Demographics of Haiti
Although Haiti averages approximately 255 people per square kilometer (650 per sq. mi.), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys. The nation is multi-ethnic, home to peoples of different races and ethnic groups. 95% of Haitians are of predominantly African descent. The remainding 5% of the population is primarily mulattoes, Europeans, Asians and Arabs. Hispanic residents in Haiti are mostly Cuban and Dominican. About two thirds of the Haitian population live in rural areas.
Although there was a national census taken in Haiti in 2003, much of that data has not been released to the public. Several demographic studies, including those by social work researcher Athena Kolbe, have shed light on the current status of urban residents. In 2006, households averaged 4.5 members. The median age was 25 years with a mean average age of 27 years. People aged 15 and younger counted for roughly a third of the population. Overall, 52.7 percent of the population was female.
According to the 2012 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 9,896,000 in 2010, compared to 3,221,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 36.2%, 59.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.5% was 65 years or older .
Registration of vital events is in Haiti not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. 
|1950–1955||154 000||89 000||65 000||45.7||26.5||19.2||6.30||220||37.6||36.3||38.9|
|1955–1960||165 000||87 000||78 000||44.6||23.6||21.0||6.30||194||40.7||39.4||42.0|
|1960–1965||177 000||86 000||91 000||43.5||21.1||22.4||6.30||171||43.6||42.3||44.9|
|1965–1970||183 000||84 000||99 000||40.7||18.6||22.1||6.00||150||46.3||44.9||57.6|
|1970–1975||188 000||85 000||104 000||38.2||17.2||21.1||5.60||135||48.0||46.8||49.3|
|1975–1980||217 000||87 000||129 000||40.0||16.1||23.9||5.80||131||50.0||48.5||51.5|
|1980–1985||259 000||94 000||164 000||42.8||15.6||27.2||6.21||122||51.5||50.2||52.9|
|1985–1990||264 000||94 000||170 000||39.1||13.9||25.3||5.70||100||53.6||52.2||55.0|
|1990–1995||265 000||93 000||172 000||35.5||12.5||23.1||5.15||85||55.3||53.7||56.8|
|1995–2000||268 000||93 000||175 000||32.7||11.3||21.3||4.62||70||56.9||55.2||58.7|
|2000–2005||265 000||95 000||171 000||29.7||10.6||19.1||4.00||56||58.1||56.4||59.9|
|2005–2010||265 000||90 000||175 000||27.7||9.4||18.3||3.55||49||60.7||59.0||62.4|
|* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)|
Disasters often cause human populations to increase long term, rather than decrease, by way of increased fertility exceeding the deaths caused by the initial disaster, as shell-shocked mothers replace every lost child with more than needed. In Haiti's case, the fertility rate nearly tripled after the quake, and is likely to remain elevated (above pre-quake levels) for long after.
Fertility and Births
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):
|Year||CBR (Total)||TFR (Total)||CBR (Urban)||TFR (Urban)||CBR (Rural)||TFR (Rural)|
|1994–95||34||4,8 (3,0)||31||3,3 (2,2)||35||5,9 (3,7)|
|2000||32,6||4,7 (2,7)||29,4||3,3 (2,0)||34,0||5,8 (3,4)|
|2005–2006||28,7||4,0 (2,4)||26,2||2,8 (1,8)||30,1||5,0 (2,9)|
|2012||27,8||3,5 (2,2)||24,4||2,6 (1,9)||29,4||4,4 (2,6)|
Taíno was the major pre-Columbian language in the region now known as Haiti. One of the country's official languages is Haitian Creole, a French-based creole with African influences, as well as minor Spanish and Taíno influences. French is the other official language. Spanish, though not official, is spoken by a growing amount of the population, and is spoken more frequently near the border with the Dominican Republic. English is increasingly spoken among the young and in the business sector.
The state religion is Roman Catholicism which 80–85% of the population professes. 15–20% of Haitians practice Protestantism. Only a very small percentage of the population practice Vodou, mostly along with another religion.
In recent years, several annual literacy campaigns launched in by the Martelly administration has increased overall literacy among adults in Haiti. UNESCO projects an overall literacy rate of 61.1% in Haiti by 2015. As of December 2014, World bank has reported that school enrollment has increased from 78% to 90% in Haiti, very close to the goal of universal child enrollment.
Large-scale emigration, principally to the United States, and Canada (predominantly to Quebec, with other areas of the country) – but also to Cuba, other areas of Europe and the Americas (like Argentina) such as France (with French Guiana), Spain, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland; and Venezuela, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, the Bahamas and other Caribbean neighbors – has created what Haitians refer to as the Eleventh Department or the Diaspora. About one of every six Haitians live abroad.
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
- Noun: Haitian(s)
- Adjective: Haitian
- Ethnic groups: Black 95%, Mulatto and White 5%
Literacy: (2015 est.)
- Definition: Age 15 and over that can read and write
- Total population: 60.7%
- Male: 64.3%
- Female: 57.3%
- CIA – The World Factbook – Haiti
- Kolbe, Athena R.; Royce A. Hutson (August 31, 2006). "Human rights abuse and other criminal violations in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a random survey of households" (PDF). The Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69211-8. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
- Haiti's Rate Of Fertility Tripled – Report
- Worldbank – Microdata: Haiti
- The World Factbook
- "Haiti – Social : The fight against illiteracy, one of the Government's priorities". September 9, 2014.
- ""Literacy Statistics trends 1985–2015"" (PDF).
- "Extreme poverty drops in Haiti. Is it sustainable?". 4 December 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- Cohen, Gigi (2004-03-24). "Haiti's Dark secret:The Restavecs". National Public Radio.
- "Haiti". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2011-03-03.
† note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
‡ note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009