Demographics of Mauritius

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Mauritius, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Mauritian society includes people from many different ethnic groups. A majority of the republic's residents are the descendants of people from the Indian subcontinent. Mauritius also contains substantial populations from continental Africa, Madagascar, France, Great Britain, China, South Africa, among other places.

Ancestry[edit]

Mauritius is different from other African countries in close proximity because the largest group, and the majority of the population, is Indo-Mauritians (people of Indian descent) who make up 68% of the population, while Creoles (of African descent) are about a quarter of the population.[1] There are approximately 30,000 Sino-Mauritians from the Hakka and Cantonese sub-ethnic/linguistic groups. More than 90% of the Sino-Mauritian community are Christian; the remainder are largely Buddhist.[2]

Franco-Mauritians, or Mauritians of French ancestry, number about 24,000. The Franco-Mauritian group comprises the largest group of people of European origin on the island, and are the wealthiest ethnic group in Mauritius followed by the Sino-Mauritians.[3] There is also a small population of British citizens living in Mauritius, most of whom have Mauritian nationality, though few identify as being Mauritian.[citation needed] The term Anglo-Mauritian, a term that may include Mauritians living in the UK, is used unofficially. Small groups of foreign students from Europe or the Indian Ocean region are also present. Recent years have seen a steady flow of foreign workers into the textile industry (primarily Chinese women), the construction industry (primarily Indian workers), and harbour-related activities (primarily Taiwanese men). Immigration policy does not provoke much debate in Mauritius, and the relative economic stability of the island serves to attract foreign workers.[citation needed]

Population[edit]

Demographics of Mauritius, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

According to the 2010 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 1 281 000 in 2010, compared to only 479 000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 21.9%, 71.2% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6.9% was 65 years or older .[4]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 479 45.2 51.9 3.0
1955 570 46.1 51.3 2.6
1960 662 46.6 50.9 2.5
1965 754 46.2 51.3 2.5
1970 828 43.8 53.6 2.6
1975 891 39.9 57.3 2.8
1980 966 35.4 61.0 3.6
1985 1 021 31.4 64.5 4.1
1990 1 059 29.7 65.8 4.5
1995 1 122 27.8 67.2 5.0
2000 1 187 26.7 67.6 5.7
2005 1 243 24.8 69.1 6.1
2010 1 281 21.9 71.2 6.9

Vital statistics[5][6][7][edit]

Mauritius has an estimated population of 1,283,415 on December 31, 2010. 14,701 children were born in 2011 (birth rate 11.4 per 1,000).[8]

The table below presents the population development of Mauritius since 1900. The figure up to 1945 are for the island of Mauritius only. As of 1946 the island of Rodrigues is included.

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1900 371 14 490 13 695 795 38.6 36.5 2.1
1901 371 12 910 14 970 -2 060 34.8 40.4 -5.6
1902 371 13 495 12 716 779 35.9 33.8 2.1
1903 371 13 611 15 034 -1 423 36.3 40.1 -3.8
1904 371 14 103 12 064 2 039 37.2 31.9 5.3
1905 370 14 043 15 379 -1 336 37.2 40.7 -3.5
1906 370 12 669 15 124 -2 455 33.6 40.0 -6.4
1907 370 14 186 13 037 1 149 37.7 34.6 3.1
1908 370 13 456 15 094 -1 638 36.0 40.3 -4.3
1909 369 12 837 13 761 - 924 34.4 36.9 -2.5
1910 369 13 329 12 488 841 36.1 33.8 2.3
1911 369 14 585 12 204 2 381 39.2 32.8 6.4
1912 370 13 209 14 429 -1 220 35.5 38.8 -3.3
1913 371 15 153 13 201 1 952 40.8 35.5 5.3
1914 372 15 229 12 134 3 095 40.8 32.5 8.3
1915 373 13 094 13 101 - 7 34.8 34.8 -0.0
1916 374 13 162 11 432 1 730 35.0 30.4 4.6
1917 375 13 887 12 234 1 653 36.9 32.5 4.4
1918 375 13 109 12 794 315 34.8 33.9 0.9
1919 375 13 261 24 455 -11 194 35.2 64.9 -29.7
1920 376 12 791 11 773 1 018 35.1 32.3 2.8
1921 376 14 360 15 159 - 799 38.1 40.3 -2.2
1922 376 13 955 12 967 988 37.0 34.5 2.5
1923 377 13 879 10 778 3 101 36.8 28.5 8.3
1924 380 15 430 10 558 4 872 41.1 28.1 13.0
1925 383 16 545 9 327 7 218 42.6 24.9 17.7
1926 386 15 520 9 958 5 562 39.4 25.3 14.1
1927 389 13 748 10 015 3 733 34.5 25.1 9.4
1928 391 15 206 11 342 3 864 37.9 28.2 9.7
1929 393 13 771 12 413 1 358 34.0 30.7 3.3
1930 393 12 793 14 341 -1 548 31.6 35.4 -3.8
1931 393 11 941 15 467 -3 526 29.7 38.4 -8.7
1932 390 10 266 12 848 -2 582 25.7 32.2 -6.5
1933 390 13 479 10 615 2 864 33.8 26.6 7.2
1934 392 13 516 10 069 3 447 33.7 25.1 8.6
1935 394 13 246 10 445 2 801 32.8 25.8 7.0
1936 398 13 867 10 500 3 367 34.1 25.8 8.3
1937 400 14 097 11 527 2 570 34.4 28.1 6.3
1938 402 13 420 12 046 1 374 32.6 29.2 3.4
1939 405 14 578 11 340 3 238 35.2 27.4 7.8
1940 407 12 145 10 373 1 772 29.1 24.9 4.2
1941 407 13 430 10 436 2 994 32.2 25.0 7.2
1942 408 13 553 11 927 1 626 32.5 28.6 3.9
1943 410 13 604 10 642 2 962 32.6 25.5 7.1
1944 419 18 258 11 355 6 903 43.4 27.0 16.4
1945 424 16 290 15 277 1 013 38.4 36.0 2.4
1946 437 16 939 12 678 4 261 38.8 29.0 9.8
1947 445 19 458 8 830 10 628 43.7 19.8 23.9
1948 455 19 429 10 680 8 749 42.7 23.5 19.2
1949 458 20 931 7 523 13 408 45.7 16.4 29.3
1950 479 23 667 6 611 17 056 49.4 13.8 35.6
1951 498 23 543 7 305 16 238 47.3 14.7 32.6
1952 514 24 689 7 569 17 120 48.0 14.7 33.3
1953 537 24 428 8 550 15 878 45.5 15.9 29.6
1954 551 22 513 8 587 13 926 40.9 15.6 25.3
1955 570 23 612 7 260 16 352 41.4 12.7 28.7
1956 591 25 666 6 910 18 756 43.4 11.7 31.7
1957 609 26 055 7 823 18 232 42.8 12.8 29.9
1958 627 25 398 7 307 18 091 40.5 11.7 28.9
1959 644 24 792 7 040 17 752 38.5 10.9 27.6
1960 662 26 017 7 588 18 429 39.3 11.5 27.8
1961 680 27 028 6 697 20 331 39.7 9.8 29.9
1962 700 27 162 6 485 20 677 38.8 9.3 29.5
1963 715 28 859 6 912 21 947 40.4 9.7 30.7
1964 735 28 610 6 421 22 189 38.9 8.7 30.2
1965 754 27 195 6 637 20 558 36.1 8.8 27.3
1966 773 27 831 6 944 20 887 36.0 9.0 27.0
1967 789 24 471 6 750 17 721 31.0 8.6 22.5
1968 804 25 409 7 382 18 027 31.6 9.2 22.4
1969 815 22 621 6 733 15 888 27.7 8.3 19.5
1970 828 22 765 6 520 16 245 27.5 7.9 19.6
1971 841 21 926 6 436 15 490 26.1 7.7 18.4
1972 851 21 495 6 753 14 742 25.3 7.9 17.3
1973 869 20 015 6 779 13 236 23.0 7.8 15.2
1974 881 24 002 6 424 17 578 27.3 7.3 20.0
1975 891 22 557 7 201 15 356 25.3 8.1 17.2
1976 903 23 274 6 968 16 306 25.8 7.7 18.0
1977 918 23 859 7 154 16 705 26.0 7.8 18.2
1978 934 25 278 6 596 18 682 27.1 7.1 20.0
1979 948 26 163 6 871 19 292 27.6 7.2 20.3
1980 966 26 294 6 919 19 375 27.2 7.2 20.1
1981 981 24 967 6 653 18 314 25.5 6.8 18.7
1982 993 22 459 6 584 15 875 22.6 6.6 16.0
1983 1 002 21 073 6 532 14 541 21.0 6.5 14.5
1984 1 011 20 332 6 646 13 686 20.1 6.6 13.5
1985 1 021 19 376 6 906 12 470 19.0 6.8 12.2
1986 1 028 19 170 6 805 12 365 18.6 6.6 12.0
1987 1 037 20 033 6 753 13 280 19.3 6.5 12.8
1988 1 043 20 941 6 879 14 062 20.1 6.6 13.5
1989 1 051 21 822 7 149 14 673 20.8 6.8 14.0
1990 1 059 22 602 7 031 15 571 21.3 6.6 14.7
1991 1 070 22 197 7 027 15 170 20.7 6.6 14.2
1992 1 084 22 902 7 023 15 879 21.1 6.5 14.6
1993 1 098 22 329 7 433 14 896 20.3 6.8 13.6
1994 1 113 21 795 7 402 14 393 19.6 6.7 12.9
1995 1 122 20 549 7 465 13 084 18.3 6.7 11.7
1996 1 134 20 763 7 670 13 093 18.3 6.8 11.5
1997 1 148 20 012 7 986 12 026 17.4 7.0 10.5
1998 1 160 19 434 7 839 11 595 16.8 6.8 10.0
1999 1 175 20 311 7 944 12 367 17.3 6.8 10.5
2000 1 187 20 205 7 982 12 223 17.0 6.7 10.3
2001 1 200 19 696 7 983 11 713 16.4 6.7 9.8
2002 1 210 19 983 8 310 11 673 16.5 6.9 9.6
2003 1 223 19 343 8 520 10 823 15.8 7.0 8.8
2004 1 233 19 230 8 475 10 755 15.6 6.9 8.7
2005 1 243 18 820 8 646 10 174 15.1 7.0 8.2
2006 1 253 17 604 9 162 8 442 14.0 7.3 6.7
2007 1 261 17 034 8 498 8 536 13.5 6.7 6.8
2008 1 268 16 372 9 004 7 368 12.9 7.1 5.8
2009 1 275 15 344 9 222 6 122 12.0 7.2 4.8
2010 1 281 15 005 9 131 5 874 11.7 7.1 4.6
2011 1 286 14 701 9 170 5 531 11.4 7.1 4.3

Language[edit]

Picture from the 1950s of the Central Market, Port Louis, Mauritius.

The main languages spoken in Mauritius are Mauritian Creole, French and English. English is the only official language but the lingua franca is Mauritian Creole and the newspapers and television programmes are usually in French.[9]

Mauritian Créole, which is spoken by 90 percent of the population, is considered to be the native language of the country and is used most often in informal settings.[10] It was developed in the 18th century by slaves who used a pidgin language to communicate with each other as well as with their French masters, who did not understand the various African languages. The pidgin evolved with later generations to become a casual language.[11] Mauritian Creole is a French-based creole due to its close ties with French pronunciation and vocabulary. Bhojpuri is also spoken by a large percentage of Mauritian people at home and in informal scenarios.[12]

Religion[edit]

The religions present in the republic are Hinduism (49%), Roman Catholicism (26.3%), Islam (17.3%), Buddhism (2.5%), Adventist, Protestantism and other Christian groups (6.4%) and Sikhism (0.3%).[13]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population growth rate: 0.776% (2010 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.) - 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74 years
male: 70.53 years
female: 77.65 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.02 children born/woman (2000 est.) 1.80 children born/woman (2010 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Mauritian(s)
adjective: Mauritian

Ethnic groups: Indian 68%, Creole 27%, Chinese 3%, French 2%

Religions: Hinduism 48.5%, Christianity 32.7% (Roman Catholicism 26.3%, Protestant and other Christian groups 6.4%), Islam 17.3%, other 3.1%

Languages: English (Official), French, Mauritian Creole, Hindi, Tamil, Marathi, Bhojpuri, Hakka.

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 84.4%
male: 88.4%
female: 80.5% (2000 est.)

References[edit]