Demographics of Jordan
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Jordan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
|Part of a series on|
|Demographics / Culture|
|Health / Education|
|Government / Politics|
|Population in Jordan|
|Source: OECD/World Bank|
According to the OECD/World Bank, the Jordanian population increased from 1990 to 2008 by 2.7 million: an 86% growth in population, compared to 39% growth in Lebanon, 56% growth in Israel, 67% growth in Syria  and according to the U.S. Census 106% growth in the Palestinian territories.
Native Jordanians are mostly descended from village-dwellers and Bedouins originating in the Arabian Peninsula. In addition, there are Jordanian minorities including the Circassians, Chechens, Arameans and Armenians. However, there are a number of other ethnicities present, including communities of Kurds, Assyrians and Mandeans who are refugees from the 2003 Iraqi war.
According to UNRWA, there are more than two million Palestinian refugees in Jordan as of January 2012. Though that number does not include all Jordanians of Palestinian descent. There are also approximately one million Iraqis currently residing in the country.
Also, hundreds of thousands of guest workers from Egypt, Syria, Indonesia, and South Asia work as domestic and construction employees. Also, there are a few thousand residents of Lebanese origin who came to Jordan when civil strife and war broke out in their native country. They primarily reside in Amman. The official language is Arabic, but English is used widely in commerce and government. About 70% of Jordan's population is urban; less than 6% of the rural population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. Most people live where the rainfall supports agriculture.
- 1 Definition
- 2 Vital statistics
- 3 Ethnic and religious groups
- 4 Education
- 5 Population demographic statistics
- 6 Languages
- 7 Literacy
- 8 Jordanian demographic policy
- 9 See also
- 10 References
The territory of Jordan can be defined by the history of its creation after the end of World War I, the League of Nations and redrawing of the borders of the Eastern Mediterranean littoral. The ensuing decisions, most notably the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which created the British Mandate of Palestine. In September 1922, Transjordan was formally identified as a subdivision of the Mandate Palestine after the League of Nations approved the British Transjordan memorandum which stated that the Mandate east of the River Jordan would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement west of the Jordan River. Two other events in the history of Jordan affected its demographics, the outcomes of the 1948 and the 1967 conflicts with Israel.
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950–1955||26 000||11 000||15 000||47.4||19.3||28.1||7.38||160.9|
|1955–1960||38 000||13 000||25 000||49.4||16.5||32.9||7.38||128.9|
|1960–1965||54 000||15 000||40 000||53.6||14.5||39.1||8.00||103.2|
|1965–1970||73 000||16 000||57 000||52.3||11.8||40.5||8.00||82.8|
|1970–1975||90 000||17 000||73 000||49.0||9.4||39.6||7.79||68.3|
|1975–1980||92 000||16 000||76 000||42.8||7.5||35.3||7.38||56.5|
|1980–1985||101 000||17 000||85 000||39.7||6.5||33.2||7.05||44.4|
|1985–1990||117 000||18 000||99 000||37.5||5.7||31.8||6.44||36.0|
|1990–1995||132 000||19 000||113 000||33.9||4.9||29.0||5.14||30.6|
|1995–2000||147 000||21 000||127 000||32.0||4.5||27.5||4.34||26.7|
|2000–2005||143 000||21 000||122 000||28.1||4.2||23.9||3.60||23.6|
|2005–2010||152 000||23 000||128 000||26.4||4.1||22.3||3.27||21.0|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Total fertility rate (TFR)|
|2007||185 011||20 924||164 087||32.3|
|2008||181 328||19 403||161 925||31.0|
|2009||179 872||20 251||159 621||30.1|
|2010||183 948||21 550||162 398||30.1|
|2011||178 435||21 730||156 705||28.9||7.0||3.8|
Ethnic and religious groups
Muslim (Sunni) 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, with some Greek Catholic, Syriac Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic, Armenian Apostolic, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shi'a Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.) Ethnically, The Circassians and Chechens form more than 3% of the population.
Most of the Arabic citizens in Jordan are villagers. There were some 56,000 Bedouin Jordanians at the turn of the 20th century on the plain east of Jordan, even after the World War I, Amman was only a village of a few thousand residents, many recent immigrants from the coastal areas of the Ottoman Syria where most of the fighting took place. By 1956 of the 1.5 million population, 200,000 were residing in Amman. Following the 1948 war, and seizure of what later came to be known as the "West Bank", the citizens of Transjordan numbered about 1,185,000: 375,000 Transjordanians, 460,000 former residents of Mandate Palestine and 350,000 refugees from other former Mandate Palestine areas. Of the 100,000 estimated Transjordanians on the West Bank, about half had migrated elsewhere by early 1950s. In 2004, ethnic Arabs represented 93% of the population.
There is an Assyrian population in Jordan. Many Assyrians have arrived in Jordan since the invasion of Iraq, making up a large part of the Iraqi refuguees.
Armenians in Jordan are ethnic Armenians living within the current Kingdom of Jordan. There were an estimated 5,000 Armenians living within the country in 2009. An estimated 4,500 of these are members of the Armenian Apostolic Church, and predominantly speak the Western dialect of the Armenian language. This population makes up the majority of non-Arab Christians in the country.
Circassians obtained Ottoman citizenships since 1887, immigrated to Jordan and they selected Amman. They settled in several cities such as Jerash and Zarqa, and established their own village Wadi as-Ser.
The Adyghes Circassians played a role in the history of Transjordan era, and are famous for their loyalty to Abdullah I of Jordan and his family, obtaining the Transjordan citizenship in the law of citizenship that was issued in 1928, while other tribes obtained their citizenship in 1930 or later
Over the years various Adyghes have served in distinguished roles in the Kingdom of Jordan, including a prime minister (Sa`id al-Mufti), ministers, high-ranking officers, etc. Adyghe form the Hashemites Honor guard at the Royal palaces, and represented Jordan in the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in 2010, joining other Honor guards such as the The Airborne Ceremonial Unit. The Circassians are Sunni Muslims estimated to number 120,000 persons, or 2% of Jordanian population, while accounting for 5% of Amman's residents.
Until recently most Mandaeans were Iraqi, but this religious minority fled the country in the face of this violence, and the Mandaean community in Iraq faces extinction. Out of the over 60,000 Mandaeans in Iraq in the early 1990s, only about 5,000 to 7,000 remain there; as of early 2007, over 80% of Iraqi Mandaeans were refugees in Syria and Jordan as a result of the Iraq War.
There are about 10,000 Chechens estimated to reside in Jordan.
The era of King Hussein saw increased school enrollment rates, which resulted in a rapid rise in the literacy rate in Jordan. At the beginning of his reign in 1952 the literacy rate was 33% and grew to 85% in 1996; according to the 2009 estimate, it is now 94% of the total population.
Population demographic statistics
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
- 6,198,677 (July 2008 est.)
- 6,508,887 (July 2012 est.)
- at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
- 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
- total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2012 est.)
- 0–14 years: 32.2% (male 1,017,233/female 976,284)
- 15–64 years: 62.4% (male 2,110,293/female 1,840,531)
- 65 years and over: 4.1% (male 122,975/female 131,361) (2008 est.)
- 0-14 years: 35.3% (male 1,180,595/female 1,114,533)
- 15-64 years: 59.9% (male 1,977,075/female 1,921,504)
- 65 years and over: 4.8% (male 153,918/female 160,646) (2011 est.)
- total: 22.6 years
- male: 22.2 years
- female: 22.9 years (2013 est.)
Population Growth Rate
- 2.338% (2008 est.)
- -0.965% (2012 est.)
- 26.52 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
- 2.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate
- 5.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
- -33.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
- urban population: 82.7% of total population (2011)
- rate of urbanization: 2.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Maternal mortality rate
- 63 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate
- 15.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
- total population: 80.18 years
- male: 78.82 years
- female: 81.61 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate
- 3.36 children born/woman (2012 est.)
- 8.0% of GDP (2010)
- 2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density
- 1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
- 30% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
Arabic is the official language of Jordan. English is widely understood among the educated and the upper and middle classes.
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
female: 93% (2010 est.)
Jordanian demographic policy
Initial integration of former residents of Mandate Palestine, and granting them citizenship, was revoked following violence against PLO in 1970. Most Iraqi refugees are not granted citizenship.
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
- US Census Bureau International Programs International Data Base IDB. See: West Bank and Gaza
- Lowi, Miriam R., Water and power: the politics of a scarce resource in the Jordan River basin, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.36
- "American Jewish Yearbook p.528" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-12-22.
- World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- Department of Statistics, Jordan
- Glubb, General Sir John Bagot, LIFE, 16 April 1956, Glubb tells how our Mid-East enemies work: Arab agitators abetted by Reds, says Jordan’s ousted general, imperil West's position, Time Inc, Vol. 40, No. 16, pp. 145-156
- Mazur, Michael P., Economic growth and development in Jordan, Taylor & Francis, 1979, p.8
- Mazur, Michael P., Economic growth and development in Jordan, Taylor & Francis, 1979, p.9
- Jordan: Religions & Peoples
- Ethnologue 14 report for language code:ARM
- Jordan :: Religion - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- http://ammancity100.gov.jo/en/content/story-amman/end-ummayad-era-till-1878 Via GAM Official Website
- http://www.farrajlawyer.com/viewTopic.php?topicId=661 Arabic Language
- http://www.moi.gov.jo/%C7%E1%D5%DD%CD%C9%C7%E1%D1%C6%ED%D3%ED%C9/%DE%E6%C7%E4%ED%E4%E6%CA%D4%D1%ED%DA%C7%CA/%DE%C7%E4%E6%E4%C7%E1%CC%E4%D3%ED%C9%C7%E1%C7%D1%CF%E4%ED%C9/tabid/107/Default.aspx Via Ministry of Interior (Arabic Language)
- http://www.echoesfromjordan.com/performing-group/circassian-honour-guard Via EchoesfromJordan Website
- Genocide Watch: Mandaeans of Iraq
- The annual 'Eradication of Illiteracy' report by the Jordanian Ministry of Education http://www.moe.gov.jo/Departments/DepartmentSectionDetails.aspx?DepartmentSectionDetailsID=120&DepartmentID=17
- World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision