Demographics of Indonesia

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The population of Indonesia according to the 2010 national census is 237.6 million,[1][2] with 58% living on the island of Java,[1] the world's most populous island.[3]

Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since the 1967,[4] Indonesia's population is projected to surpass USA and become the biggest after China and India by 2043.[citation needed] For the decade ending in 2010, Indonesia's population growth was 1.49 percent. Some say family planning should be revitalized based on the 1967 program to avoid Indonesia becoming the world's third most populous country, but this aim has faced a hurdle of religiously-based opinion that to follow family planning is equivalent to not being grateful to God.[5]

Indonesia includes numerous ethnic, cultural and linguistic groups, some of which are related to each other. Since independence, Indonesian (a form of Malay and official national language) is the language of most written communication, education, government, and business. Many local ethnic languages are the first language of most Indonesians and still important.

Population[edit]

Historical population of Indonesia
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1971 119,208,229 —    
1980 147,490,298 +2.39%
1990 179,378,946 +1.98%
2000 206,264,595 +1.41%
2010 237,641,326 +1.43%
Source: Statistics Indonesia[6]

Population by province[edit]

Province Population In Cities (%)
Aceh 4,486,570 23.6
North Sumatra 12,985,075 42.4
West Sumatra 4,845,998 29.0
Riau 5,543,031 43.7
Jambi 3,088,618 28.3
South Sumatra 7,446,401 34.4
Bengkulu 1,713,393 29.4
Lampung 7,596,115 21.0
Bangka Belitung 1,223,048 43.0
Riau Islands 1,685,698 67.4
Banten 10,644,030 52.2
Jakarta 9,588,198 100.0
West Java 43,021,826 50.3
Central Java 32,380,687 40.4
Yogyakarta 3,452,390 57.7
East Java 37,476,011 40.9
Bali 3,891,428 49.8
West Nusa Tenggara 4,496,855 34.8
East Nusa Tenggara 4,679,316 15.9
West Kalimantan 4,393,239 25.1
Central Kalimantan 2,202,599 27.5
South Kalimantan 3,626,119 36.3
East Kalimantan 3,550,586 57.6
North Sulawesi 2,265,937 37.0
Gorontalo 1,038,585 25.5
Central Sulawesi 2,633,420 19.7
South Sulawesi 8,032,551 29.4
Southeast Sulawesi 2,230,569 20.8
West Sulawesi 1,158,336 --
Maluku 1,531,402 25.9
North Maluku 1,035,478 29.5
Papua 2,851,999 22.2
West Papua 760,855 --
Source: Population Census 2010[1]

Largest cities[edit]

 
Largest cities or towns of Indonesia
Statistics Indonesia (2010)[7]
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
Jakarta
Jakarta
Surabaya
Surabaya
1 Jakarta Jakarta 9,588,198 11 South Tangerang Banten 1,290,322 Bandung
Bandung
Bekasi
Bekasi
2 Surabaya East Java 2,765,487 12 Bogor West Java 950,334
3 Bandung West Java 2,394,873 13 Batam Riau Islands 944,285
4 Bekasi West Java 2,334,871 14 Pekanbaru Riau 897,767
5 Medan North Sumatra 2,097,610 15 Bandar Lampung Lampung 881,801
6 Tangerang Banten 1,798,601 16 Padang West Sumatra 833,562
7 Depok West Java 1,738,570 17 Malang East Java 820,243
8 Semarang Central Java 1,555,984 18 Denpasar Bali 788,589
9 Palembang South Sumatra 1,455,284 19 Samarinda East Kalimantan 727,500
10 Makassar South Sulawesi 1,338,663 20 Tasikmalaya West Java 635,464

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[8][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 3,347,000 1,933,000 1,414,000 42.7 24.7 18.0 5.49 191.9
1955–1960 3,897,000 1,888,000 2,009,000 44.8 21.7 23.1 5.67 163.8
1960–1965 4,280,000 1,820,000 2,461,000 43.7 18.6 25.1 5.62 139.3
1965–1970 4,628,000 1,768,000 2,860,000 41.6 15.9 25.7 5.57 117.4
1970–1975 4,842,000 1,691,000 3,151,000 38.4 13.4 25.0 5.30 98.9
1975–1980 4,985,000 1,630,000 3,356,000 35.0 11.4 23.6 4.73 83.2
1980–1985 5,065,000 1,590,000 3,475,000 31.8 10.0 21.8 4.11 69.8
1985–1990 4,853,000 1,555,000 3,298,000 27.5 8.8 18.7 3.40 58.5
1990–1995 4,702,000 1,547,000 3,155,000 24.5 8.1 16.4 2.90 49.1
1995–2000 4,518,000 1,564,000 2,954,000 21.9 7.6 14.3 2.55 41.1
2000–2005 4,638,000 1,620,000 3,018,000 21.0 7.4 13.7 2.38 34.5
2005–2010 4,464,000 1,692,000 2,772,000 19.1 7.2 11.9 2.19 28.8
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births
Average population (in millions) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
2003 213,6 13.4 2.3
2004 216,4 13.3 2.3
2005 219,8 13.2 2.2
2006 222,7 13.0 2.2
2007 225,6 12.8 2.18
2008 228,5 12.5 2.17
2009 231,4 12.2 2.16
2010 238,5 13.2 2.39
2011 241,0 13.2 2,37
2012 244,2 13.1 2,35

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[9]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1981-1983 4,3
1984-1987 3,3
1988-1991 25,1 3,02 24,0 2,6 25,6 3,24
2002-2003 21,9 2,6 22,1 2,4 21,7 2,7
2007 20,9 2,6 20,2 2,3 21,5 2,8
2012 20,4 2,6 20,1 2,4 20,7 2,8

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups Percentage
Javanese
  
42.65%
Sundanese
  
15.41%
Malay
  
3.45%
Madurese
  
3.37%
Batak
  
3.02%
Minangkabau
  
2.72%
Betawi
  
2.51%
Bugis
  
2.49%
Bantenese
  
2.05%
Banjarese
  
1.74%
Balinese
  
1.51%
Tionghoa
  
1.20%
Makassarese
  
0.99%

There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia. 95% of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry. Javanese is the biggest one with 100 million people (42%), followed by Sundanese who amount to nearly 40 million (15%).

Religions[edit]

Main article: Religion in Indonesia

Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation, with almost 87.18% of Indonesians declaring Muslim in the 2010 census.[10] 9.87% of the population is Christian (of which more than 70% are Protestant), 1.69% are Hindu, 0.72% Buddhist, and 0.56 other. Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese[11] and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are Tionghoa.[12]

Languages[edit]

Indonesian is the official language but there are many different languages native to Indonesia. According to Ethnologue, there are currently 737 living languages,[13] the most widely spoken being Javanese languages.

A number of Chinese dialects, most prominently Min Nan, are also spoken. The public use of Chinese, especially Chinese characters, was officially discouraged between 1966 and 1998.

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over and can read and write
total population: 92.81%
male: 95.5%
female: 90.4% (2011 est.)

Education is not free; however, it is compulsory for children through to grade 9. Although about 92% of eligible children are enrolled in primary school, a much smaller percentage attends full-time. About 44% of secondary school-age children attend junior high school, and some others of this age group attend vocational schools.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook,[14] unless otherwise indicated.

Age structure

0-14 years: 27.7% (male 34,276,146/female 33,094,836)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 80,806,409/female 80,065,855)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 6,504,559/female 8,220,537) (2010 est.)
0-14 years: 27.3% (male 34,165,213/female 32,978,841)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 82,104,636/female 81,263,055)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 6,654,695/female 8,446,603) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 27.9 years
male: 27.4 years
female: 28.4 years (2010 est.)
total: 28.2 years
male: 27.7 years
female: 28.7 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

1.097% (2010 est.)
1.04% (2012 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 44% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 71.05 years
male: 68.53 years
female: 73.69 years (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2007 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 270,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS deaths: 8,700 (2007 est.)

Nationality

noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups: Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)

Religions

Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)

Languages

Indonesian (official, a form of Malay influenced from other languages in Indonesia), local languages (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese).

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2005)

Education expenditures

3.6% of GDP (2006)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]