 17.6
1961 34 1 066 487 579 31.8 14.5 17.3
1962 35 1 041 410 631 30.1 11.8 18.2
1963 36 1 118 446 672 31.1 12.4 18.7
1964 38 1 213 399 814 32.0 10.5 21.5
1965 39 1 161 403 758 29.0 10.1 19.0
1966 41 1 244 401 843 29.5 9.5 20.0
1967 43 1 281 376 905 29.2 8.6 20.6
1968 45 1 390 408 982 30.4 8.9 21.5
1969 47 1 424 431 993 30.0 9.1 20.9
1970 49 1 584 385 1 199 32.2 7.8 24.4
1971 50 1 600 400 1 200 31.4 7.8 23.5
1972 52 1 670 399 1 271 31.7 7.6 24.1
1973 54 1 473 418 1 055 27.1 7.7 19.4
1974 55 1 529 435 1 094 27.4 7.8 19.6
1975 57 1 476 408 1 068 25.6 7.1 18.5
1976 59 1 439 415 1 024 24.2 7.0 17.2
1977 61 1 476 463 1 013 24.0 7.5 16.4
1978 63 1 568 470 1 098 24.5 7.4 17.2
1979 65 1 704 454 1 250 25.7 6.9 18.9
1980 68 1 933 468 1 465 28.1 6.8 21.3
1981 71 2 092 428 1 664 29.3 6.0 23.3
1982 74 2 379 492 1 887 31.6 6.5 25.1
1983 78 2 314 489 1 825 28.9 6.1 22.8
1984 83 2 319 491 1 828 27.3 5.8 21.5
1985 87 2 482 501 1 981 27.6 5.6 22.0
1986 93 2 392 491 1 901 25.2 5.2 20.0
1987 99 2 700 550 2 150 27.2 5.6 21.7
1988 105 3 000 550 2 450 28.5 5.2 23.2
1989 111 3 300 550 2 750 29.6 4.9 24.7
1990 117 3 606 594 3 012 30.8 5.1 25.7
1991 122 3 922 583 3 339 32.2 4.8 27.4
1992 126 4 045 568 3 477 32.0 4.5 27.5
1993 131 4 113 578 3 535 31.5 4.4 27.1
1994 135 4 235 625 3 610 31.5 4.6 26.8
1995 139 4 264 548 3 716 30.7 3.9 26.7
1996 143 4 367 544 3 823 30.4 3.8 26.6
1997 148 4 453 568 3 885 30.1 3.8 26.2
1998 153 4 696 614 4 082 30.6 4.0 26.6
1999 159 4 907 648 4 259 30.9 4.1 26.8 3.87
2000 165 5 149 634 4 515 31.2 3.8 27.4 3.93
2001 172 5 137 678 4 459 29.9 3.9 25.9 3.79
2002 179 5 276 665 4 611 29.4 3.7 25.7 3.73
2003 187 5 553 721 4 832 29.7 3.9 25.8 3.77
2004 195 5 312 719 4 593 27.3 3.7 23.6 3.47
2005 202 5 998 705 5 293 29.7 3.5 26.2 3.79
2006 208 6 276 711 5 565 30.1 3.4 26.7 3.80
2007 214 6 386 690 5 696 29.8 3.2 26.6 3.73
2008 220 6 247 762 5 485 28.4 3.5 24.9 3.57
2009 225 6 171 699 5 472 27.4 3.1 24.3 3.49
2010 231 6 083 773 5 310 26.3 3.3 23.0 3.40
2011 237 6 259 714 5 545 26.4 3.0 23.4 3.44
2012 243 6 609 789 5 820 27.2 3.2 23.9

Infant mortality rate[edit]

The infant mortality in French Guiana is higher than in metropolitan France:[6]

  • 2007-2009: 12.0
  • 2008-2010: 11.6
  • 2009-2011: 10.1

Life expectancy[edit]

At birth, life expectancy is 76.2 years for male children, and 82.8 for female (figures for 2011).[1]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Estimates of the percentages of French Guiana ethnic composition vary, a situation compounded by the large proportion of immigrants.

Creoles, or Mulattoes (people of mixed African and French ancestry), are the largest ethnic group, though estimates vary as to the exact percentage, depending upon whether the large Haitian community is included as well. Generally the Creole population is judged to be about 60 to 70% of the total population if Haitians (comprising roughly one-third of Creoles) are included, and 30 to 50% without.

Roughly 14% of the population is of European ancestry. The vast majority of these are of French heritage, though there are also people of Dutch, British, Spanish and Portuguese ancestry.

The main Asian communities are the Chinese (about 3-4%, primarily from Zhejiang province in mainland China and Hong Kong) and Hmong from Laos (1-2%). There are also smaller groups from various Caribbean islands, mainly Saint Lucia as well as Dominica. Other Asian groups include East Indians, Lebanese and Vietnamese.

The main groups living in the interior are the Maroons (formerly called "Bush Negroes") who are from African descent, and Amerindians. The Maroons, descendants of escaped African slaves, live primarily along the Maroni River. The main Maroon groups are the Saramaca, Aucan (both of whom also live in Suriname), and Boni (Aluku).

The main Amerindian groups (forming about 3%–4% of the population) are the Arawak, Carib, Emerillon, Galibi (now called the Kaliña), Palikur, Wayampi and Wayana. As of the late 1990s, there was evidence of an uncontacted group of Wayampi.

Languages[edit]

French and Guianese Creole French are the most widely spoken languages. There are also several native languages, including Arawak, Carib (Kalina), Hakka Chinese and Javanese.[7] The official language, like for all overseas departments and territories of France, is French.

Religion[edit]

The dominant religion of French Guiana is Roman Catholicism; the Maroons and some Amerindian people maintain their own religions. The Hmong people are also mainly Catholic owing to the influence of missionaries who helped bring them to French Guiana.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]