Demographics of Ghana
The Demography of Ghana describes the condition and overview of Ghana's population. Demographic topics include basic education, health, and population statistics as well as identified religious affiliations. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Ghana, including population density, nationality and citizenship, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
- 1 Population distribution
- 2 Urban-rural disparities
- 3 Language
- 4 Education
- 5 Demographic trends
- 6 Demographic statistics
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Population density increased steadily from thirty-six per square kilometer in 1970 to fifty-two per square kilometer in 1984; in 1990 sixty-three persons per square kilometer was the estimate for Ghana's overall population density. These averages, naturally, did not reflect variations in population distribution. For example, while the Northern Region, one of ten administrative regions, showed a density of seventeen persons per square kilometer in 1984, in the same year Greater Accra Region recorded nine times the national average of fifty-two per square kilometer. As was the case in the 1960 and 1970 figures, the greatest concentration of population in 1984 was to the south of the Kwahu Plateau. The highest concentration of habitation continued to be within the Accra-Kumasi-Takoradi triangle, largely because of the economic productivity of the region. In fact, all of the country's mining centers, timber-producing deciduous forests, and cocoa-growing lands lie to the south of the Kwahu Plateau. The Accra-Kumasi-Takoradi triangle also is conveniently linked to the coast by rail and road systems—making this area an important magnet for investment and labor. By contrast, a large part of the Volta Basin was sparsely populated. The far north, on the other hand, was heavily populated. The eighty-seven persons to a square kilometer recorded in the 1984 census for the Upper East Region, for example, was well above the national average. This may be explained in part by the somewhat better soil found in some areas. With the improvement of the water supply and the introduction of intensive agricultural extension services as part of the Global 2000 program since the mid-1980s.
Localities of 5,000 persons and above have been classified as urban since 1960. On this basis, the 1960 urban population totalled 1,551,174 persons, or 23.1 percent of total population. By 1970, the percentage of the country's population residing in urban centers had increased to 28 percent. That percentage rose to 32 in 1984 and was estimated at 33 percent for 1992.
Like the population density figures, the rate of urbanization varied from one administrative region to another. While the Greater Accra Region showed an 83-percent urban residency, the Ashanti Region matched the national average of 32 percent in 1984. The Upper West Region of the country recorded only 10 percent of its population in urban centers that year, which reflected internal migration to the south and the pattern of development that favored the south, with its minerals and forest resources, over the north. Urban areas in Ghana have customarily been supplied with more amenities than rural locations. Consequently, Kumasi, Accra, and many settlements within the southern economic belt attracted more people than the savanna regions of the north; only Tamale in the north has been an exception. The linkage of the national electricity grid to the northern areas of the country in the late 1980s may help to stabilize the north-to-south flow of internal migration.
The growth of urban population notwithstanding, Ghana continued to be a nation of rural communities. The 1984 enumeration showed that six of the country's ten regions had rural populations of 5 percent or more. Rural residency was estimated to be 67 percent of the population in 1992. These figures, though reflecting a trend toward urban residency, were not very different from the 1970s when about 72 percent of the nation's population lived in rural areas. In an attempt to perpetuate this pattern of rural-urban residency and thereby to lessen the consequent socioeconomic impact on urban development, the "Rural Manifesto," which assessed the causes of rural underdevelopment, was introduced in April 1984. Development strategies were evaluated, and some were implemented to make rural residency more attractive. As a result, the Bank of Ghana established more than 120 rural banks to support rural entrepreneurs, and the rural electrification program was intensified in the late 1980s. The government, moreover, presented its plans for district assemblies as a component of its strategy for rural improvement through decentralized administration.
Primary and junior secondary school education is tuition-free and mandatory. The Government of Ghana support for basic education is unequivocal. Article 39 of the Constitution mandates the major tenets of the free, compulsory, universal basic education (FCUBE) initiative. Launched in 1996, it is one of the most ambitious pre-tertiary education programs in Africa. Since 1987, the Government of Ghana has increased its education budget by 700%. Basic education's share has grown from 45% to 60% of that total. Students begin their 6-year primary education at age six. Under educational reforms implemented in 1987, they pass into a junior secondary school system for 3 years of academic training combined with technical and vocational training. Those continuing move into the 3-year senior secondary school program. Entrance to one of the five Ghanaian universities is by examination following completion of senior secondary school.
Ghana's first postindependence population census in 1961 counted about 6.7 million inhabitants. Between 1965 and 1989, a constant 45 percent of the nation's total female population was of childbearing age. The gender ratio of the population, 97.3 males to 100 females, was reflected in the 1984 figures of males to females. The figure was slightly below the 1970 figure of 98 males to 100 females, but a reversal of the 1960 ratio of 102.2 males to 100 females. The crude birth rate recorded in 1965 dropped in 1992 and also, the crude death rate of 18 per 1,000 population in 1965 fell to 13 per 1,000 population in 1992, while life expectancy rose from a 1992 average of forty-two years for men and forty-five years for women to fifty-two and fifty-six years in 2002 with the infant mortality rate improved in 2012 and fertility rate averaging two children per adult female in 2013.
The following demographic are from the independent Ghana Statistical Service, unless otherwise indicated.
15,375,000 (2010 estimate figures)
0–14 years: 20.3% (male/female)
15–64 years: 76.1% (male/female)
59.1 years and over: 3.6% (male/female) (2013 est.)
Population growth rate
0.87% (2013 est.)
12.81 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
7.59 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.55 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate
41.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 65.46 years (2013 est.); 66 years
male: 64.48 years (2013 est.); 65 years
female: 66.48 years (2013 est.) ; 67 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate
2.2 children born/woman (2013 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71,5%
female: 65,3% (2010 census)
- Owusa-Ansah, David. "Population Distribution". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Owusa-Ansah, David. "Urban-Rural Disparities". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Owusa-Ansah, David. "Population". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Ghana - 2010 Population and Housing Census". Government of Ghana. 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- (English) Ghana Statistical Service