Demographics of Macau

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Street scene in Macau

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Macau, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Macau's population is 95% Chinese, primarily Cantonese and some Hakka, both from nearby Guangdong Province. The remainder are of Portuguese or mixed Chinese-Portuguese ancestry. Some Japanese, including descendants of Japanese Catholics who were expelled by shoguns, also live in Macau.

The official languages are Portuguese and Cantonese Chinese. The residents commonly (85.7%) speak Cantonese, Mandarin is spoken by 3.2% at home, about 40% are able to communicate in standard Mandarin. English and Portuguese are spoken as a first language by 1.5% and 0.6% respectively. The other popular topolect is Hokkien (Min Nan), spoken by a small percentage of the population. The creole Macanese language (Patuá or Macaista Chapado) is almost extinct.

Macau has a number of universities.

Vital statistics [1][2][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1983 269 6 168 1 514 4 654 22.9 5.6 17.3
1984 283 6 666 1 488 5 178 23.6 5.3 18.3
1985 290 7 560 1 466 6 094 26.1 5.1 21.0
1986 296 7 477 1 324 6 153 25.3 4.5 20.8
1987 307 7 565 1 321 6 244 24.7 4.3 20.3
1988 316 7 913 1 437 6 476 25.0 4.5 20.5
1989 325 7 568 1 516 6 052 23.3 4.7 18.6
1990 335 6 872 1 482 5 390 20.5 4.4 16.1
1991 352 6 832 1 335 5 497 19.4 3.8 15.6
1992 371 6 676 1 432 5 244 18.0 3.9 14.1
1993 384 6 267 1 531 4 736 16.3 4.0 12.3
1994 397 6 115 1 330 4 785 15.4 3.4 12.1
1995 409 5 876 1 351 4 525 14.4 3.3 11.1
1996 415 5 468 1 413 4 055 13.2 3.4 9.8
1997 417 5 031 1 293 3 738 12.1 3.1 9.0
1998 422 4 434 1 356 3 078 10.5 3.2 7.3
1999 427 4 148 1 374 2 774 9.7 3.2 6.5
2000 431 3 849 1 338 2 511 8.9 3.1 5.8
2001 434 3 241 1 327 1 914 7.5 3.1 4.4
2002 438 3 162 1 415 1 747 7.2 3.2 4.0
2003 444 3 212 1 474 1 738 7.2 3.3 3.9
2004 455 3 308 1 533 1 775 7.3 3.4 3.9
2005 473 3 671 1 615 2 056 7.8 3.4 4.3
2006 499 4 058 1 566 2 492 8.1 3.1 5.0
2007 526 4 537 1 545 2 992 8.6 2.9 5.7
2008 544 4 717 1 756 2 961 8.7 3.2 5.4
2009 546 4 764 1 644 3 120 8.7 3.0 5.7
2010 547 5 114 1 774 3 340 9.3 3.2 6.1
2011 555 5 852 1 845 4 007 10.5 3.3 7.2

Ethnic groups[3][edit]

Place of Birth[edit]

Incoming migrant is an essential component of the population. Results of the 2011 Population Census indicated that 326,376 (59.1% of the total population) were born outside Macau, an increase of 3.0 percentage points over the last ten years. Analysed by place of birth, 255,186 (46.2%) were born in Mainland China, down by 1.2 percentage points from 2001. Besides, 226,127 (40.9%) were born in Macau, 19,355 (3.5%) in Hong Kong and 1,835 (0.3%) in Portugal. There were more persons born in other countries or territories as the number of non-resident workers increased. Among them, 14,544 were born in the Philippines, 7,199 in Vietnam and 6,269 in Indonesia, altogether taking up 5.1% of the total population. Besides, 1,942 were born in Europe other than Portugal, 2,252 in Americas, 959 in Africa and 672 in Oceania. Analysed by age group, 85.2% of the youth population (aged 0–14) were born in Macau, and 62.9% of those aged 35 and above were born in Mainland China.

Nationality[edit]

Analysed by nationality, 509,788 (92.3% of the total population) were of Chinese nationality, down by 2.9 percentage points from the 2001 Census; meanwhile, only 0.9% was of Portuguese nationality, a decrease of 1.1 percentage points. These figures can be misleading, because more than a 100,000 people in Macau are holders of a Portuguese passport, making them in effect Portuguese citizens. Over the last ten years, diversity of the various components of the population is enhanced as economic development has drawn people to invest, work or study in Macau; consequently, 37,695 (6.8%) were of other nationalities, up by 4.0 percentage points, with 2.7% being Filipinos. Macau is a Chinese community and those of Chinese ethnicity totalled 510,383, an increase of 94,030 over the past ten years; however, its proportion to the total population decreased by 3.3 percentage points to 92.4%. Those of wholly or partly Portuguese ethnicity totalled 8,106, up slightly by 333 compared with 2001; its proportion to the total decreased by 0.3 percentage point to 1.5%.

Population of Macau according to ethnic group 1991-2011
Ethnic
group
census 1991 census 2001 census 2011
Number  % Number  % Number  %
Chinese 338,191 95.1 416,353 95.7 510,383 92.4
Chinese & Portuguese 4,477 1.3 4,254 1.0 4,019 0.7
Portuguese 4,221 1.2 2,810 0.6 3,485 0.6
Chinese & non-Portuguese 1,771 0.4 1,601 0.3
Others 7,804 2.2 10,047 2.3 33,015 6.0
Portuguese & others 709 0.2 602 0.1
Total 355,693 435,235 552,503

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Residents' usual
language spoken at home[4]
Language Percentage of
population
Cantonese 85.7%
Mandarin 3.2%
Other
Chinese dialects
6.7%
Portuguese 0.6%
English 1.5%
Others 2.3%

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Ethnics Group[edit]

Chinese 92.4%, other 7.6% (includes Macanese - mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) (2011 census)

Population[edit]

624,000[5] (2014 Qtr2 est.)

Male and Female Pattern[edit]

Male: 307,200[5] (2014 Qtr2 est.)
Female: 316,800[5] (2014 Qtr2 est.)

Age structure[edit]

below age 15: 76,305 15.63%
age 15-24: 82,547 16.91%
age 25-34: 70,965 14.54%
age 35-44: 91,438 18.73%
age 45-54: 87,616 17.95%
age 54-64: 38,924 7.97%
age 65 or above: 40,349 8.27%

Infant mortality rate[edit]

4.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 84.37 years - Highest life expectancy in the world.
male: 81.39 years
female: 87.47 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

0.91 children born/woman (2010 est.) The lowest fertility rate in the world after Taiwan.

Nationality[edit]

noun: China
adjective: Chinese

Religions[edit]

30% Shenism, 10% Buddhism or Taoism, 5% Christianity, 50% not declaring religious affiliation, 10% others (2009).[6] Another survey conducted between 2005, 2007 and 2009 has found that 30% of the population follows folk faiths, 10% are adherents of Buddhism or Taoism, 5% are Christians, and the remaining part do not declare religious adherence.[7]

Languages[edit]

Portuguese and Chinese, seen on this street sign, are official languages in Macau
Portuguese, Chinese (official languages). The Chinese standard (Cantonese or Mandarin) is not specified in the law.

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 97.2%
female: 92% (2003 est.)

Immigration and Crime[edit]

Persons authorized to reside in Macau: total: 50,159 (by the end of 2005)
Non-resident workers authorized to enter Macau: total: 39,411 (by the end of 2005)
Legal immigrants from Mainland China: 1,133 (Qtr1 2006) 947 (Qtr2 2006)
No. of criminal cases: 2,634 (Qtr1 2006) 2,708 (Qtr2 2006)

Health[edit]

No. of residents per doctor (excluding dentist): 473
No. of residents per nurse: 430
No. of residents per hospital bed: 496

Main causes of death[edit]

Diseases of the circulatory system: 518 cases 32.1%
Neoplasm: 455 cases 28.2%
Diseases of the respiratory system: 267 cases 16.5%

Ethnics Group[edit]

Chinese 92.4%, other 7.6% (includes Macanese - mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) (2011 census)

References[edit]

  1. ^ United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  2. ^ Statistics and Census Service Macao SAR Government
  3. ^ Results of 2011 Population Census
  4. ^ Global Results of By-Census 2006. Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government. 2007. 
  5. ^ a b c "Demographic Statistics for the 2nd Quarter 2014". Statistics and Census Service of the Government of Macau SAR. 11 August 2014. 
  6. ^ Zhidong Hao, 2011. pp. 121-122.
  7. ^ Zheng, VWT; Wan, PS. Religious beliefs and life experiences of Macao's residents 澳門居民的宗教信仰與生活經驗. On: Modern China Studies by Center for Modern China, 2010, v. 17 n. 4, p. 91-126. ISSN 2160-0295. «Drawing on empirical data obtained from three consecutive territory-wide household surveys conducted in 2005, 2007, and 2009 respectively, this paper attempts to shed light on the current religious profile of Macao residents.»

External links[edit]