Demographics of Hong Kong

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Hong Kong, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world with an overall density of some 6,300 people per square kilometre.

Hong Kong has one of the world’s lowest birth rates—1.11 per woman of child-bearing age as of 2012, far below the replacement rate of 2.1. With just 1,032 babies born in 2009 to every 1000 fertile women, it is estimated that 26.8% of the population will be aged 65 or more in 2033, up from 12.1% in 2005.

Overview[edit]

The demographics of Hong Kong mainly consists of ethnic Chinese, making up more than 93.6% of the population.[1] The ancestral home of most Hong Kong people originates from various regions in Guangdong. Most Hong Kong people nowadays are the descendants of immigrants from Mainland China and around the world after the end of World War II. Despite Filipino and Indonesian foreign domestic helpers being the ethnic minorities, there are over 273,609 foreign domestic helpers in Hong Kong,[2] accounting for 4% of the entire population.

The major ethnic groups include the Punti, Hakka, Hoklo,[3] and Tanka ("boat dwellers").[4]

Terminology[edit]

Main article: Hong Kong people

People from Hong Kong generally refer to themselves, in Cantonese, as Hèung Góng Yàhn (Chinese: 香港人; Cantonese Yale: Hèung Góng Yàhn; literally: "Hong Kong people"); however the term is not restricted to those of Chinese descent, owing to Hong Kong's nearly 150-year colonial history that saw the stationing of English, Indians and Russians among other ethnic groups as civil servants or traders. Thus a distinct and legitimate non-Cantonese culture with specifics to Hong Kong grew. Mixing of cultural groups did not occur much beyond governance and business owing to two main reasons:

  1. Between Chinese and other ethnicities: the Cantonese language posed a significant barrier for newcomers. Far too often non-Chinese were stationed in Hong Kong for fixed periods of time (2-, 4-, 8-year terms) and thus motivation to learn the language was reduced. Furthermore pre-1970s Hong Kong saw official governance favouring English or British culture for the most part. For example, English was the only official language and educational institutes of quality were also English speaking. Therefore a continuation of English culture by recent English immigrants was simple and official policy; the need to integrate with the Chinese populations was thus limited. Furthermore, Chinese population were largely unable to learn English owing to the lack of proper educational facilities in pre-1970 Hong Kong.<biased, uncited> Racial tensions arose as a result of perceived imbalances, leading to the 1966 and 1967 riots.
  2. Between non-Chinese ethnicities: most non-Chinese ethnic groups came to Hong Kong as traders, civil servants or soldiers in which one's race played a significant role in the determination of class. For example, the 1928 HK Police handbook clearly assigns power, responsibility and rank based on ethnicity (White, Indian and Chinese).

In English, the term "Hong Kongers" (or sometimes Hongkongers) and "Hongkongese" are becoming more popular to describe the people of and culture of Hong Kong.[5][6] The term 'Hong Konger' or 'Hongkonger' is used to refer to the Hong Kong people, while 'Hong Kong' (or 'Hongkongese') is an adjective for people or things related to Hong Kong.

Demographic statistics[edit]

Population graph of Hong Kong

Census data[edit]

Year Count Source Notes
1841 7,450 (census 1841?)[7] Commodore James Bremer, commander-in-chief of the British forces in China, took formal possession of Hong Kong on 26 January 1841.
The population figure is for Hong Kong Island only. The breakdown was: "In the Villages and hamlets: 4,360; In the Bazaar: 800; In the Boats: 2,000; Labourers from Kowloong: 300".[7]
1848 24,000 [8] Hong Kong Island only
1851 33,000 Hong Kong Island only
1853 39,017 census 1853[9] Hong Kong Island only
1855 72,000 [8] Hong Kong Island only
1862 123,511 [7] Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula only.
Population breakdown: "European and American: 1,604; Chinese, etc: 121,907"[7]
Kowloon Peninsula had a population of 800 in 1860, when it became part of Hong Kong.[7]
1863 124,850 [7] Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula only
Population breakdown: "European and American: 2,644; Chinese, etc: 123,207"[7]
1864 121,498 [7] Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula only
Population breakdown: "European and American: 1,963; Chinese, etc: 119,535"[7]
1865 125,504 [7] Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula only
Population breakdown: "European and American: 2,034."[7]
1866 115,098 [7] Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula only
Population breakdown: "European and American: 2,113."[7]
1881 160,402 Britannica 1911 Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula only
1891 221,441 Britannica 1911 Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula only.
Population breakdown: "8,500 whites and 213,000 coloured people, nearly all Chinese. [...] nearly half of the resident white population [were] Portuguese, one-third British, and the rest German, American, French, Spanish, Italian, and of a dozen other nations."[8]
1901 283,978 Britannica 1911
census 1901[10]
The New Territories were the last territorial addition to Hong Kong in 1898.
1906 326,961
1916 530,000 [11]
1921 625,166 [12]
1925 725,000 [11]
1931 849,800 census 1931
1941 1,600,000 [11] Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941) and beginning of Japanese occupation
1945 500,000 [13] End of Japanese occupation on 15 August 1945
1945 600,000 [14]
1945 750,000 [15]
1950 2,200,000 [14]
1950 2,360,000 [13]
1960 3,000,000 [16]
1970 3,995,400 [17]
1981 5,109,812 [17] End of touch base policy, which triggered an increase in the number of illegal immigrants from China, especially from Guangdong.
1986 5,495,488 [17]
1991 5,674,114 [17]
1996 6,412,937 [17]
2001 6,708,389 [17]
2006 6,864,346 [17]
2011 7,071,576 [17]

Vital statistics [18][19][20][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1950 1 974 60 600 18 465 42 135 30.7 9.4 21.3
1951 2 044 68 500 20 580 47 920 34.0 10.2 23.8
1952 2 141 71 976 19 459 52 517 33.9 9.2 24.7
1953 2 253 75 544 18 300 57 244 33.7 8.2 25.5
1954 2 371 83 317 19 283 64 034 35.2 8.2 27.1
1955 2 490 90 511 19 080 71 431 36.3 7.7 28.7
1956 2 607 96 746 19 295 77 451 37.0 7.4 29.6
1957 2 721 97 834 19 365 78 469 35.8 7.1 28.7
1958 2 834 106 624 20 554 86 070 37.4 7.2 30.2
1959 2 951 104 579 20 250 84 329 35.2 6.8 28.4
1960 3 075 110 667 19 146 91 521 36.1 6.2 29.9
1961 3 207 108 726 18 738 89 988 34.3 5.9 28.4
1962 3 344 119 166 20 933 98 233 36.1 6.3 29.7
1963 3 477 118 413 20 340 98 073 34.6 5.9 28.7
1964 3 596 111 436 18 657 92 779 31.8 5.3 26.5
1965 3 692 106 362 18 160 88 202 29.6 5.0 24.5
1966 3 763 96 436 19 261 77 175 26.6 5.3 21.3
1967 3 812 94 368 20 234 74 134 25.3 5.4 19.9
1968 3 850 83 641 19 444 64 197 22.0 5.1 16.9
1969 3 889 82 482 19 256 63 226 21.3 5.0 16.4
1970 3 942 79 132 19 996 59 136 20.0 5.1 14.9
1971 4 009 79 789 20 374 59 415 19.7 5.0 14.7
1972 4 088 80 344 21 397 58 947 19.5 5.2 14.3
1973 4 180 82 252 21 251 61 001 19.5 5.0 14.5
1974 4 283 83 589 21 879 61 710 19.3 5.1 14.3
1975 4 396 79 759 21 591 58 168 18.1 4.9 13.2
1976 4 519 78 511 22 628 55 883 17.7 5.1 12.6
1977 4 652 80 022 23 331 56 691 17.5 5.1 12.4
1978 4 788 80 957 23 816 57 141 17.3 5.1 12.2
1979 4 919 81 975 25 110 56 865 16.6 5.1 11.5
1980 5 039 85 290 24 995 60 295 16.8 4.9 11.9
1981 5 145 86 751 24 822 61 929 16.7 4.8 11.9
1982 5 239 86 120 25 384 60 736 16.4 4.8 11.5
1983 5 322 83 293 26 512 56 781 15.6 5.0 10.6
1984 5 394 77 297 25 510 51 787 14.3 4.7 9.6
1985 5 456 76 126 25 248 50 878 14.0 4.6 9.3
1986 5 508 71 620 25 902 45 718 13.0 4.7 8.3
1987 5 551 69 958 26 916 43 042 12.6 4.8 7.8
1988 5 592 75 412 27 659 47 753 13.5 4.9 8.5
1989 5 641 69 621 28 745 40 876 12.3 5.1 7.2
1990 5 704 67 731 29 136 38 595 11.9 5.1 6.8
1991 5 786 68 281 28 429 39 852 11.8 4.9 6.9
1992 5 884 70 949 30 550 40 399 12.1 5.2 6.9
1993 5 992 70 451 30 571 39 880 11.8 5.1 6.7
1994 6 101 71 646 29 905 41 741 11.7 4.9 6.8
1995 6 206 68 637 31 468 37 169 11.1 5.1 6.0
1996 6 304 63 291 32 176 31 115 10.0 5.1 4.9
1997 6 492 59 250 31 738 27 512 9.1 4.9 4.2
1998 6 550 52 977 32 847 20 130 8.1 5.0 3.1
1999 6 611 51 281 33 255 18 026 7.8 5.0 2.7
2000 6 675 54 134 33 758 20 376 8.1 5.1 3.1
2001 6 721 48 219 33 378 14 841 7.2 5.0 2.2
2002 6 728 48 209 34 267 13 942 7.2 5.1 2.1
2003 6 745 46 965 36 971 9 994 7.0 5.5 1.5
2004 6 781 49 796 36 918 12 878 7.3 5.4 1.9
2005 6 818 57 098 38 830 18 268 8.4 5.7 2.7
2006 6 871 65 626 37 457 28 169 9.6 5.5 4.1
2007 6 921 70 875 39 476 31 399 10.2 5.7 4.5
2008 6 951 78 822 41 796 37 026 11.3 6.0 5.3
2009 6 980 82 095 41 175 40 920 11.8 5.9 5.9
2010 7 024 88 600 42 200 46 400 12.6 6.0 6.6
2011 7 078 95 500 41 400 54 100 13.5 5.9 7.6
2012 7 154 91 600 43 900 47 700 12.8 6.1 6.7
2013 7 187 57 100 42 500 14 600 7.9 5.9 2.0

At the end of the 20th century Hong Kong had one of the lowest birth rates in the world. A fast increase in the number of births was recorded during the past decade: between 2001 and 2011 the number of births doubled. However, this increase was not caused by an increase of the fertility rate of Hong Kong women, but by an increase in the number of children born in Hong Kong to women with residence in Mainland China. In 2001 there were 7,810 births to Mainland women (16%) out of a total of 48,219 births. This increased to 37,253 births to Mainland women (45%) out of a total of 82,095 births.[21]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Age structure: (Mid-2013 est.)[22]

 0-14 years: 11.0% (male 408,000; female 382,600)
15-24 years: 11.7% (male 424,500; female 417,900)
25-34 years: 15.2% (male 454,900; female 639,700)
35-44 years: 15.9% (male 471,500; female 671,800)
45-54 years: 17.7% (male 587,900; female 681,700)
55-64 years: 14.2% (male 503,700; female 512,600)
65 and over: 14.3% (male 479,500; female 547,700)

Median age: 45.0 (2013 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Average marriage age:

male: 30
female: 27

Marriage: (2006 est.)

Never Married 32% (1,920,522)
Now married 57.8% (3,423,995)
Divorced 3.2% (189,563)
Separated 0.6% (34,722)

Infant mortality rate: 2.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 82.2 years years
male: 79.47 years
female: 85.14 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.11 children born/woman (2013 est.)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 93.5%
male: 96.9%
female: 89.6% (2002)

By ethnicity[edit]

Chinese make up 94% of the population with the other groups floating at around 6%.[23] The national census does not break down people of European descent into separate categories, nor are Chinese ethnic subgroups separated in the statistics. However, the majority of Hong Kongers of Chinese descent trace their ancestry to various parts of Southern China: the Guangzhou area, followed by Siyi (a region of four counties neighboring Guangzhou), Chaoshan (a region of North Guangdong home to Teochew speakers), Fujian and Shanghai.[24] Some Cantonese people also originate from Hakka-speaking villages in the New Territories.[25] Most Teochew-speaking migrants immigrated to Hong Kong from the late 1940s to the early 1970s, while migrants from Fujian province (previously Min Nan speakers, and increasingly more Min Zhong and Min Bei speakers) have constituted a large-growing number of migrants since 1978.[26]

Population of Hong Kong according to ethnic group 2011[27]
Ethnic
group
census 2001 by-census 2006 census 2011
Number  % Number  % Number  %
Chinese 6,364,439 94.9 6,522,148 95.0 6,320,393 92.6
Filipino 142,556 2.1 112,453 1.6 133,018 1.9
Indonesian 50,494 0.8 87,840 1.3 133,377 1.9
White 46,585 0.7 36,384 0.5 55,236 0.7
Others 20,835 0.3 20,264 0.3 30,336 0.4
Indian 18,543 0.3 20,444 0.3 28,616 0.4
Thai 14,342 0.2 11,900 0.2 11,213 0.2
Japanese 14,180 0.2 13,189 0.2 12,580 0.2
Other Asian 12,835 0.2 12,663 0.2 12,247 0.2
Nepalese 12,564 0.2 15,950 0.2 16,518 0.2
Pakistani 11,017 0.2 11,111 0.2 18,042 0.3
Total 6,708,389 6,864,346 7,071,576

Group category[edit]

Stanley Market, one of the more diverse destinations

The current list is in alphabetical order after category.

By Ethnicity

By Migration

Religion[edit]

People honouring gods in a dajiao celebration, the Cheung Chau Bun Festival.
Main article: Religion in Hong Kong

Religion in Hong Kong is variegated, although most of the Hong Kong people of Chinese descent practice the Chinese folk religion[14]—which comprehends also Confucian doctrines and Taoist ritual traditions—or Buddhism, mostly of the Chinese variety.

According to official statistics for the year 2010, about 50% of the utter population belongs to organised religions, specifically there are: 1.5 million Hong Kong Buddhists, 1 million Taoists, 480,000 Protestants, 353,000 Catholics, 220,000 Muslims, 40,000 Hindus, 10,000 Sikhs, and other smaller communities.[28] A significant amount of the adherents of non-indigenous Chinese religions, in some cases the majority, are Hong Kong people of non-Chinese descent.

The other half of the population mostly takes part in Chinese folk religions, which comprehend the worship of local gods and ancestors, in many cases not declaring this practice as a religious affiliation in surveys. The traditional Chinese religiosity, including Chinese Buddhism, was generally discouraged during the British rule over Hong Kong, which favoured Christianity.[14] With the end of the British rule and the handover of the sovereignty of the city-state to China, there has been a renewal of Buddhist and Chinese folk religions.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (PDF) 2011 Population Census – Summary Results (Report). Census and Statistics Department. February 2012. p. 37. http://www.census2011.gov.hk/pdf/summary-results.pdf. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  2. ^ "Immigration Autonomy". Immigration Department Annual Report 2009-2010. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Kelly, Margaret. Fodor's China. Fodor's Travel Publications, 2011. ISBN 0307480534, 9780307480538. p. 392.
  4. ^ Ng Lun, Ngai-ha. In: Ring, Trudy, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda (editors). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania (Volume 5 of International Dictionary of Historic Places, Trudy Ring, ISBN 1884964052, 9781884964053). Taylor & Francis, 1996. ISBN 1884964044, 9781884964046. p. 358.
  5. ^ Poon Angela and Jenny Wong, Struggling for Democracy Under China: The Implications of a Politicised 'Hongkongese' Identity http://www.civic-exchange.org/publications/Intern/2004-JennyandAngela.pdf
  6. ^ Sidney Cheung, Hong Kong Handover http://www.umich.edu/~iinet/journal/vol5no1/sidney2.html
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m William Frederick Mayers, Charles King (1867). The treaty ports of China and Japan: A complete guide to the open ports of those countries, together with Peking, Yedo, Hongkong and Macao. Forming a guide book & vade mecum for travellers, merchants, and residents in general. Trübner and Co. pp. vi; 17. 
  8. ^ a b c Sanderson, Edgar (1897–1898). The British Empire in the nineteenth century: its progress and expansion at home and abroad IV. London: Blackie and Son. p. 337. LCCN 02002538. OCLC 11625716. 
  9. ^ Census of Hongkong, 31 December 1853
  10. ^ The Hongkong Government Gazette, 28 September 1901
  11. ^ a b c Stanford, David. [2006] (2006). Roses in December. Lulu press. ISBN 1-84753-966-1
  12. ^ Sweeting, Anthony. [1990] (1990). Education in Hong Kong, pre-1841 to 1941. HK University Press. ISBN 962-209-258-6
  13. ^ a b R.G. Horsnall, "The MacIntosh Cathedrals", in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, Vol. 35, 1995, pp. 171-176
  14. ^ a b c d e Chan, Shun-hing. Leung, Beatrice. [2003] (2003). Changing Church and State Relations in Hong Kong, 1950-2000. Hong Kong: HK university press. Page 24. ISBN 962-209-612-3
  15. ^ Rees, Laurence. Iriye, Akira. [2002] (2002). Horror in the East: Japan and the Atrocities of WWII. Da Capo Preess. ISBN 0-306-81178-2
  16. ^ Manion, Melanie. [2004](2004). Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Harvard University press. ISBN 0-674-01486-3
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Table 001: Population by Sex. Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department website.
  18. ^ B.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics 1750-2005: Africa, Asia and Oceania
  19. ^ United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  20. ^ Census and Statistics Department of the Government of the Hong Kong SAR [1]
  21. ^ The fertility trend in Hong Kong 1981-2009
  22. ^ HK Census. "HK Census." Statistical Table of population. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  23. ^ HK Census. Hong Kong Census.
  24. ^ Ng Sek Hong (2010). Labour Law in Hong Kong. Kluwer Law International. p. 19. ISBN 978-90-411-3307-6. 
  25. ^ Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Ian Skoggard, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of diasporas: immigrant and refugee cultures around the world. Diaspora communities 2. Springer. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. 
  26. ^ Hu-DeHart, Evelyn (2006). Voluntary organizations in the Chinese Diaspora. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 122–125. ISBN 978-962-209-776-6. 
  27. ^ http://www.census2011.gov.hk/pdf/EM.pdf#Page=28
  28. ^ Hong Kong Government. 2010 Yearbook - Religion. Retrieved on 23-09-2012.

External links[edit]