Demographics of Iran
Iran's population increased dramatically during the later half of the 20th century, reaching about 75 million by 2011. In recent years, however, Iran's birth rate has dropped significantly.[dubious ] Studies project that Iran's rate of population growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 100 million by 2050. More than half of Iran's population is under 35 years old (2012).
In 2009, the number of households stood at 15.3 million (4.8 person/household). According to the Central Bank of Iran in 2012, in 22.5 per cent of Iranian families, all family members were unemployed. Families earn some 11.8 million rials (some $960) ) per month on the average (2012).
According to the OECD/World Bank statistics population growth in Iran from 1990 to 2008 was 17.6 million and 32%. The literacy rate was 80% in 2007, 85% in 2008 and 91% in 2013.
- 1 Population
- 2 Vital statistics
- 3 Languages and ethnic groups
- 4 Urban Population
- 5 Religious affiliations
- 6 Iranian citizens abroad
- 7 Refugee population
- 8 CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
- 9 Genetics
- 10 People of Iranian Ancestry
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
According to the 2011 population census the population of Iran was 75 million , a fourfold increase since 1956. Between 1976 and 1986 an average annual population growth of almost 4% was reached, but due to decreasing fertility levels the growth decreased to 1.3% between 2006 and 2011.
|Census date||Population||Average annual
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||crude birth rate1||crude death rate1||natural change1||total fertility rate2||infant mortality rate3|
|1950-1955||933 000||529 000||404 000||50.6||28.7||21.9||6.93||262.1|
|1955-1960||1 018 000||505 000||514 000||49.2||24.4||24.8||6.93||212.5|
|1960-1965||1 093 000||479 000||614 000||46.5||20.3||26.2||6.93||172.6|
|1965-1970||1 164 000||455 000||709 000||43.3||16.9||26.4||6.70||140.7|
|1970-1975||1 253 000||443 000||811 000||40.8||14.4||26.4||6.24||116.4|
|1975-1980||1 503 000||430 000||1 073 000||42.1||12.0||30.1||6.27||92.2|
|1980-1985||1 889 000||720 000||1 170 000||44.4||16.9||27.5||6.54||69.8|
|1985-1990||1 955 000||550 000||1 406 000||38.6||10.8||27.8||5.62||55.4|
|1990-1995||1 633 000||359 000||1 274 000||28.5||6.3||22.2||3.95||47.1|
|1995-2000||1 318 000||338 000||980 000||21.1||5.4||15.7||2.62||38.9|
|2000-2005||1 213 000||360 000||853 000||18.0||5.3||12.7||1.96||32.5|
|2005-2010||1 274 000||389 000||885 000||17.7||5.4||12.3||1.77||27.2|
|1per 1000; 2 TFR = number of children per woman; 3per 1000 births|
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Total Fertility Rate|
|1999||62 738||1 177 557||374 838||802 719||18.8||6.0||12.8|
|2000||63 658||1 095 165||382 674||712 491||17.2||6.0||11.2|
|2001||64 592||1 110 836||421 525||689 311||17.2||6.5||10.7|
|2002||65 540||1 122 104||337 237||784 867||17.1||5.1||12.0|
|2003||66 480||1 171 573||368 518||803 055||17.6||5.5||12.1|
|2004||67 477||1 154 368||355 213||799 155||17.1||5.3||11.8|
|2005||68 467||1 239 408||363 723||875 685||18.1||5.3||12.8|
|2006||70 496||1 253 912||408 566||845 346||17.8||5.8||12.0||1.60|
|2007||71 532||1 286 716||412 736||873 980||18.0||5.8||12.2|
|2008||72 584||1 300 166||417 798||882 368||17.9||5.8||12.2|
|2009||73 651||1 348 546||393 514||955 032||18.3||5.3||13.0|
|2010||74 733||1 363 542||441 042||922 500||18.3||5.9||12.4|
|2011||75 149||1 382 229||422 133||960 096||18.3||5.6||12.7||1.30|
Structure of the population
Structure of the population 2006 and 2011:
|Number of children 0-14||Number of people 15-49||Proportion||Number of women 15-49||Proportion|
|17.681.629 (2006)||43.049.709 (2006)||0,4107 (2006)||~21.524.855 (2006)||0,8215 (2006)|
|17.561.778 (2011)||45.174.366 (2011)||0,3888 (2011)||~22.587.183 (2011)||0,7775 (2011)|
Table 9 – Population and Average Annual Growth by Provinces: 2006 and 2011
|Province||2006||2011||Average annual growth|
|Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari||857,910||895,263||0.86|
|Sistan and Baloochestan||2,405,742||2,534,327||1.05|
|Kohgilooyeh and Booyerahmad||634,299||658,629||0.76|
1 The population of the provinces of Alborz and Tehran for 2006 and their average annual growth have been calculated based on the data of 2011.
Unofficial Translation 17
Table 10 – Population Percentages by Province: 2006 and 2011 (Percentage)
|Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari||1.22||1.19|
|Sistan and Baloochestan||3.41||3.37|
|Kohgilooyeh and Booyerahmad||0.90||0.88|
1 The population of the provinces of Alborz and Tehran for 2006 and their average annual growth have been
Languages and ethnic groups
The largest linguistic group comprises speakers of Iranian languages, like modern Persian, Kurdish, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Luri, and Balochi. Speakers of Turkic languages, such as the Azeri, Turkmen, and the Qashqai peoples, comprise a substantial minority. The remainder are primarily speakers of Semitic languages such as Arabic and Assyrian. There are small groups using other Indo-European languages such as Armenian, Russian, Pashto; the isolate Dravidian language Brahui in the south-east; and Georgian (a member of the Kartvelian language family), spoken only by those Iranian Georgians that live in Fereydan, Fereydunshahr, the north Iranian provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran, and in Tehran Province.
The CIA World Factbook (which is based on 2013 statistics) gives the following numbers for the languages spoken in Iran today: Persian, Luri, Gilaki and Mazandarani 66%; Azeri and other Turkic languages 18%; Kurdish 10%; Arabic 2%; Baloch 2%; others 1%.
Other sources, such as the Library of Congress, and the Encyclopedia of Islam (Leiden) give Iran's ethnic groups as following: Persians 65%, Azeris 16%, Kurds 7%, Lurs 6%, Arabs 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmens 1%, Turkic tribal groups (e.g. Qashqai) 1%, and non-Persian, non-Turkic groups (e.g. Pashtuns, Armenians, Assyrians, and Georgians) less than 1%. For sources prior to 2000, see Languages and ethnicities in Iran.
In addition to its international migration pattern, Iran also exhibits one of the steepest urban growth rates in the world according to the UN humanitarian information unit. According to 2005 population estimates, approximately 67 percent of Iran's population lives in urban areas, up from 27 percent in 1950. The following is a list of the six most populous cities in the country.
|1.||Tehran (Tehran Province)||12,765,238 (conurbation and commuter towns included)[dubious ]
(8,088,287 in the city itself)
|2.||Mashad (Razavi Khorasan)||2,868,350 (this does include suburban population)
(2,410,800 in the city itself)
|3.||Isfahan (Isfahan Province)||3,430,353 (including its metropolitan area and the population living within the Isfahan conurbation)
(1,602,110 in the city itself)
|4.||Tabriz (East Azarbaijan)||1,597,319 (city proper and main suburbs)
(1,378,935 in the city itself)
|5.||Karaj (Alborz Province)||1,377,450|
|6.||Shiraz (Fars Province)||1,204,882|
|Religion||census 1956||census 1966||census 1976||census 2006||census 2011|
More than 99% of the Iranians are Muslims; 90% belong to the Shi'a branch of Islam, the official state religion, and about 9% belong to the Sunni branch, which predominates in neighboring Muslim countries. Less than 1% non-Muslim minorities include Christians, Zoroastrians, Jews, Bahá'ís, Mandeans, and Yarsan. The Bahá'í Faith, Iran's openly persecuted religious minority with a population around 300 000, is not officially recognized(and therefore not included in the census results), and has been persecuted during its existence in Iran. Since the 1979 revolution the persecution of Bahá'ís has increased with executions, the denial of civil rights and liberties, and the denial of access to higher education and employment. Today, there are an estimated 8,000 Assyrian Christians in Iran, who belong to the Chaldean Catholic Church.
Iranian citizens abroad
The term "Iranian citizens abroad" or " Iranian/Persian diaspora" refers to the Iranian people born in Iran and their children but living outside of Iran. Migrant Iranian workers abroad remitted less than two billion dollars home in 2006.
As of 2010, there are about four to five million Iranians living abroad, mostly in the United States, Canada, Europe, Persian Gulf States, Turkey, Australia and the broader Middle East. According to the 2000 Census and other independent surveys, there are an estimated 1 million Iranian-Americans living in the U.S., in particular, the Los Angeles area is estimated to be host to approximately 72,000 Iranians, earning the Westwood area of LA the nickname Tehrangeles. Other metropolises that have large Iranian populations include Dubai with 300,000 Iranians, Vancouver, London, Toronto, San Francisco Bay Area, Washington D.C., Buenos Aires, Mexico City, Stockholm, Berlin, Hamburg and Frankfurt. Their combined net worth is estimated to be $1.3 trillion.
Note that this differs from the other Iranian peoples living in other areas of Greater Iran, who are of related ethnolinguistical family, speaking languages belonging to the Iranian languages which is a branch of Indo-European languages.
Iran hosts one of the largest refugee population in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan (80%) and Iraq (10%). Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation. Between 1979 and 1997, UNHCR spent more than US$1 billion on Afghan refugees in Pakistan but only $150 million on those in Iran. In 1999, the Iranian government estimated the cost of maintaining its refugee population at US$10 million per day, compared with the US$18 million UNHCR allocated for all of its operations in Iran in 1999.
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
- 0-14 years: 21.7% (male 7,394,841/female 7,022,076)
- 15-64 years: 72.9% (male 24,501,544/female 23,914,172)
- 65 years and over: 5.4% (male 1,725,828/female 1,870,823) (2010 est.)
- 0-14 years: 24.1% (male 9,608,342/female 9,128,427)
- 15-64 years: 70.9% (male 28,083,193/female 27,170,445)
- 65 years and over: 5% (male 1,844,967/female 2,055,846) (2011 est.)
- total: 26.4 years
- male: 26.2 years
- female: 26.7 years (2008 est.)
- total: 26.8 years
- male: 26.6 years
- female: 27.1 years (2011 est.)
- urban population: 71% of total population (2010)
- rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
- at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
- 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
- total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
- total population: 70.86 years
- male: 69.65 years
- female: 72.72 years (2008 est.)
- total population: 70.35 years
- male: 68.84 years
- female: 71.93 years (2012 est.)
- definition: age 15-24 can read and write
- total population: above 90%
- male youth: 98%
- female youth: 98.0% (2008 est.)
Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, the Iranian Y-chromosome pool is as follows where haplogroups J (33%), R1 (25%), G (14%), E1b1b (5%), L (4%), Q (4%),comprise more than 85% of the total chromosomes.
In Iran outliers in the Y-chromosomes and Mitochondrial DNA gene pool are consisted by the north Iranian ethnicities, such as the Gilaki's and Mazandarani's, who's genetic build up including chromosomal DNA are nearly identical to the major South Caucasian ethnicites, namely the Georgians, Armenians and Azerbaijani's. Other outliers are made by the Baloch people, representing a mere 1-2% of the total Iranian population, who have more patrilinial and mitochondrial DNA lines resembling South Asian ethnic groups.
People of Iranian Ancestry
The Parsis are the close-knit Zoroastrian community based primarily in India but also found in Pakistan. Parsis are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to the Indian subcontinent over 1,000 years ago. Indian census data (2001) records 69,601 Parsis in India, with a concentration in and around the city of Mumbai (previously known as Bombay). There are approximately 8,000 Parsis elsewhere on the subcontinent, with an estimated 2,500 Parsis in the city of Karachi and approximately 50 Parsi families in Sri Lanka. The number of Parsis worldwide is estimated to be fewer than 100,000 (Eliade, 1991:254).
In Pakistan and India, the term "Irani" has come to denote Iranian Zoroastrians who have immigrated to Pakistan and India within the last two centuries, as opposed to most Parsis who arrived in India over 1000 years ago. Many of them immigrated during the Qajar era, when persecution of Iranian Zoroastrians was rampant. They are culturally and linguistically closer to the Zoroastrians of Iran. Unlike the Parsis, they speak a Dari dialect, the language spoken by the Iranian Zoroastrians in Yazd and Kerman. Their last names often resemble modern Iranian names, however Irani is a common surname among them. In India they are mostly located in modern-day Mumbai while in Pakistan they are mostly located in modern-day Karachi. In both Pakistan and India, they are famous for their restaurants and tea-houses. Some, such as Ardeshir Irani, have also become very famous in cinema.
The "Ajam" are an ethnic community of Bahrain, of Iranian origin. They have traditionally been merchants living in specific quarters of Manama and Muharraq. The Iranians who adhere to Shiite sect of Islam are Ajam, and they are different from the Huwala, who are Sunnis and some of them have Arab origin.
In addition to this, many names of ancient villages in Bahrain are of Persian origin. It is believed that these names were given during the Safavid rule of Bahrain (1501–1722). i.e. Karbabad, Salmabad, Karzakan, Duraz, Barbar, which indicates that the history of Ajams is much older.
Huwala are the descendants of Persians and Persian Arabs who belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. Huwala migrated from Ahwaz in Iran to the Persian Gulf in the seventeenth and eighteenth century.
The House of Bunnag was a powerful Siamese noble family of Persian descent of the early Rattanakosin Kingdom of Siam.
- Social class in Iran
- List of Iranians
- Demography of Central Asia
- Iranian names
- Education in Iran
- Health care in Iran
- Iran's brain drain
- Culture of Iran
- Economy of Iran
- Human rights in Iran
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