Demographics of Houston
- 1 Population and households
- 2 Race and ethnic origins
- 3 Ethnoreligious groups
- 4 Language
- 5 National origin
- 6 LGBT people
- 7 Health
- 8 Politics
- 9 References
- 10 Notes
- 11 External links
Population and households
|City of Houston
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,953,631 people, 717,945 households, and 457,330 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,371.7 people per square mile (1,301.8/km²). There were 782,009 housing units at an average density of 1,349.6 per square mile (521.1/km²). If the city of Houston were a U.S. state, it would rank 36th in population—its 2.01 million residents in 2004 would place it behind Nevada and ahead of New Mexico. In 2005, the Greater Houston area had a population over 5.7 million.
There were 717,945 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3% were non-families. Twenty-nine percent of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.39. The median house price was $115,961 in 2009.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 33.8% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $36,616, and the median income for a family was $40,443. Males had a median income of $32,084 versus $27,371 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,101. Nineteen percent of the population and 16% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 26.1% of those under the age of 18 and 14.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Race and ethnic origins
Houston is a diverse and international city, in part because of its many academic institutions and strong biomedical, energy, manufacturing and aerospace industries. According to the U.S. Census 2000, the racial makeup of the city was 49.3% White (including Hispanic or Latino), 25.3% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 5.3% Asian, 0.1&% Pacific Islander, 16.5% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. 37% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
The Hispanic population in Houston is increasing as more immigrants from Latin American countries look for work in the area. As of 2006 the city has the third-largest Hispanic population in the United States. As of the same year Karl Eschbach, a University of Texas Medical Branch demographer, said that the best possible estimate for the number of illegal aliens in the Houston area was about 400,000. This influx of immigrants is partially responsible for Houston having a population younger than the national average.
As of 2011, the city is 44% Hispanic. As of 2011, of the city's U.S. citizens that are Hispanic, half are at voting age or older. Many Hispanics in Houston are not U.S. citizens, especially Hispanics living in Gulfton and Spring Branch. As a result, Hispanics have proportionally less representation in the municipal government than other ethnic groups. As of April 2011 two of the Houston City Council members are Hispanic, making up 18% of the council.
In 1985, Harris County had about 500,000 Hispanics. Eschbach said that, historically, Hispanics resided in specific Hispanic neighborhoods of Houston, such as Denver Harbor, the Houston Heights, Magnolia Park, and the Northside. Between 1985 and 2005 the county's Hispanic population tripled, with Hispanics making up about 40% of the county's residents. In most communities inside and outside of Beltway 8, Hispanics became the predominant ethnic group. Some communities in Greater Houston which still do not have Hispanics as the predominant ethnic group include expensive non-Hispanic white communities including Memorial, Uptown, and West University Place and historically African-American neighborhoods located south and northeast of Downtown Houston. Eschbach said "But even these core black and white neighborhoods are experiencing Hispanic inroads. Today, Hispanics live everywhere."
The 1990 U.S. Census stated that, of the adult Houstonians who use bicycles to get to work, 32% of them are Hispanic. In 1997, Hispanic men tended to use bicycles, while, due to Latin American social customs, Hispanic women tended to walk, use public buses, or stay in their houses.
In 1991, most Hispanic-owned businesses in Greater Houston involved industries with lower profits, such as construction, distribution, and services. The largest Hispanic-owned business was RioStar Corp., which operated Ninfa's. The business generating the highest number of sales was Solvents & Chemicals and Packaging Services of Pearland, Texas.
In 1995 about 100,000 immigrants from Central America resided in Houston. As of 2001, Hispanics were almost 38% of Houston's population and 8% of the city's voting electorate. As of the same year, most Hispanics and Latinos elected to public office in Houston are Mexican Americans who are members of the Democratic Party. Most Hispanics and Latinos in public office are politically liberal. Lori Rodriguez of the Houston Chronicle said in 2001 that "the top tier of Latino politicos mainly walk in lock step." According to Richard Murray, a political scientist of the Center for Public Policy of Rice University, the Hispanic middle class of 2001 is larger than in previous years, and that Hispanic voters are present in every Houston voting precinct, including River Oaks and Tanglewood.
In 2001 Orlando Sanchez made a bid to become Mayor of Houston. Lori Rodriguez of the Houston Chronicle said that this was the first well-funded and focused campaign for Houston mayor from a Hispanic person. Sanchez, a Cuban American, was a member of the Republican Party and politically conservative.
Around 2002 some Hispanics in Houston were converts to Islam. They said that many people mistake them to be of Pakistani or Middle Eastern origin because they are Muslim.
In a period before 2005 many Hispanic and Latino Americans had moved into traditional African American neighborhoods. Between 1990 and 2000 the numbers of Hispanic and Latino Americans in Kashmere Gardens, South Park, Sunnyside, and the Third Ward increased. After Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans in 2005, many ethnic Hondurans moved to Houston.
In 2007 most of the Hispanic and Latino political power was Mexican American, of the Democratic Party, and concentrated in eastern Houston. Many of the most vocal Hispanic and Latino leaders who participated in immigration rallies were of Central American origin and originated from Southwest Houston.
By 2011 the new city council District J formed in order to allow Hispanics in Houston to more easily elect representatives that cater to them. Though, a large majority of Hispanics are from Mexico, there is also increasingly significant number of Hispanics hailing from El Salvador, Puerto Rico, Honduras, Guatemala, Cuba, and Nicaragua.
When Houston was first settled, it had relatively few Mexican Americans. Mexican migration into Houston increased with the expansion of the railroad system and the installation of Porfirio Díaz as the President of Mexico. In the early 20th century the population further increased due to the 1910 Mexican Revolution, the use of enganchadores (labor agents), unemployment of Mexican-Americans in rural areas, a labor shortage during World War I. and the lack of immigration restrictions during the 1920s.
In the book Ethnicity in the Sunbelt: A History of Mexican Americans in Houston, author Arnoldo De León described the relationship between Houston Mexican-Americans and newly arrived immigrants from Mexico. De León said that the traditional residents disliked how they believed that the new immigrants were giving the Mexican-American community in Houston a bad reputation but added that that, at the same time, the new immigrants kept the entire community in touch with the Mexican community.
Since the mid-1990s changes in immigration from Cuba to the United States occurred due to the wet feet, dry feet policy and other policy changes; many Cubans immigrated through Mexico and people who did not have relatives in Miami settled in Houston; this caused an expansion of Houston's Cuban American community. In 2013 Peter Stranges, the supervisor of refugee services of the Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston said that often Cuban refugees arrive with no possessions other than immigration documents and the clothes they are wearing.
From May 2012 to February 17, 2013, counselors at the refugee services office of the Galveston-Houston Catholic charities assisted 450 Cuban immigrants coming to the Houston area. Stranges said "We used to see two or three [Cubans] a week, and we've started seeing groups of 25 or 30 at a time and there were weeks when we have 60 border crossers coming to our offices. It's unprecedented. What's challenging is we don't want to turn down anyone who comes to our doors, so we've really scrambled to come up with a team to handle this surge."
South East/East Asian Americans
In 1910 30 Asians lived in Houston. 20 were Japanese and 10 were Chinese.
According to a 2002 survey of 500 Asian Americans in Harris County overseen by Stephen Klineberg, a professor at Rice University, Asian immigrants have substantially lower household income than Anglo residents and other immigrant groups, while they have higher levels of education.
In 2007 Houston had 16,000 Asian American businesses. A 2006 U.S. Census Bureau report stated that the annual revenues of those businesses totaled to $5.5 billion ($6368851105.98 in today's money).
According to the American Community Survey, as of 2013, Greater Houston (Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown metropolitan area) has 72,320 residents of Chinese origin. That year, Air China announced that it would begin nonstop service from Beijing to Houston. Xu Erwen (许尔文), the consul general of the Consulate-General of China in Houston, said that the new flight "means a lot" to Houston's Chinese population. Southern News Group, a publishing business owned by a Chinese-American, has its headquarters in Houston.
In 2000 the estimate of the Chinese-American population in Houston was 24,000. Moises Mendoza of the Houston Chronicle said in 2010 that "the population is thought to have grown by tens of thousands" since the 2000 estimate.
A significant number of African immigrants have made the Houston area home. As of 2003 Houston does not have as many African immigrants as Hispanic and Asian immigrants. The African immigrants in Houston have higher education levels than other immigrant groups. According to Stephen Klineberg, a sociology professor at Rice University, as of 2003, almost 35% of African immigrants have university degrees, and 28% of African immigrants have postgraduate degrees. In the Houston area, 28% of US-born Whites have university degrees, and 16% have postgraduate degrees.
Charles W. Corey of the U.S. Department of State said that it has been estimated that Greater Houston has the largest Nigerian expatriate population in the United States.  As of 2003 Houston has 23,000 Nigerian Americans. Many Nigerian Americans move to Houston due to the warmer climate and the ease of establishing businesses. Until Continental Airlines began nonstop flights to Lagos from George Bush Intercontinental Airport in November 2011, many Nigerians had to fly through Europe to travel between Texas and Nigeria. Jenalia Moreno of the Houston Chronicle said that the Nigerian community and the energy companies in Houston have attempted to get a flight to Nigeria for a long time.
South Asian Americans
Harris County had almost 36,000 Indian Americans as of the 2000 Census. The population had a $53,000 ($71844.44 in today's money) median yearly household income, $11,000 ($14911.11 in today's money) more than the county average. Almost 65% of the Indian Americans in Harris County had university and college degrees, compared to 18% of all of the Harris County population. Indian Americans in Fort Bend County, as of the same census, numbered at almost 13,000 and had a median annual income of $84,000 ($113866.67 in today's money). 62% of Indian Americans in Fort Bend County had university and college degrees, compared to 25% of all residents of Fort Bend County. An estimate from the 2009 American Community Survey stated that Harris County had 46,125 Indian Americans and that Fort Bend County had 25,104 Indian Americans. Katharine Shilcutt of the Houston Press said that the high education and income levels of Indian Americans caused businesses in the Mahatma Gandhi District, an Indian American ethnic enclave in Houston, to thrive.
Half a dozen Indian American and Pakistani American newspapers are offered in stores and restaurants. The publications include India Herald and the Voice of Asia. The city has Masala Radio, a South Asian radio station. Indian singers often make tour stops in Houston. The Bollywood 6 movie theater on Texas State Highway 6 plays Indian films. The Houston area has Indian dance schools, including the Abhinaya School of Performing Arts and the Shri Natraj School of Dance.
In 1971 the Bangladeshi American community in Greater Houston consisted of about 10 university students; 1971 was the year when Bangladesh seceded from Pakistan. As of 2011 the Bangladeshi American population of Greater Houston includes over 10,000 people. The Bangladesh Association bought 4 acres (1.6 ha) of land in southwestern unincorporated Harris County in 2001. By 2011 the association announced plans to develop the $2.5 million ($2594304.73 in today's money) facility Bangladeshi American Center, which will include auditoriums, classrooms, a playground, and an outdoor sports complex.
White Americans of northern and western European origin, particularly those of German and British origins, founded the City of Houston. Roberto R. Treviño, author of The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston, said that German Americans "historically played a central role in Houston, far outnumbering other whites such as the British, Irish, Canadians, French, Czechs, Poles, and Scandinavian groups who historically have comprised a smaller part of the city's ethnic mosaic." In 1910 members of White American groups who founded Houston numerically outnumbered other ethnic groups who had arrived in Houston. German settlers had settled Spring Branch, a community which would later become a part of Houston, in the 1800s.
By the 1970s, white flight occurred in Houston. The city government used annexation as a strategy to mitigate White flight by forcefully annexing areas where White Americans moved to. Between the 1970-1971 and the 1971-1972 school years, enrollment at the Houston Independent School District decreased by 16,000. Of that number, 700 were African Americans.
An analysis of the 2000 U.S. Census of the University of Houston Center for Public Policy by demographers Max Beauregard and Karl Eschbach said that white flight continued to occur in the 1990s. In the decade prior to the 2000 U.S. Census, White Americans left communities within Houston such as Alief, Aldine, Fondren Southwest, Gulfton, and Sharpstown. Other communities in Houston that lost large numbers of Whites by the 2000 census include Inwood Forest, Northline, Northside, and Spring Branch. Communities in other parts of Greater Houston that lost large numbers of Whites include Channelview, Cloverleaf, Galena Park, and Pasadena. Lori Rodriguez said, regarding the movement of white people in Greater Houston leading up to the year 2000, "Picture a stone dropped on the urban core and ripples of people spreading from within the Loop to the second-ring suburbs between the Loop and Beltway 8; and then beyond, to the outer-ring settlements and even unincorporated perimeter; Kingwood, The Woodlands, FM 1960."
In the period between the 1990 and 2000 censuses, the largest growth of non-Hispanic White Americans within Greater Houston occurred in mostly-White communities such as Clear Lake City, Kingwood, northwest Harris County, the FM 1960 corridor, and The Woodlands.
Historically Houston has had a significant African American population. From the 1870s to the 1890s, black people were almost 40% of Houston's population. Between 1910 and 1970 the black population ranged from 21% to 32.7%.
Historically the City of Houston placed most of its landfill facilities in African-American neighborhoods. All of the landfills were established after the neighborhoods they were located in had been established as black communities. Private companies also located landfills in black neighborhoods. Between the early 1920s and the late 1970s the five municipal sanitary landfills were in black neighborhoods. During the same period, six of the eight municipal solid waste incinerators resided in mostly black neighborhoods. From 1970 to 1978 three of the four private landfills established during that period were located in Houston black neighborhoods.
Around that era African-Americans made up around 25% of the city's population. Houston City Council, which decided where the landfills would be located, was entirely composed of white people until 1972. The political efforts and advocacy behind a 1979 federal lawsuit regarding one proposed landfill lead to political changes that ended the deliberate placement of landfills in black neighborhoods.
As of 1987 most African-Americans in Houston continued to live in mostly black neighborhoods, even though they gained the legal right to move to a neighborhood of any race. A University of Chicago researcher said that this is because many African Americans choose to live in neighborhoods where they were raised.
From the 1980 U.S. Census to the 1990 U.S. Census, many African-Americans left traditional African-American neighborhoods such as the MacGregor area, Settegast, Sunnyside, and the Third Ward and entered parts of Southwest Houston, such as Alief, Fondren Southwest, Sharpstown, and Westwood.
As of 1997, African-Americans typically constituted less than 25% of the electorate of the City of Houston. For the election of Mayor of Houston Lee P. Brown, blacks may have made up over 33% of the turnout. Brown won 90% or more in African American neighborhoods.
African Americans tend to be the main clientele of Houston's "you buy, we fry" fish restaurants. As of 2004, the city's highest concentration of those restaurants is in the Third Ward, an African American neighborhood.
By of 2005 the outflow from traditional black neighborhoods, such as the Third Ward, Sunnyside, Kashmere Gardens, and the Fifth Ward continued, with blacks moving to Alief, other parts of Southwest Houston, Missouri City, and northwestern suburbs. Around 2005 blacks began to move to an area around Farm to Market Road 1960, in an unincorporated area in Harris County. In many traditional black neighborhoods, Hispanics and Latinos moved in their place.
An additional 150,000 to 200,000 mostly black evacuees arrived in 2005 from New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, with many of them deciding to stay.
European residents and immigrants
In the late 19th and early 20th century Houston received Eastern and Southern European immigrants; as in other southern cities, Houston's European immigrants were "overflow" from cities in the eastern seaboard and the Midwestern United States which received larger numbers of Eastern and Southern Europeans. In 1910 Houston had groups of Austro-Hungarians, Greeks, Italians, Russians, and Europeans from other groups. Those groups were smaller than Houston's group of Mexican-Americans. By 1930 Houston had 8,339 first and second generation Eastern and Southern European people in Houston. This was almost half of the size of Houston's Mexican American population.
Lasse Sigurd Seim, the consul general of the Norwegian Consulate General, Houston, described the estimated 5,000–6,000 Norwegians in the Houston area around 2008 as the largest concentration of Norwegians outside of Scandinavia. Jenalia Moreno of the Houston Chronicle said during that year that the influx of Norwegians into Greater Houston was "relatively new." Seim said that in the late 1800s, of all of the ports in the United States, with the exception of Ellis Island in New York City, more Norwegians arrived at the port of Galveston than any other port. Many of the Norwegians who were processed through Galveston migrated to Minnesota and other areas in the Midwestern United States.
Annette Baird of the Houston Chronicle said that, as of December 2000, the number of British citizens in Greater Houston was estimated to be over 40,000. Grainne O'Reilly-Askew, the first headmistress of the British School of Houston, said that before the school was established, British companies encountered difficulty in convincing their executives to relocate to Greater Houston, since the area previously did not have a school using the British educational system. John Major, the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, attended the school's official opening.
Since the 1970s, when Houston began absorbing refugees after the Fall of Saigon, Houston became a magnet for refugee resettlement. About 1,600 refugees arrive at George Bush Intercontinental Airport per year. Refugees from Afghanistan, Bhutan, El Salvador, Cuba, Iraq, Myanmar, and Somalia have settled in Houston; Burundians from Rwanda have also settled in Houston. Over the three years leading to 2009, Houston took about 2,200 Burmese.
As of around 1987 about 42,000 Jews lived in Greater Houston. In 2008 Irving N. Rothman, author of The Barber in Modern Jewish Culture: A Genre of People, Places, and Things, with Illustrations, wrote that Houston "has a scattered Jewish populace and not a large enough population of Jews to dominate any single neighborhood" and that the city's "hub of Jewish life" is the Meyerland community.
In the 2000 U.S. Census, 938,123 residents of the City of Houston said that they spoke English only. The largest foreign languages in Houston included Spanish and Spanish creole (679,292 speakers), Vietnamese (26,125 speakers), Chinese (24,234 speakers), African indigenous languages (11,603 speakers), and Urdu of Pakistan (10,669 speakers). Percentages of the non-English groups who said that they spoke English at least "very well" include 42% of the Spanish speakers, 32% of the Vietnamese speakers, 49% of the Chinese speakers, 72% of the speakers of indigenous African languages, and 70% of the speakers of Urdu.
In 2000, 1,961,993 residents of Harris County spoke English only. The five largest foreign languages in the county were Spanish or Spanish Creole (1,106,883 speakers), Vietnamese (53,311 speakers), Chinese (33,003 speakers), French including Cajun and Patois (33,003 speakers), and Urdu of Pakistan (14,595 speakers). Percentages of language groups who said that they spoke English at least "very well" include 46% of Spanish speakers, 37% of Vietnamese speakers, 50% of Chinese speakers, 85% of French speakers, and 72% of Urdu speakers.
As of 2011, 21.94% of Greater Houston residents were born in another country. The percentage is the fifth largest in Texas.
Before the 1970s, the city's gay bars were spread around Downtown Houston and what is now Midtown Houston. Gays and lesbians needed to have a place to socialize after the closing of the gay bars. They began going to Art Wren, a 24 hour restaurant in Montrose. Around the time Montrose mainly included empty nesters and widows. Homosexuals became attracted to Montrose as a neighborhood after encountering it while patronizing Art Wren, and they began to gentrify the neighborhood and assist the widows with the maintenance of their houses. Within Montrose new gay bars began to appear. By 1985, the flavor and politics of the neighborhood were heavily influenced by the LGBT community. At the time 19% of the residents of Montrose were homosexual.
By 2011 many homosexual people moved to the Houston Heights and to suburbs in Greater Houston, and less than 8% of Montrose's population was gay. Decentralizing of Houston's homosexual population and the increasing acceptance of homosexuality in the city of Houston and in society in general caused business at gay bars in Montrose to decline.
In 2010 the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston released a Health of Houston Survey. Based on the survey results, 20% of area residents consider themselves to be in poor or fair health. Half of the Houston area residents do not have dental insurance. The area's percentage of individuals who report having psychiatric distress is twice the U.S. national average. Of the racial groups, after excluding illegal immigrants, Hispanics have the lowest rates of health insurance.
Allen Turner of the Houston Chronicle said that residents of Harris County were "consistently conservative in elections" and that they were, according to a Rice University Kinder Institute for Urban Research opinion poll, "surprisingly liberal on topics such as immigration, gun control and equal matrimonial rights for same-sex couples".
- Bell, Roselyn. "Houston." In: Tigay, Alan M. (editor) The Jewish Traveler: Hadassah Magazine's Guide to the World's Jewish Communities and Sights. Rowman & Littlefield, January 1, 1994. p. 215-220. ISBN 1568210787, 9781568210780.
- Rothman, Irving N. The Barber in Modern Jewish Culture: A Genre of People, Places, and Things, with Illustrations. Edwin Mellen Press, August 14, 2008.
- Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. Campbell Gibson, Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau. Published June 1998. Last accessed January 11, 2007.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Demographics. Greater Houston Partnership
- Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2005 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 (SUB-EST2005-01). United States Census Bureau
- Post-Census Population Change: Houston is growing faster than the state and the nation. Greater Houston Partnership
- "Houston Housing Trends and Values". HouseAlmanac.com. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- De Mangin, Charles. "Neighborhood charts its course." Houston Chronicle. Thursday November 14, 2002. Retrieved on October 27, 2011.
- Gardner, David. "Revealed: The maps that show the racial breakdown of America’s biggest cities." Daily Mail. September 26, 2010. Retrieved on November 12, 2011.
- Hegstrom, Edward. Shadows cloaking immigrants prevent accurate count. Houston Chronicle (February 21, 2006).
- Casey, Rick. "City Hall Latino win may end up as a loss instead." Houston Chronicle. April 28, 2011. Retrieved on June 6, 2011.
- Rodriguez, Lori. "Targeting Spanish-speaking riders, Taxis Fiesta's business blossoms as Hispanic communities spread across the city / Latino growth drives cab boom." Houston Chronicle. Monday November 28, 2005. B1 MetFront. Retrieved on December 31, 2011. "Since 1985, said Eschbach, the Hispanic population has tripled, and now two of every five Harris County residents are Hispanic. Hispanics are becoming the dominant population group in most areas out to and past Beltway 8. The exceptions are the historically black neighborhoods northeast and south of downtown and high-dollar white communities from West University Place through Uptown and Memorial."
- Kolker, Claudia. "Carless in Houston/POVERTY'S RIDE/For some, bicycling sole means of transportation." Houston Chronicle. Wednesday June 18, 1997. A1. Retrieved on December 31, 2011.
- Boisseau, Charles. "Hispanic companies thriving/Houston has 26 of top 500 firms." Houston Chronicle. Friday May 31, 1991. Business 1. Retrieved on February 6, 2012.
- Morris, Jim. "EASY PREY/LIFE ON THE THE EDGE/ The powerless often are forced into apartments that defy city housing codes and, in some cases, belief." Houston Chronicle. Sunday March 26, 1995. A1. Retrieved on December 30, 2011.
- Rodriguez, Lori. "Sanchez's mayoral bid targets disparate voters." Houston Chronicle. Sunday October 7, 2001. A1. Retrieved on October 27, 2011.
- Dooley, Tara. "Muslims gain Hispanic converts." Houston Chronicle at The Victoria Advocate. Saturday September 28, 2002. 2D and 3D. Retrieved from Google Books (45-46 of 51) on November 9, 2011.
- Rodriguez, Lori. "SHIFTING DEMOGRAPHICS / Latinos bringing change to black neighborhoods / Newcomers are finding acceptance comes gradually." Houston Chronicle. Monday May 2, 2005. A1. Retrieved on February 4, 2009.
- Schilcutt, Katharine. "Honduras in Houston." Houston Press. Thursday August 19, 2010. Retrieved on August 23, 2010.
- Garza, Cynthia Leonor. "Latinos' political power hasn't matched growth." Houston Chronicle. Sunday August 19, 2007. 2. Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
- Shauk, Zain. "Hispanic-opportunity district draws three candidates." Houston Chronicle. Friday October 14, 2011. Retrieved on November 4, 2011. (Refer to image, Archive)
- Treviño, Robert R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. UNC Press Books, February 27, 2006. 15. Retrieved from Google Books on November 22, 2011. ISBN 0-8078-5667-3, ISBN 978-0-8078-5667-3.
- Treviño, Robert R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. UNC Press Books, February 27, 2006. 26. Retrieved from Google Books on November 22, 2011. ISBN 0-8078-5667-3, ISBN 978-0-8078-5667-3.
- Treviño, Robert R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. UNC Press Books, February 27, 2006. 28. Retrieved from Google Books on November 22, 2011. ISBN 0-8078-5667-3, ISBN 978-0-8078-5667-3.
- Walsh, Robb. "The Authenticity Myth." Houston Press. October 26, 2000. Retrieved on November 16, 2009.
- Cobb, Russell and Paul Knight. "Immigration: Cubans Enter U.S. at Texas-Mexico Border." Houston Press. January 8, 2008. 1. Retrieved on December 11, 2009.
- Pinkerton, James. "Hundreds of Cuban immigrants finding a welcome in Houston." (Print: "[www.pressdisplay.com/pressdisplay/viewer.aspx?issue=12102013021700000000001001&page=1&article=268b0519-2a9d-47ee-bdc0-fb99935ae921&key=8bTUiHaymMBIzLSOp1kyaQ%3D%3D&feed=rss Houston an isle of hope to Cubans].") Houston Chronicle. February 17, 2013. A1 Front Page. Retrieved on February 22, 2013.
- Money Smart Press Release. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
- Power Speaks Spanish in Texas. Puerto Rico Herald
- Treviño, Robert R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. UNC Press Books, February 27, 2006. 29. Retrieved from Google Books on November 22, 2011. ISBN 0-8078-5667-3, ISBN 978-0-8078-5667-3.
- "Number Crunching." PBS Newshour. August 25, 1998. Retrieved on March 17, 2012.
- Snyder, Mike. "Survey provides insight into Chinese community." Houston Chronicle. October 2, 2002. Retrieved on April 22, 2013.
- Aqui, Reggie (2004-12-27). "Houston's connection to Indonesian earthquake victims". KHOU-TV.
- Moreno, Jenalia. "Houston's 'Chinatown' near Beltway 8 sparks banking boom." Houston Chronicle. Sunday February 18, 2007. Retrieved on October 16, 2011.
- Harkinson, Josh. "Tale of Two Cities." Houston Press. Thursday December 15, 2005. 2. Retrieved on March 17, 2012.
- " 许尔文总领事会见波多黎各总督." (Archive) Consulate-General of China in Houston. Retrieved on April 21, 2013.
- Collier, Kiah. "It's official: Air China to begin flights to Beijing." Houston Chronicle. January 15, 2013. Retrieved on April 21, 2013.
- Mendoza, Moises. "With a roar, Houstonians ring in Chinese New Year." Houston Chronicle. February 14, 2010. Retrieved on April 22, 2013.
- Quiroz, Erica. "Chinese community pioneer Gee remembered for helping others." Houston Chronicle. September 8, 2012. Retrieved on April 22, 2013.
- Corey, Charles W. "Houston Looking to Expand a "Natural" Relationship with Africa." U.S. State Department. November 21, 2003. Retrieved on December 11, 2009.
- Romero, Simon. "Energy of Africa Draws the Eyes of Houston." The New York Times. September 23, 2003. . Retrieved on October 24, 2011.
- Lawal, Lateef. "United Continental Launches Inaugural Flight Between Houston-Lagos." Eagle News Nigeriana at OfficialWire. November 17, 2011. Retrieved on November 17, 2011.
- Moreno, Jenalia. "Houston gets first scheduled nonstop flight to Africa." Houston Chronicle. Tuesday November 15, 2011. Retrieved on November 17, 2011.
- Shilcut, Katharine. "Little India." Houston Press. Wedmesday May 25, 2011. 1. Retrieved on May 26, 2011.
- Shilcut, Katharine. "Little India." Houston Press. Wedmesday May 25, 2011. 4. Retrieved on May 26, 2011.
- Christian, Carol. "Bangladeshis plan SW Harris center More than 10,000 from ex-East Pakistan live in Houston." Houston Chronicle. June 2, 2011. Retrieved on June 3, 2011. "As envisioned, the $2.5 million facility at 13145 Renn Road in southwest Harris County will have an auditorium and classrooms as well as an outdoor sports complex and playground."
- Spring Branch, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
- "City bucks the trend Others dying, Houston thrives." Associated Press at the Southeast Missourian. January 18, 1975. Page 4. Retrieved from Google Books (8 of 17) on November 3, 2011.
- "White flight accompanies integration." Associated Press at the The Telegraph-Herald. Monday January 17, 1972. 6 Retrieved from Google Books (6 of 38) on October 3, 2011.
- Rodriguez, Lori. "THE CENSUS / Census study: White flight soars / UH analysis spots segregation trend." Houston Chronicle. Sunday April 15, 2001. A1. Retrieved on December 30, 2011.
- Finkel, Adam N. Worst Things First?: The Debate Over Risk-Based National Environmental Priorities. Resources for the Future, 1995. 249. Retrieved from Google Books on October 6, 2011. ISBN 0-915707-76-4, ISBN 978-0-915707-76-8
- Gaventa, John, Barbara E. Smith, and Alex W. Willingham. Communities in Economic Crisis: Appalachia and the South. Temple University Press, 1990. 196. Retrieved from Google Books on October 6, 2011. ISBN 0-87722-650-4, ISBN 978-0-87722-650-5.
- Gaventa, John, Barbara E. Smith, and Alex W. Willingham. Communities in Economic Crisis: Appalachia and the South. Temple University Press, 1990. 197. Retrieved from Google Books on October 6, 2011. ISBN 0-87722-650-4, ISBN 978-0-87722-650-5.
- Greene, Andrea D. "Residents of black areas cite reasons for not moving out." Houston Chronicle. Wednesday December 30, 1987. Section 1, Page 16. Retrieved on January 13, 2011.
- Rodriguez, Lori. "Census tracks rapid growth of suburbia." Houston Chronicle. Sunday March 10, 1991. Section A, Page 1. Retrieved on October 23, 2011.
- Fleck, Tim. "The Insider." Houston Press. Thursday November 13, 1997. 1. Retrieved on November 5, 2011.
- Walsh, Robb. "Southern-Fried Asian to Go." Houston Press. Thursday August 5, 2004. 1. Retrieved on January 20, 2012.
- Moreno, Jenalia. "For Norway, Houston is Oslo on the bayou / Many from Scandinavian nation, which has a major oil industry, are finding opportunities in Texas." Houston Chronicle. Sunday August 17, 2008. Business 1. Retrieved on February 11, 2009.
- Lezon, Dale. "Energy, space draw Russian consulate here." Houston Chronicle. May 26, 2004. A21 MetFront. Retrieved on February 11, 2009.
- Baird, Annette. "British school to expand to accommodate demand." Houston Chronicle. Wednesday December 20, 2000. ThisWeek 2. Retrieved on December 9, 2010.
- Staff. "A major opening." Houston Chronicle. Thursday September 21, 2000. A36. Retrieved on December 9, 2010.
- Giglio, Mike. "The Burmese Come to Houston." Houston Press. September 1, 2009. 1. Retrieved on December 19, 2009.
- Bell, p. 217.
- Rothman, p. 358.
- Rodriguez, Lori. "TRANSLATING A NEED / Language barriers / Immigrants see English as vital, but work, family limit time to learn." Houston Chronicle. Monday September 18, 2006. A1. Retrieved on December 30, 2011.
- Pulsinelli, Olivia. "Nearly 22% of Houston residents are immigrants, study shows." Houston Business Journal. October 16, 2012. Retrieved on November 9, 2013.
- Oaklander, Mandy. "The Mayor of Montrose." Houston Press. Wednesday May 18, 2011. 1. Retrieved on May 18, 2011.
- Oaklander, Mandy. "The Mayor of Montrose." Houston Press. Wednesday May 18, 2011. 2. Retrieved on May 18, 2011.
- Oaklander, Mandy. "The Mayor of Montrose." Houston Press. Wednesday May 18, 2011. 4. Retrieved on May 18, 2011. '"Gay bars used to be places where we had to go to get refuge because we were not welcome anywhere else," he says. "Well, guess what? There's nowhere we're not welcome anymore."'
- Ackerman, Todd. "Survey finds Houstonian health worse than national average." Houston Chronicle. Monday November 7, 2011. Retrieved on November 7, 2011. Map. (Image archive)
- Turner, Allen. "Survey finds area growing in 'tolerant traditionalists'." Houston Chronicle. April 24, 2013. Retrieved on April 25, 2013.
- Houston demographics - Greater Houston Partnership - Houston.org
- Health of Houston Survey 2010 - University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
- City of Houston page on demographic information
- Houston demographics at University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire
- Fountain, Ken. "Ethnicity, economy highlight Houston area survey results." The Examiner. Saturday April 23, 2011.
- "Houston Region Grows More Racially/Ethnically Diverse, With Small Declines in Segregation A Joint Report Analyzing Census Data from 1990, 2000, and 2010." (Archive) Rice University Kinder Institute for Urban Research