Demographics of Iran

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Changes in population of Iran

Iran's population increased dramatically during the later half of the 20th century, reaching about 75 million by 2011.[1][2] In recent years, however, Iran's birth rate has dropped significantly.[dubious ] Studies project that Iran's rate of population growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 100 million by 2050.[3][4] More than half of Iran's population is under 35 years old (2012).[5]

In 2009, the number of households stood at 15.3 million (4.8 person/household).[6] According to the Central Bank of Iran in 2012, in 22.5 per cent of Iranian families, all family members were unemployed.[7] Families earn some 11.8 million rials (some $960) ) per month on the average (2012).[8]

According to the OECD/World Bank statistics population growth in Iran from 1990 to 2008 was 17.6 million and 32%.[9] The literacy rate was 80% in 2007,[10][11][12] 85% in 2008[13] and 91% in 2013.[14]

Population[edit]

According to the 2011 population census the population of Iran was 75 million ,[1] a fourfold increase since 1956. Between 1976 and 1986 an average annual population growth of almost 4% was reached, but due to decreasing fertility levels the growth decreased to 1.3% between 2006 and 2011.

Population census results[1][15]
Census date Population Average annual
growth (%)
Population
density/km2
Proportion
urban (%)
Household size
01-11-1956 18,954,704 . 12 31.4
01-11-1966 25,785,210 3.1 16 ~37.5
01-11-1976 33,708,744 2.7 20 47.0 5.02
22-11-1986 49,445,010 3.9 30 ~54.0 5.11
01-11-1996 60,055,488 2.0 36 ~61.0 4.84
01-11-2006 70,495,782 1.6 43 68.5 4.03
01-11-2011 75,149,669 1.3 46 71.4 3.55

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[16][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year crude birth rate1 crude death rate1 natural change1 total fertility rate2 infant mortality rate3
1950-1955 933 000 529 000 404 000 50.6 28.7 21.9 6.93 262.1
1955-1960 1 018 000 505 000 514 000 49.2 24.4 24.8 6.93 212.5
1960-1965 1 093 000 479 000 614 000 46.5 20.3 26.2 6.93 172.6
1965-1970 1 164 000 455 000 709 000 43.3 16.9 26.4 6.70 140.7
1970-1975 1 253 000 443 000 811 000 40.8 14.4 26.4 6.24 116.4
1975-1980 1 503 000 430 000 1 073 000 42.1 12.0 30.1 6.27 92.2
1980-1985 1 889 000 720 000 1 170 000 44.4 16.9 27.5 6.54 69.8
1985-1990 1 955 000 550 000 1 406 000 38.6 10.8 27.8 5.62 55.4
1990-1995 1 633 000 359 000 1 274 000 28.5 6.3 22.2 3.95 47.1
1995-2000 1 318 000 338 000 980 000 21.1 5.4 15.7 2.62 38.9
2000-2005 1 213 000 360 000 853 000 18.0 5.3 12.7 1.96 32.5
2005-2010 1 274 000 389 000 885 000 17.7 5.4 12.3 1.77 27.2
1per 1000; 2 TFR = number of children per woman; 3per 1000 births

Registered births and deaths[15][17][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total Fertility Rate
1999 62 738 1 177 557 374 838 802 719 18.8 6.0 12.8
2000 63 658 1 095 165 382 674 712 491 17.2 6.0 11.2
2001 64 592 1 110 836 421 525 689 311 17.2 6.5 10.7
2002 65 540 1 122 104 337 237 784 867 17.1 5.1 12.0
2003 66 480 1 171 573 368 518 803 055 17.6 5.5 12.1
2004 67 477 1 154 368 355 213 799 155 17.1 5.3 11.8
2005 68 467 1 239 408 363 723 875 685 18.1 5.3 12.8
2006 70 496 1 253 912 408 566 845 346 17.8 5.8 12.0 1.60[18]
2007 71 532 1 286 716 412 736 873 980 18.0 5.8 12.2
2008 72 584 1 300 166 417 798 882 368 17.9 5.8 12.2
2009 73 651 1 348 546 393 514 955 032 18.3 5.3 13.0
2010 74 733 1 363 542 441 042 922 500 18.3 5.9 12.4
2011 75 149 1 382 229 422 133 960 096 18.3 5.6 12.7 1.30[18]

Structure of the population[edit]

Structure of the population 2006 and 2011:

Age group Number(2006) Percentage(2006) Number(2011) Percentage(2011)
Total 70.495.782 100 75.149.669 100
0-4 5.463.978 7,75 6.232.552 8,29
5-9 5.509.057 7,81 5.657.791 7,53
10-14 6.708.594 9,52 5.671.435 7,55
15-19 8.726.761 12,38 6.607.043 8,79
20-24 9.011.422 12,78 8.414.497 11,20
25-29 7.224.952 10,25 8.672.654 11,54
30-34 5.553.531 7,88 6.971.924 9,28
35-39 4.921.124 6,98 5.571.018 7,41
40-44 4.089.158 5,80 4.906.749 6,53
45-49 3.522.761 5,00 4.030.481 5,36
50-54 2.755.420 3,91 3.527.408 4,69
55-59 1.887.981 2,68 2.680.119 3,57
60-64 1.464.452 2,08 1.862.907 2,48
65-69 1.197.550 1,70 1.343.731 1,79
70-74 1.119.318 1,59 1.119.968 1,49
75-79 694.122 0,98 913.531 1,22
80+ 645.601 0,92 919.539 1,22
Unclear - - 46.322 0,06
Number of children 0-14 Number of people 15-49 Proportion Number of women 15-49 Proportion
17.681.629 (2006) 43.049.709 (2006) 0,4107 (2006) ~21.524.855 (2006) 0,8215 (2006)
17.561.778 (2011) 45.174.366 (2011) 0,3888 (2011) ~22.587.183 (2011) 0,7775 (2011)
Year 0-14 15-64 65+
1976 44,5 52 3,5
1985 45,5 51,5 3
1996 39,5 56,1 4,3
2006 25,08(17.681.629) 69,73(49.157.562) 5,19(3.656.591)
2011 23,37(17.561.778) 70,91(53.297.122) 5,72(4.290.769)

Table 9 – Population and Average Annual Growth by Provinces: 2006 and 2011

Province 2006 2011 Average annual growth
Total 70,495,782 75,149,669 1.29
Eastern Azerbaijan 3,603,456 3,724,620 0.66
Western Azerbaijan 2,873,459 3,080,576 1.40
Ardabil 1,228,155 1,248,488 0.33
Esfahan 4,559,256 4,879,312 1.37
Alborz 2,076,991 2,412,513 3.04
Ilam 545,787 557,599 0.43
Booshehr 886,267 1,032,949 3.11
Tehran 11,345,375 12,183,391 1.44
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari 857,910 895,263 0.86
South Khorassan 636,420 662,534 0.81
Razavi Khorassan 5,593,079 5,994,402 1.40
North Khorassan 811,572 867,727 1.35
Khoozestan 4,274,979 4,531,720 1.17
Zanjan 964,601 1,015,734 1.04
Semnan 589,742 631,218 1.37
Sistan and Baloochestan 2,405,742 2,534,327 1.05
Fars 4,336,878 4,596,658 1.17
Ghazvin 1,143,200 1,201,565 1.00
Ghom 1,046,737 1,151,672 1.93
Kurdistan 1,440,156 1,493,645 0.73
Kerman 2,652,413 2,938,988 2.07
Kermanshah 1,879,385 1,945,227 0.69
Kohgilooyeh and Booyerahmad 634,299 658,629 0.76
Golestan 1,617,087 1,777,014 1.90
Gillan 2,404,861 2,480,874 0.62
Lorestan 1,716,527 1,754,243 0.44
Mazandaran 2,922,432 3,073,943 1.02
Markazi 1,351,257 1,413,959 0.91
Hormozgan 1,403,674 1,578,183 2.37
Hamedan 1,703,267 1,758,268 0.64
Yazd 990,818 1,074,428 1.63

1 The population of the provinces of Alborz and Tehran for 2006 and their average annual growth have been calculated based on the data of 2011.

Unofficial Translation 17

Table 10 – Population Percentages by Province: 2006 and 2011 (Percentage)

Province 2006 2011
Total 100 100
Eastern Azerbaijan 5.11 4.96
Western Azerbaijan 4.08 4.10
Ardebil 1.74 1.66
Esfahan 6.47 6.49
Alborz 2.95 3.21
Ilam 0.77 0.74
Booshehr 1.26 1.37
Tehran 16.09 16.21
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari 1.22 1.19
South Khorassan 0.90 0.88
Razavi Khorassan 7.94 7.98
North Khorassan 1.15 1.15
Khoozestan 6.07 6.03
Zanjan 1.37 1.35
Semnan 0.84 0.84
Sistan and Baloochestan 3.41 3.37
Fars 6.15 6.12
Ghazvin 1.62 1.60
Ghom 1.48 1.53
Kurdistan 2.04 1.99
Kerman 3.76 3.91
Kermanshah 2.67 2.59
Kohgilooyeh and Booyerahmad 0.90 0.88
Golestan 2.29 2.36
Gillan 3.41 3.30
Lorestan 2.44 2.33
Mazandaran 4.14 4.09
Markazi 1.92 1.88
Hormozgan 1.99 2.10
Hamedan 2.42 2.34
Yazd 1.41 1.43

1 The population of the provinces of Alborz and Tehran for 2006 and their average annual growth have been

Languages and ethnic groups[edit]

Iran's ethnoreligious distribution

The largest linguistic group comprises speakers of Iranian languages, like modern Persian, Kurdish, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Luri, and Balochi. Speakers of Turkic languages, such as the Azeri, Turkmen, and the Qashqai peoples, comprise a substantial minority. The remainder are primarily speakers of Semitic languages such as Arabic and Assyrian. There are small groups using other Indo-European languages such as Armenian, Russian, Pashto; the isolate Dravidian language Brahui in the south-east; and Georgian (a member of the Kartvelian language family), spoken only by those Iranian Georgians that live in Fereydan, Fereydunshahr, the north Iranian provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran, and in Tehran Province.

The CIA World Factbook (which is based on 2013 statistics) gives the following numbers for the languages spoken in Iran today: Persian, Luri, Gilaki and Mazandarani 66%; Azeri and other Turkic languages 18%; Kurdish 10%; Arabic 2%; Baloch 2%; others 1%.[19]

Other sources, such as the Library of Congress, and the Encyclopedia of Islam (Leiden)[20] give Iran's ethnic groups as following: Persians 65%, Azeris 16%, Kurds 7%, Lurs 6%, Arabs 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmens 1%, Turkic tribal groups (e.g. Qashqai) 1%, and non-Persian, non-Turkic groups (e.g. Pashtuns, Armenians, Assyrians, and Georgians) less than 1%.[21] For sources prior to 2000, see Languages and ethnicities in Iran.

Urban Population[edit]

Population density in Iran

In addition to its international migration pattern, Iran also exhibits one of the steepest urban growth rates in the world according to the UN humanitarian information unit. According to 2005 population estimates, approximately 67 percent of Iran's population lives in urban areas, up from 27 percent in 1950.[22] The following is a list of the six most populous cities in the country.

Rank City (Province) 2007
population
1. Tehran (Tehran Province) 12,765,238 (conurbation and commuter towns included)[23][dubious ]
(8,088,287 in the city itself)[23]
2. Mashad (Razavi Khorasan) 2,868,350 (this does include suburban population)
(2,410,800 in the city itself)[23]
3. Isfahan (Isfahan Province) 3,430,353 (including its metropolitan area and the population living within the Isfahan conurbation)
(1,602,110 in the city itself)[23]
4. Tabriz (East Azarbaijan) 1,597,319 (city proper and main suburbs)
(1,378,935 in the city itself)[23]
5. Karaj (Alborz Province) 1,377,450[23]
6. Shiraz (Fars Province) 1,204,882[23]

Religious affiliations[edit]

The entrance to Shah Mosque (aka Imam Mosque or Shah Jame' Mosque) in Isfahan. This mosque is a fantastic example of Persian architecture during the Safavid dynasty.
Population of Iran according to religion 1956-2011[1][15]
Religion census 1956 census 1966 census 1976 census 2006 census 2011
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Muslims 18,654,127 98.4 24,771,922 98.8 33,396,908 99.1 70,097,741 99.4 74,682,938 99.4
Christians 114,528 0.6 149,427 0.6 168,593 0.5 109,415 0.2 117,704 0.2
Zoroastrians 15,723 0.1 19,816 0.1 21,400 0.1 19,823 0.0 25,271 0.0
Jews 65,232 0.3 60,683 0.2 62,258 0.2 9,252 0.0 8,756 0.0
Other 59,256 0.3 77,075 0.3 54,234 0.1 49,101 0.1
Unknown 45,838 0.2 59,583 0.2 205,317 0.3 265,899 0.4

More than 99% of the Iranians are Muslims; 90% belong to the Shi'a branch of Islam, the official state religion, and about 9% belong to the Sunni branch, which predominates in neighboring Muslim countries.[11] Less than 1% non-Muslim minorities include Christians, Zoroastrians, Jews, Bahá'ís, Mandeans, and Yarsan. The Bahá'í Faith, Iran's openly persecuted religious minority with a population around 300 000, is not officially recognized(and therefore not included in the census results), and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran. Since the 1979 revolution the persecution of Bahá'ís has increased with executions, the denial of civil rights and liberties, and the denial of access to higher education and employment.[24][25] Today, there are an estimated 8,000 Assyrian Christians in Iran, who belong to the Chaldean Catholic Church.

Iranian citizens abroad[edit]

The term "Iranian citizens abroad" or " Iranian/Persian diaspora" refers to the Iranian people born in Iran and their children but living outside of Iran. Migrant Iranian workers abroad remitted less than two billion dollars home in 2006.[26]

As of 2010, there are about four to five million Iranians living abroad, mostly in the United States, Canada, Europe, Persian Gulf States, Turkey, Australia and the broader Middle East.[22][27][28] According to the 2000 Census and other independent surveys, there are an estimated 1 million Iranian-Americans living in the U.S., in particular, the Los Angeles area is estimated to be host to approximately 72,000 Iranians, earning the Westwood area of LA the nickname Tehrangeles.[29] Other metropolises that have large Iranian populations include Dubai with 300,000 Iranians, Vancouver, London, Toronto, San Francisco Bay Area, Washington D.C., Buenos Aires, Mexico City, Stockholm, Berlin, Hamburg and Frankfurt. Their combined net worth is estimated to be $1.3 trillion.[30]

Note that this differs from the other Iranian peoples living in other areas of Greater Iran, who are of related ethnolinguistical family, speaking languages belonging to the Iranian languages which is a branch of Indo-European languages.

Refugee population[edit]

Iran hosts one of the largest refugee population in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan (80%) and Iraq (10%). Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation.[31][32] Between 1979 and 1997, UNHCR spent more than US$1 billion on Afghan refugees in Pakistan but only $150 million on those in Iran. In 1999, the Iranian government estimated the cost of maintaining its refugee population at US$10 million per day, compared with the US$18 million UNHCR allocated for all of its operations in Iran in 1999.[32]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Net Iranian migration (1979-2008). A positive value represents more people entering Iran than leaving it

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[11]

Age structure

0-14 years: 21.7% (male 7,394,841/female 7,022,076)
15-64 years: 72.9% (male 24,501,544/female 23,914,172)
65 years and over: 5.4% (male 1,725,828/female 1,870,823) (2010 est.)
0-14 years: 24.1% (male 9,608,342/female 9,128,427)
15-64 years: 70.9% (male 28,083,193/female 27,170,445)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,844,967/female 2,055,846) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 26.4 years
male: 26.2 years
female: 26.7 years (2008 est.)
total: 26.8 years
male: 26.6 years
female: 27.1 years (2011 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 71% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 70.86 years
male: 69.65 years
female: 72.72 years (2008 est.)
total population: 70.35 years
male: 68.84 years
female: 71.93 years (2012 est.)

Youth literacy

definition: age 15-24 can read and write
total population: above 90%[33]
male youth: 98%
female youth: 98.0% (2008 est.)

Genetics[edit]

Y-chromosome DNA[edit]

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, the Iranian Y-chromosome pool is as follows where haplogroups J (33%), R1 (25%), G (14%), E1b1b (5%), L (4%), Q (4%),comprise more than 85% of the total chromosomes.[34]

Haplogroup[35] n B C E1b1a E1b1b1a2 E1b1b1a3 E1b1b1c F G H I J1 J2 K L N O P,R Q R1a R1b R1b1a R1b1b R2 T
Marker M2 V13 V22 M34 M343 V88 M269 M70
Iran 566 0.53 0.18 1.41 1.77 1.8 0.88 0.35 14.00 2.65 0.8 8.13 23.86 0.71 4.00 2.12 1.41 0.71 4.01 17.49 1.24 0.35 6.18 1.41 2.12

Mitochondrial DNA[edit]

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage The Iranian mitochondrial DNA shows more Western Eurasian lineages than the Y-DNA lineages.[36]

In Iran outliers in the Y-chromosomes and Mitochondrial DNA gene pool are consisted by the north Iranian ethnicities, such as the Gilaki's and Mazandarani's, who's genetic build up including chromosomal DNA are nearly identical to the major South Caucasian ethnicites, namely the Georgians, Armenians and Azerbaijani's. Other outliers are made by the Baloch people, representing a mere 1-2% of the total Iranian population, who have more patrilinial and mitochondrial DNA lines resembling South Asian ethnic groups.

People of Iranian Ancestry[edit]

It is estimated that some 200 million people around the world have Iranian ancestry.[37]

Parsis[edit]

The Parsis are the close-knit Zoroastrian community based primarily in India but also found in Pakistan. Parsis are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to the Indian subcontinent over 1,000 years ago. Indian census data (2001) records 69,601 Parsis in India, with a concentration in and around the city of Mumbai (previously known as Bombay). There are approximately 8,000 Parsis elsewhere on the subcontinent, with an estimated 2,500 Parsis in the city of Karachi and approximately 50 Parsi families in Sri Lanka. The number of Parsis worldwide is estimated to be fewer than 100,000 (Eliade, 1991:254).

Iranis[edit]

In Pakistan and India, the term "Irani" has come to denote Iranian Zoroastrians who have immigrated to Pakistan and India within the last two centuries, as opposed to most Parsis who arrived in India over 1000 years ago. Many of them immigrated during the Qajar era, when persecution of Iranian Zoroastrians was rampant. They are culturally and linguistically closer to the Zoroastrians of Iran. Unlike the Parsis, they speak a Dari dialect, the language spoken by the Iranian Zoroastrians in Yazd and Kerman. Their last names often resemble modern Iranian names, however Irani is a common surname among them. In India they are mostly located in modern-day Mumbai while in Pakistan they are mostly located in modern-day Karachi. In both Pakistan and India, they are famous for their restaurants and tea-houses.[38] Some, such as Ardeshir Irani, have also become very famous in cinema.

Ajam (Bahrain)[edit]

The "Ajam" are an ethnic community of Bahrain, of Iranian origin. They have traditionally been merchants living in specific quarters of Manama and Muharraq. The Iranians who adhere to Shiite sect of Islam are Ajam, and they are different from the Huwala, who are Sunnis and some of them have Arab origin.

In addition to this, many names of ancient villages in Bahrain are of Persian origin. It is believed that these names were given during the Safavid rule of Bahrain (1501–1722). i.e. Karbabad, Salmabad, Karzakan, Duraz, Barbar, which indicates that the history of Ajams is much older.

Huwala[edit]

Huwala are the descendants of Persians and Persian Arabs who belong to the Sunni sect of Islam.[39] Huwala migrated from Ahwaz in Iran to the Persian Gulf in the seventeenth and eighteenth century.[39][40]

Bunnag[edit]

The House of Bunnag was a powerful Siamese noble family of Persian descent of the early Rattanakosin Kingdom of Siam.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d [1]
  2. ^ Asia-Pacific Population Journal, United Nations. "A New Direction in Population Policy and Family Planning in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Retrieved 2006-04-14. 
  3. ^ U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base - Iran (retrieved 2011-07-22).
  4. ^ Iran News, Payvand.com. "Iran's population growth rate falls to 1.5 percent: UNFP". Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  5. ^ "International News | World News - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  6. ^ "Iran". Iran economy: Social indicators & living standards. Economist Intelligence Unit. June 23, 2009. 
  7. ^ Bozorgmehr, Najmeh (2012-04-25). "Subsidy dispute adds to Iran’s woes". FT.com. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  8. ^ "Central bank: Income equality improved in Iran". Tehran Times. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  9. ^ CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
  10. ^ UNDP.org Table H
  11. ^ a b c "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  12. ^ "Iran: Country Brief". Development Economics, Development Data Group (DECDG). World Bank. June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ [3]
  15. ^ a b c UN Demographic Yearbooks
  16. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  17. ^ Institute of Statistics Iran
  18. ^ a b http://weekspopulation.blogspot.com/2012/08/iranian-government-responds-to-census.html
  19. ^ "The World Factbook - Iran". Retrieved 2013-05-13. 
  20. ^ See Iran in Encyclopedia of Islam, Leiden. C.E. Bosworth (editor)
  21. ^ Library of Congress, Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. "Ethnic Groups and Languages of Iran". Retrieved 2009-12-02. 
  22. ^ a b "Migration Information Source - Iran: A Vast Diaspora Abroad and Millions of Refugees at Home". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Official Website of "Statistical Center of Iran" (in Persian)
  24. ^ International Federation for Human Rights (2003-08-01). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran". fdih.org. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  25. ^ Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2007). "A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran". Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  26. ^ Iran Daily - Domestic Economy - 10/22/07
  27. ^ "No Operation". Presstv.com. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  28. ^ http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2004/3/C655D456-07DF-405A-8FE9-AAD51173BD66.html Iran: Coping With The World's Highest Rate Of Brain Drain - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY
  29. ^ "Iranian-Americans cast ballots on Iran's future - CNN.com". CNN. 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  30. ^ Iran Daily - Domestic Economy - 02/14/07
  31. ^ United Nations, UNHCR. "Tripartite meeting on returns to Afghanistan". Retrieved 2006-04-14. 
  32. ^ a b "Migration Information Source - Iran: A Vast Diaspora Abroad and Millions of Refugees at Home". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  33. ^ "Iran - Literacy rate". Index Mundi. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  34. ^ Regueiro et al. 2006, Nasidze et al. 2008
  35. ^ Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Pestano J, et al. (2013) Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775
  36. ^ Kivisild et al. 2004, Nasidze et al. 2008
  37. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Report for Iranian languages". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Fifteenth ed.) (Dallas: SIL International). 
  38. ^ http://www.iranian.ws/cgi-bin/iran_news/exec/view.cgi/5/12134
  39. ^ a b "Two ethnicities, three generations: Phonological variation and change in Kuwait". Newcastle University. 2010. p. 11. 
  40. ^ Farmanfarmaian, Roxane (2008). War and Peace in Qajar Persia. Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 978-0415421195. 

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