Demographics of Mexico

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Demographics of Mexico
Mexico-demography.png
Population of Mexico, 1961–2003
Population 119,713,203
Growth rate 1.12% (2010) (2010 est.)[1]
Birth rate 19.39 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate 4.83 deaths/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Life expectancy 76.66 years
 • male 73.84 years
 • female 79.63 years (2012 est.)
Fertility rate 2.27 children born/woman (2012 est.)
Infant mortality rate 16.77 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate -3.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years 27.8% (male 16,329,415/ female 15,648,127)
15–64 years 65.5% (male 36,385,426/ female 38,880,768)
65 and over 6.7% (male 3,459,939/ female 4,271,731) (2012 est.)
Sex ratio
Total 0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.94 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.81 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality Mexican
Major ethnic 60% Mestizo (mixed Spaniard and Indigenous ancestry) - 30% White(Mostly Spanish with large minorities of French, German, Italian, and Lebanese) - 7-10% Indigenous
Minor ethnic Other 2% (Mostly Zambo/Mulatto & Asian)
Language
Official Spanish language
Spoken English, Nahuatl, Plautdietsch, Venetian, Basque, French and many others are also spoken varying by region

With a population of 119,713,203 as of 2014,[2] Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, the second-most populous country in Latin America after Portuguese-speaking Brazil, and the second in North America, after the United States.[3] Throughout most of the twentieth century Mexico's population was characterized by rapid growth. Even though this tendency has been reversed and average annual population growth over the last five years was less than 1%, the demographic transition is still in progress, and Mexico still has a large cohort of youths. The most populous city in the country is the capital, Mexico City, with a population of 8.8 million (2010), and its metropolitan area is also the most populated with 20.1 million (2010). Approximately 50% of the population lives in one of the 55 large metropolitan areas in the country. In total, about 78.84% of the population of the country lives in urban areas, meaning that only 21.16% live in rural areas.

The Census Bureau in Mexico is the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI). The National Population Council (CONAPO), is an institution under the Secretary of the Interior in charge of the analysis and research of population dynamics. The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (CDI), also undertakes research and analysis of the sociodemographic and linguistic indicators of the indigenous peoples in Mexico.

Demographic dynamics[edit]

Population growth
Mexican states by population density

In 1900, the Mexican population was 13.6 million.[4] During the period of economic prosperity that was dubbed by economists as the "Mexican Miracle", the government invested in efficient social programs that reduced the infant mortality rate and increased life expectancy. These measures jointly led to an intense demographic increase between 1930 and 1980. The population's annual growth rate has been reduced from a 3.5% peak, in 1965 to 0.99% in 2005. While Mexico is now transitioning to the third phase of demographic transition, close to 50% of the population in 2009 was 25 years old or younger.[5] Fertility rates have also decreased from 5.7 children per woman in 1976 to 2.2 in 2006.[6] The average annual population growth rate of the capital, the Federal District, was the first in the country at 0.2%. The state with the lowest population growth rate over the same period was Michoacán (-0.1%), whereas the states with the highest population growth rates were Quintana Roo (4.7%) and Baja California Sur (3.4%),[7] both of which are two of the least populous states and the last to be admitted to the Union in the 1970s. The average annual net migration rate of the Federal District over the same period was negative and the lowest of all political divisions of Mexico, whereas the states with the highest net migration rate were Quintana Roo (2.7), Baja California (1.8) and Baja California Sur (1.6).[8] While the national annual growth rate was still positive (1.0%) in the early years of the 2000s, the national net migration rate was negative (-4.75/1000 inhabitants), given the former strong flow of immigrants to the United States; an estimated 5.3 million undocumented Mexicans lived in the United States in 2004[9] and 18.2 million American citizens in the 2000 Census declared having Mexican ancestry.[10] However, as of recent years in the 2010s, the net migration rate reached 0, given the strong economy of Mexico, and a weakening American economy, causing many of its former residents to return. However, Mexico itself constitutes the second country of total number of immigrants to the United States from 1830 to 2000, after Germany.

The Mexican government projects [11] that the Mexican population will grow to about 123 million by 2042 and then start declining slowly. Assumptions include fertility stabilizing at 1.85 children per woman and continued high net emigration (gently decreasing from 583,000 in 2005 to 393,000 in 2050).

The states and the Federal District that conform the Mexican federation are collectively called "federal entities". The five most populous federal entities in 2005 were the State of Mexico (14.4 million), the Federal District (8.7 million), Veracruz (7.1 million), Jalisco (6.7 million) and Puebla (5.4 million) which collectively contain 40.7% of the national population. Mexico City, being coextensive with the Federal District, is the most populous city in the country, whereas Greater Mexico City, that includes the adjacent municipalities that conform a metropolitan area, is estimated to be the second most populous in the world, by the UN Urbanization Report.

Intense population growth in the Northern states, especially in the US-Mexican border, changed the country's demographic profile in the second half of the 20th century, as the 1967 US-Mexico maquiladora agreement through which all products manufactured in the border cities could be imported duty-free to the US. Since the adoption of NAFTA in 1994, however, which allows all products to be imported duty free regardless of their origin within Mexico, non-border maquiladora share of exports has increased while that of border cities has decreased,[12] allowing for the growth of middle-size cities in different regions in Mexico. This has also led to decentralization and growth of other metropolitan areas that conform regional centers of economic growth, like Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, León and Torreón.

UN estimates[edit]

Mexico's population pyramid (2009)

According to the 2012 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 117,886,000 in 2010, compared to only 28,296,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 30%, 64% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6% was 65 years or older .[13]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 28 296 42.5 54.1 3.5
1955 32 906 44.5 52.2 3.3
1960 38 677 45.9 50.8 3.4
1965 45 339 46.8 49.6 3.5
1970 52 988 46.6 49.7 3.7
1975 61 708 46.2 50.1 3.7
1980 70 353 44.7 51.5 3.8
1985 77 859 42.1 53.9 3.9
1990 86 077 38.5 57.2 4.3
1995 95 393 35.9 59.6 4.5
2000 103 874 34.1 61.0 4.9
2005 110 732 32.3 62.4 5.3
2010 117 886 30.0 64.0 6.0

Vital statistics[edit]

Registered births and deaths[edit]

Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI)[14]

Note: registered births include births from non-resident mothers. Therefore, the birth rates are overestimated in the past two decades.

Average population (x 1000)[15] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1950 28 296 1174 947 418 430 756 517 41.5 14.8 26.7
1951 29 110 1183 788 458 238 725 550 40.7 15.7 24.9
1952 29 980 1195 209 408 823 786 386 39.9 13.6 26.2
1953 30 904 1261 775 446 127 815 648 40.8 14.4 26.4
1954 31 880 1339 837 378 752 961 085 42.0 11.9 30.1
1955 32 906 1377 917 407 522 970 395 41.9 12.4 29.5
1956 33 978 1427 722 368 740 1058 982 42.0 10.9 31.2
1957 35 095 1485 202 414 545 1070 657 42.3 11.8 30.5
1958 36 253 1447 578 404 529 1043 049 39.9 11.2 28.8
1959 37 448 1589 606 396 924 1192 682 42.4 10.6 31.8
1960 38 677 1608 174 402 545 1205 629 41.6 10.4 31.2
1961 39 939 1647 006 388 857 1258 149 41.2 9.7 31.5
1962 41 234 1705 481 403 046 1302 435 41.4 9.8 31.6
1963 42 564 1756 624 412 834 1343 790 41.3 9.7 31.6
1964 43 931 1849 408 408 275 1441 133 42.1 9.3 32.8
1965 45 339 1888 171 404 163 1484 008 41.6 8.9 32.7
1966 46 784 1954 340 424 141 1530 199 41.8 9.1 32.7
1967 48 264 1981 363 420 298 1561 065 41.1 8.7 32.3
1968 49 788 2058 251 452 910 1605 341 41.3 9.1 32.2
1969 51 361 2037 561 458 886 1578 675 39.7 8.9 30.7
1970 52 988 2132 630 485 656 1646 974 40.2 9.2 31.1
1971 54 669 2231 399 458 323 1773 076 40.8 8.4 32.4
1972 56 396 2346 002 476 206 1869 796 41.6 8.4 33.2
1973 58 156 2572 287 458 915 2113 372 44.2 7.9 36.3
1974 59 931 2522 580 433 104 2089 476 42.1 7.2 34.9
1975 61 708 2254 497 435 888 1818 609 36.5 7.1 29.5
1976 63 486 2366 305 455 660 1910 645 37.3 7.2 30.1
1977 65 261 2379 327 450 454 1928 873 36.5 6.9 29.6
1978 67 013 2346 862 418 381 1928 481 35.0 6.2 28.8
1979 68 715 2274 267 428 217 1846 050 33.1 6.2 26.9
1980 70 353 2446 238 434 465 2011 773 34.8 6.2 28.6
1981 71 916 2530 662 424 274 2106 388 35.2 5.9 29.3
1982 73 416 2392 849 412 345 1980 504 32.6 5.6 27.0
1983 74 880 2609 088 413 403 2195 685 34.8 5.5 29.3
1984 76 351 2511 894 410 550 2101 344 32.9 5.4 27.5
1985 77 859 2655 671 414 003 2241 668 34.1 5.3 28.8
1986 79 410 2577 045 400 079 2176 966 32.5 5.0 27.4
1987 80 999 2794 390 400 280 2394 110 34.5 4.9 29.6
1988 82 635 2622 031 412 987 2209 044 31.7 5.0 26.7
1989 84 327 2620 262 423 304 2196 958 31.1 5.0 26.1
1990 86 077 2735 312 422 803 2312 509 31.8 4.9 26.9
1991 87 890 2756 447 411 131 2345 316 31.4 4.7 26.7
1992 89 758 2797 397 409 814 2387 583 31.2 4.6 26.6
1993 91 654 2839 686 416 335 2423 351 31.0 4.5 26.4
1994 93 542 2904 389 419 074 2485 315 31.0 4.5 26.6
1995 95 393 2750 444 430 278 2320 166 28.8 4.5 24.3
1996 97 202 2707 718 436 321 2271 397 27.9 4.5 23.4
1997 98 969 2698 425 440 437 2257 988 27.3 4.5 22.8
1998 100 679 2668 429 444 665 2223 764 26.5 4.4 22.1
1999 102 317 2769 089 443 950 2325 139 27.1 4.3 22.7
2000 103 874 2798 339 437 667 2360 672 26.9 4.2 22.7
2001 105 340 2767 610 443 127 2324 483 26.3 4.2 22.1
2002 106 724 2699 084 459 687 2239 397 25.3 4.3 21.0
2003 108 056 2655 894 472 140 2183 754 24.6 4.4 20.2
2004 109 382 2625 056 473 417 2151 639 24.0 4.3 19.7
2005 110 732 2567 906 495 240 2072 666 23.2 4.5 18.7
2006 112 117 2505 939 494 471 2011 468 22.4 4.4 17.9
2007 113 530 2655 083 514 420 2140 663 23.4 4.5 18.9
2008 114 968 2636 110 539 530 2096 580 22.9 4.7 18.2
2009 116 423 2577 214 564 673 2012 541 22.1 4.9 17.3
2010 117 886 2643 908 592 018 2051 890 22.4 5.0 17.4
2011 119 361 2586 287 590 693 1995 594 21.7 4.9 16.7
2012 120,857 2,498,880 602,354 1,896,526 20.7 5.0 15.7

Estimates[edit]

The following estimates were prepared by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía:

Crude birth rate (per 1000)[16] Crude death rate (per 1000)[17] Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate[18]
1976 5.7
1981 4.4
1987 3.8
1990 27.9 5.6 22.3 3.4
1991 27.5 5.5 22.0 3.3
1992 27.1 5.4 21.7 3.2
1993 26.8 5.3 21.5 3.1
1994 26.3 5.2 21.1 3.0
1995 25.9 5.2 20.7 3.0
1996 25.4 5.1 20.3 2.9
1997 24.8 5.1 19.7 2.8
1998 24.3 5.1 19.2 2.8
1999 23.9 5.1 18.8 2.7
2000 23.4 5.1 18.3 2.6
2001 23.0 5.1 17.9 2.6
2002 22.6 5.1 17.5 2.6
2003 22.2 5.2 17.0 2.5
2004 21.8 5.2 16.6 2.5
2005 21.5 5.2 16.3 2.5
2006 21.1 5.3 15.8 2.4
2007 20.8 5.3 15.5 2.4
2008 20.4 5.4 15.0 2.3
2009 20.1 5.5 14.6 2.3
2010 19.7 5.6 14.1 2.3
2011 19.4 5.6 13.8 2.3
2012 19.2 5.7 13.5 2.2
2013 18.9 5.7 13.2 2.2

UN estimates[edit]

The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [13]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950–1955 1 469 000 509 000 959 000 48.0 16.7 31.3 6.70 121 50.7 48.9 52.5
1955–1960 1 675 000 483 000 1 193 000 46.8 13.5 33.3 6.80 102 55.3 53.3 57.3
1960–1965 1 878 000 481 000 1 397 000 44.7 11.5 33.3 6.75 88 58.5 56.4 60.6
1965–1970 2 147 000 510 000 1 637 000 43.7 10.4 33.3 6.75 80 60.3 58.2 62.5
1970–1975 2 434 000 521 000 1 913 000 42.4 9.1 33.4 6.50 69 62.6 60.1 65.2
1975–1980 2 406 000 490 000 1 916 000 36.4 7.4 29.0 5.25 57 65.3 62.2 68.6
1980–1985 2 352 000 470 000 1 882 000 31.7 6.3 25.4 4.25 47 67.7 64.4 71.2
1985–1990 2 385 000 466 000 1 919 000 29.1 5.7 23.4 3.63 40 69.8 66.8 73.0
1990–1995 2 493 000 470 000 2 022 000 27.5 5.2 22.3 3.16 33 71.8 69.0 74.6
1995–2000 2 535 000 471 000 2 064 000 25.4 4.7 20.7 2.80 28 73.7 71.3 76.1
2000–2005 2 449 000 492 000 1 958 000 22.8 4.6 18.2 2.54 21 75.0 72.4 77.4
2005–2010 2 355 000 513 000 1 841 000 20.6 4.5 16.1 2.37 17 76.3 73.7 78.6
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

International migration[edit]

Immigration to Mexico[edit]

Main article: Immigration to Mexico

Aside from the original Spanish colonists, many Europeans immigrated to Mexico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Non-Spanish immigrant groups included British, Irish, Italian, German, French and Dutch.[19] Large numbers of Middle Eastern immigrants arrived in Mexico during the same period, mostly from Syria and Lebanon.[20] Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese via the United States settled in northern Mexico, whereas Koreans settled in central Mexico.[21]

During the 1970s and 1980s Mexico opened its doors to immigrants from Latin America, mainly political refugees from Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Peru, Brazil, Colombia and Central America. The PRI governments in power for most of the 20th century had a policy of granting asylum to fellow Latin Americans fleeing political persecution in their home countries. A second wave of immigrants has come to Mexico as a result of the economic crises experienced by some countries in the region. The Argentine community is quite significant estimated to be somewhere between 11,000 and 30,000.[22][23]

Due to the 2008 Financial Crisis and the resulting economic decline and high unemployment in Spain, many Spaniards have been emigrating to Mexico to seek new opportunities.[24] For example, during the last quarter of 2012, a number of 7,630 work permits were granted to Spaniards.[25]

Mexico is also the country where the largest number of American citizens live abroad, with Mexico City playing host to the largest number of American citizens abroad in the world. The American Citizens Abroad Association estimated in 1999 that a little more than one million Americans live in Mexico (which represent 1% of the population in Mexico and 25% of all American citizens living abroad).[26] This immigration phenomenon could well be explained by the interaction of both countries under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), but also by the fact that Mexico has become a popular destination for retirees, especially the small towns: just in the State of Guanajuato, in San Miguel de Allende and its surroundings, 10,000 Americans have their residence.[27]

Discrepancies between the figures of official legal aliens and all foreign-born residents is quite large. The official figure for foreign-born residents in Mexico in 2000 was 493,000,[28] with a majority (86.9%) of these born in the United States (except Chiapas, where the majority of immigrants are from Central America). The six states with the most immigrants are Baja California (12.1% of total immigrants), Mexico City (the Federal District; 11.4%), Jalisco (9.9%), Chihuahua (9%) and Tamaulipas (7.3%).[28]

Emigration from Mexico[edit]

The national net migration rate in Mexico is negative, estimated at -4.32 migrant per 1,000 population. The great majority of Mexican emigrants have moved to the United States of America. This migration phenomenon is not new, but it has been a defining feature in the relationship of both countries for most of the twentieth century.[29] Since World Wars I and II, the United States government approved the recruitment of Mexican workers in their territory, and tolerated unauthorized migration to obtain additional farm and industrial workers to fill the necessary spots vacated by the population in war, and to supply the increase in the demand for labor. Nonetheless, the United States unilaterally ended the program as a result of activities of civil rights groups.[29] In spite of that, emigration of Mexicans continued throughout the rest of the century at varying degrees. It grew significantly during the 1990s and has continued to do so in the first years of the 2000s. In fact, it has been estimated that 37% of all Mexican immigrants to the United States in the 20th century arrived during the 1990s.[29] In 2000 approximately 20 million American residents identified themselves as either Mexican, Mexican-Americans or of Mexican origin, making it the sixth most cited ancestry of all US residents.[30]

INEGI forecasted in 2000 that about eight million Mexican-born individuals live in the United States of America. That is 8.7% of the total Mexican population.[31] In that same year, the states with the greatest number of emigrants to the United States were Jalisco (170,793), Michoacán (165,502) and Guanajuato (163,338), with the total number of emigrants being 1,569,157. The great majority of these were men.[32] Approximately 30% of emigrants come from rural communities.[33] That same year, 260,650 emigrants returned to Mexico.[34] According to the Pew Hispanic Center in 2006, ten percent of Mexico's citizens live in the United States.[35] The population of Mexican immigrants residing illegally in the US fell from around seven million in 2007 to 6.1 million in 2011 [36] This tendency has been linked to the economic downturn that started in 2008 and which meant fewer available jobs, and to the introduction of tough immigration laws in many states.[37][38][39][40] According to the Pew Hispanic Center the total number of Mexican born persons had stagnated in 2010, and tended toward going into negative figures.[41]

After the Mexican-American community, Mexican Canadians are the second largest group with over 50,000,[citation needed] population. In the Philippines there is a numerous group mestizos of Mexican descent.[citation needed] Mexicans live throughout Latin America, but also in Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and United Arab Emirates.

Emigration list from Mexico[42]
Mexican residents in the world by countries
Country Population Position Continent
 United States 9,900,000[43] 1 North America
 Canada 36,225[44] 2 North America
 Spain 15,399[45] 3 Europe
 Guatemala 14,481[46] 4 Central America
 Bolivia 13,377[47] 5 South America
 Germany 8,848[48] 6 Europe
 Argentina 6,750[49] 7 South America
 United Kingdom 5,125[50] 8 Europe
 France 4,601[51] 9 Europe
 Israel 4,252[52] 10 Asia
 Netherlands 3,758[53] 11 Europe
 Italy 3,485[53] 12 Europe
 Venezuela 3,075[54] 13 South America
 Belize 2,349[55] 14 Central America
 Costa Rica 2,327[56] 15 Central America
 Panama 2,299[57] 16 Central America
 Colombia 2,286[58] 17 South America
 Sweden 1,977[59] 18 Europe
 Chile 1,874[60] 19 South America
 Paraguay 1,778[61] 20 South America
The list includes also temporal residents (1–3 years stay)

Cities and metropolitan areas[edit]

Settlements, cities and municipalities[edit]

Most populated municipalities
Palacio de Gobierno y Plaza de Armas.JPG
Municipality of Guadalajara
Municipality Pop. (2005)
Ecatepec de Morelos 1,688,258
Guadalajara 1,600,940
Puebla 1,485,941
Tijuana 1,410,700
León 1.325.210
Juárez 1,313,338

In 2005 Mexico had 187,938 localidades (lit. "localities" or "settlements"), which are census-designated places, which could be defined as a small town, a large city, or simply as a single unit housing in a rural area whether situated remotely or even close to an urban area. A city is defined to be a settlement with more than 2,500 inhabitants. In 2005 there were 2,640 cities with a population between 2,500 and 15,000 inhabitants, 427 with a population between 15,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, 112 with a population between 100,000 and one million, and 11 with a population of more than one million.[62] All cities are considered "urban areas" and represent 76.5% of total population. Settlements with less than 2,500 inhabitants are considered "rural communities" (in fact, more than 80,000 of those settlements have only one or two housing units). Rural population in Mexico is 22.2% of total population.[62]

Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) and boroughs (delegaciones in Spanish) are incorporated places in Mexico, that is, second or third-level political divisions with internal autonomy, legally prescribed limits, powers and functions. In terms of second-level political divisions there are 2,438 municipalities and Mexico and 16 semi-autonomous boroughs (all within the Federal District). A municipality can be constituted by one or more cities one of which is the cabecera municipal (municipal seat). Cities are usually contained within the limits of a single municipality, with a few exceptions in which small areas of one city may extend to other adjacent municipalities without incorporating the city which serves as the municipal seat of the adjacent municipality. Some municipalities or cities within municipalities are further divided into delegaciones or boroughs. However, unlike the boroughs of the Federal District, these are third-level administrative divisions; they have very limited autonomy and no elective representatives.

Municipalities in central Mexico are usually very small in area and thus coextensive with cities (as is the case of Guadalajara, Puebla and León), whereas municipalities in northern and southeastern Mexico are much larger and usually contain more than one city or town that may not necessarily conform a single urban agglomeration (as is the case of Tijuana).

Metropolitan areas[edit]

A metropolitan area in Mexico is defined to be the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city.[63] In 2004, a joint effort between CONAPO, INEGI and the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) agreed to define metropolitan areas as either:[63]

  • the group of two or more municipalities in which a city with a population of at least 50,000 is located whose urban area extends over the limit of the municipality that originally contained the core city incorporating either physically or under its area of direct influence other adjacent predominantly urban municipalities all of which have a high degree of social and economic integration or are relevant for urban politics and administration; or
  • a single municipality in which a city of a population of at least one million is located and fully contained, (that is, it does not transcend the limits of a single municipality); or
  • a city with a population of at least 250,000 which forms a conurbation with other cities in the United States of America.

In 2004 there were 55 metropolitan areas in Mexico, in which close to 53% of the country's population lives. The most populous metropolitan area in Mexico is the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, or Greater Mexico City, which in 2005 had a population of 19.23 million, or 19% of the nation's population. The next four largest metropolitan areas in Mexico are Greater Guadalajara (4.1 million), Greater Monterrey (3.7 million), Greater Puebla (2.1 million) and Greater Toluca (1.6 million),[64] whose added population, along with Greater Mexico City, is equivalent to 30% of the nation's population. Greater Mexico City was the fastest growing metropolitan area in the country since the 1930s until the late 1980s. Since then, the country has slowly become economically and demographically less centralized. From 2000 to 2005 the average annual growth rate of Greater Mexico City was the lowest of the five largest metropolitan areas, whereas the fastest growing metropolitan area was Puebla (2.0%) followed by Monterrey (1.9%), Toluca (1.8%) and Guadalajara (1.8%).[64]


Ciudad.de.Mexico.City.Distrito.Federal.DF.Paseo.Reforma.Skyline.jpg
Mexico City
GuadalajaraNOW copy.jpg
Guadalajara
Monterrey nightview.png
Monterrey
Ranks Core city State Metro area population
Catedral de Puebla en paisaje..jpg
Puebla
Toluca a los pies del nevado.jpg
Toluca
Rio Zone, Tijuana.jpg
Tijuana
1 Mexico City  Federal District 20,137,152
2 Guadalajara  Jalisco 4,434,878
3 Monterrey  Nuevo León 4,106,054
4 Puebla  Puebla 2,728,790
5 Toluca  México 1,936,126
6 Tijuana  Baja California 1,751,430
7 León  Guanajuato 1,609,504
8 Juárez  Chihuahua 1,495,094
9 Torreón  Coahuila 1,275,993
10 Querétaro  Querétaro 1,097,025
11 San Luis Potosí  San Luis Potosí 1,040,443
12 Mérida  Yucatán 973,046
Source: INEGI[65]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Mexico is ethnically diverse. The second article of the Mexican Constitution defines the country to be a pluricultural state originally based on the indigenous peoples[5] and combined with European heritage through the process of colonization and "mestizaje".

Mestizo[edit]

The large majority of Mexicans can be classified as Mestizos, meaning in modern Mexican usage that they identify fully neither with any indigenous culture nor with a particular non-Mexican heritage, but rather identify as having cultural traits and heritage incorporating elements from indigenous and European traditions. By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje. Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of mestizaje.[66][67]

The term "Mestizo" is not in wide use in Mexican society today and has been dropped as a category in population censuses; it is, however, still used in social and cultural studies when referring to the non-indigenous part of the Mexican population. The word has somewhat pejorative connotations and most of the Mexican citizens who would be defined as mestizos in the sociological literature would probably self-identify primarily as Mexicans. In the Yucatán peninsula, the word Mestizo is even used about Maya-speaking populations living in traditional communities, because during the caste war of the late 19th century those Maya who did not join the rebellion were classified as mestizos, so the term "mestizo" refers someone who has a mixed culture (Spanish and indigenous), not the genetic composition.[68] In Chiapas, the word "Ladino" is used instead of mestizo.[69]

Indigenous peoples[edit]

Largest indigenous peoples
Mayas in Chiapas
Group Number
Nahua peoples (Nawatlaka) 2,445,969
Maya (Maaya) 1,475,575
Zapotec (Binizaa) 777,253
Mixtec (Ñuu sávi) 726,601
Otomí (Hñähñü) 646,875
Totonac (Tachihuiin) 411,266
Source: CDI (2000) [6]

Prior to contact with Europeans the indigenous peoples of Mexico had not had any kind of shared identity.[70] Indigenous identity was constructed by the dominant Euro-Mestizo majority and imposed upon the indigenous people as a negatively defined identity, characterized by the lack of assimilation into modern Mexico. Indian identity therefore became socially stigmatizing.[71] Cultural policies in early post-revolutionary Mexico were paternalistic towards the indigenous people, with efforts designed to help indigenous peoples achieve the same level of progress as the rest of society, eventually assimilating indigenous peoples completely to Mestizo Mexican culture, working toward the goal of eventually solving the "Indian problem" by transforming indigenous communities into mestizo communities.[72]

The category of "indígena" (indigenous) can be defined narrowly according to linguistic criteria including only persons that speak one of Mexico's 62 indigenous languages, this is the categorization used by the National Mexican Institute of Statistics. It can also be defined broadly to include all persons who self-identify as having an indigenous cultural background, whether or not they speak the language of the indigenous group they identify with. This means that the percentage of the Mexican population defined as "indigenous" varies according to the definition applied, cultural activists have referred to the usage of the narrow definition of the term for census purposes as "statistical genocide".[73][74]

The constitution not only recognizes the 62 indigenous peoples living in Mexican territory but also grants them autonomy and protects their culture and languages. This protection and autonomy is extended to those Amerindian ethnic groups which have migrated from the United States — like the Cherokees and Kickapoos — and Guatemala during the 19th and 20th centuries. Municipalities in which indigenous peoples are located can keep their normative traditional systems in relation to the election of their municipal authorities. This system is known as Usos y Costumbres, roughly translated as "customs and traditions".

According to official statistics —as reported by the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples or CDI— Amerindians make up 10-14%[75] of the country's population, more than half of them (5.4% of total population) speak an indigenous language and a tenth (1.2% of total population) do not speak Spanish.[76] Official statistics of the CDI[77] report that the states with the greatest percentage of people who speak an Amerindian language or identify as Amerindian are Yucatán (59%), Oaxaca (48%), Quintana Roo (39%), Chiapas (28%), Campeche (27%), Hidalgo (24%), Puebla (19%), Guerrero (17%), San Luis Potosí (15%) and Veracruz (15%). Oaxaca is the state with the greatest number of distinct indigenous peoples and languages in the country.

Mexicans of European descent[edit]

See also: White-Mexican

A group of Mexicans are considered to be of entirely European heritage. Most of these are descendants of the Spanish colonial population called criollo mainly in northeastern Mexico, northwestern Mexico and the state of Jalisco. However, other immigrants arrived during the Second Mexican Empire (mostly French) and during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Most of them came from Italy, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Germany.[19][78] White Americans, Croats, Armenians, Greeks, Germans, Polish, Romanians, Russians and Ashkenazi Jews,[78] along with many Spanish refugees fleeing the Spanish Civil War of 1937 who also immigrated seeking asylum or better economic prospects.[79] The European Jewish immigrants joined the Sephardic community that lived in Mexico since colonial times, though many lived as Crypto-Jews, mostly in the northern states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas.[80] Some communities of European immigrants have remained isolated from the rest of the general population since their arrival, amongst them the Dutch Mennonites of Chihuahua and Durango,[81] the Venetos of Chipilo, Puebla, which have retained their original languages.[82]

Other ethnic groups[edit]

Mexico has had a small population of people of African descent since colonial times. Many are the descendants of slaves brought to Mexico, others the descendants of immigrants from Cuba, the United States, Haiti, and other countries. Mexicans of African descent are particularly numerous in the Costa Chica region of Guerrero and Oaxaca, and along the coast of Veracruz.

Other groups of immigrants include people of Lebanese and Syrian origin[20] present in significant numbers in Puebla and Yucatán, as well as Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and Koreans.[21] The largest concentrations of East Asians are in Baja California with a large Chinatown in Mexicali known as La Chinesca on the US-Mexican border. There are various others unmentioned here.

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Mexico

The most important and de facto official language in Mexico is Spanish. Mexican Spanish is spoken in a variety of dialects, accents and variations in different regions across the country.

The Law of Linguistic Rights, published in 2001, declared the 62 indigenous languages spoken in Mexico as "national languages", with the "same validity" in all territories and contexts where they are spoken. The population of 5 years or older who speak an indigenous language increased from 5,282,347 in 2000 to 6,044,547 in 2005 and 6,695,228 in 2010.[83] The indigenous language with the greatest number of speakers is Nahuatl (1,586,884 speakers in 2010 or 1.5% of the nation's population), followed by Yucatec Maya (796,405 speakers in 2010 0.8%) spoken Yucatán Peninsula, Mixtecas languages (494,454), Tzeltal (474,298), Zapotecas languages (460,683), Tzotzil (429,168), Otomí (288,052), Totonaca (250,252) Mazateco (230,124), Chol (222,051) and 1,462,857 speakers of other languages. After half a century of rural-to-urban migration, in Mexico City and other major cities large districts and sections use both written and spoken Amerindian languages.

During the first half of the 20th century the government promoted a policy of castellanización, that is, promoting the use of Spanish as a way to integrate indigenous peoples into Mexican society. Later, this policy changed, and since the 1980s the government has sponsored bilingual and intercultural education in all indigenous communities. This policy has mainly been successful in large communities with a significant amount of speakers. While some languages, with less than 1,000 speakers, are still facing extinction.

Map of the national indigenous languages with more than 100,000 speakers

The second most spoken language in Mexico, however, is English. It is used extensively at border areas, tourist centers and large metropolitan areas, a phenomenon arguably caused by the economic integration of North American under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the immigration phenomenon and the return of workers and their families from the United States.[citation needed] In border cities, American TV and radio waves in English (and Spanish) are received as much Spanish-speaking radio and TV stations from Mexico on the US side of the border, thus a bilingual cross-cultural exchange is at work.

Among the languages brought to the country by immigrants are the Venetian of Chipilo, and Mennonite Low German spoken in Durango and Chihuahua. Other languages spoken in Mexico include French, German, Russian, Arabic, Occitan, Catalan, Basque, Galician, Asturian, Chinese, Hebrew, Korean, Ladino, Plautdietsch, Armenian, Italian, etc. Even though some of these may have a greater number of speakers than the national languages, they are not recognized by the government.

Mexican nationality and citizenship[edit]

The Constitution of Mexico grants Mexican nationality based on birth and naturalization. Mexican laws regarding nationality by birth are very open. Mexican nationality by birth is granted to:[84]

  • all those individuals born in Mexican territory,
  • all those individuals born outside Mexico, whose father or mother is Mexican by birth,
  • all those individuals born outside Mexico, whose father or mother is Mexican by naturalization,
  • all those individuals born in Mexican aircraft or sea vessels, whether warships or commercial vessels.

Mexican nationality by naturalization is granted to:[84]

  • foreign citizens granted Mexican nationality by the Secretariat of Government (Ministry of the Interior);
  • foreign citizens married to a Mexican national, whether by birth or naturalization.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Mexico
Religion affiliation
Iglesia de Puebla.jpg
Cathedral in Puebla
Religion Pop. professing
Catholics 74,612,373
Protestant and Evangelical

Historic [denominations]
Pentecostalism
Luz del Mundo
Others

4,408,159

599,875
1,373,383
69,254
2,365,647

Other Biblical

Adventism
Mormonism
Jehovah's Witnesses

2,704,917

488,945
1,158,236
1,057,736

Judaism 45,260
No Religion 2,982,929
Not specified 732,630

The Mexican population is predominantly Catholic (83.9% of the population aged five and older, according to the 2010 census),[85] although a smaller percent (46%) attends church on a weekly basis.[86] About 7.6% of the population was classified as Protestant or Evangelical, 2.5% were classified as "Non-Evangelical Biblical" (a classification that groups Adventists, Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses), 0.05% as practicing Jews, and 4.6% without a religion.[87] The largest group of Protestants are Pentecostals and Charismatics (classified as Neo-Pentecostals).

The states with the greatest percentage or professing Catholics are central states, namely Guanajuato (96.4%), Aguascalientes (95.6%) and Jalisco (95.4%), whereas southeastern states have the least percentage of Catholics, namely Chiapas (63.8%), Tabasco (70.4%) and Campeche (71.3%).[87] The percentage of professing Catholics has been decreasing over the last four decades, from over 98% in 1950 to 87.9% in 2000. Average annual growth of Catholic believers from 1990 to 2000 was 1.7% whereas that of Non-Catholics was 3.7%.[88] Given that average annual population increase over the same time period was 1.8%,[89] the percentage of Catholics with respect to total population is still decreasing.

Unlike some other countries in Latin America or Ibero-America, the 1857 Mexican Constitution drastically separated Church and State. The State does not support or provide any economic resource for the Church (as is the case in Spain and Argentina),[90] and the Church cannot participate in public education (no public school can be operated by a Catholic order, even though they can participate in private education). Moreover, the government nationalized all the Church's properties (some of which were given back in the 1990s), and priests lost the right to vote or to be voted for (in the 1990s they were given back the right to vote).

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html
  2. ^ "CONAPO". Retrieved August 6, 2014. 
  3. ^ Statistics on the total population in Mexico, International Monetary Fund. October 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
  4. ^ From Mexican Migration Policies
  5. ^ Población total por grupos quinquenales de edad según sexo, 1950 a 2005
  6. ^ Tasa global de fecundidad, 1976 a 2006
  7. ^ Tasa de crecimiento media anual de la población por entidad federativa, 1990 a 2005
  8. ^ Tasas de inmigración, emigración y migración neta por entidad federativa, 1995–2000
  9. ^ Mexican Immigration to the US: The Latest Estimates
  10. ^ Census Bureau Summary File 3
  11. ^ Proyecciones de la Población de México 2005–2050
  12. ^ Hufbauer GC and Schott, JJ, NAFTA Revisited, Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C. 2005
  13. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
  14. ^ INEGI - Natalidad y fecundidad
  15. ^ [1] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  16. ^ http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/sisept/Default.aspx?t=mdemo14&s=est&c=17533
  17. ^ http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/sisept/Default.aspx?t=mdemo127&s=est&c=23595
  18. ^ http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/sisept/Default.aspx?t=mdemo16&s=est&c=17535
  19. ^ a b Asociaciones de Inmigrantes Extranjeros en la Ciudad de México. Una Mirada a Fines del Siglo XX
  20. ^ a b Los árabes de México. Asimilación y herencia cultural
  21. ^ a b Conmemoran 100 años de inmigración coreana
  22. ^ Migrantes, votos, remesas
  23. ^ Argentinos en México
  24. ^ http://newamericamedia.org/2013/02/as-spains-economy-worsens-young-adults-flock-to-mexico-for-jobs.php
  25. ^ Forbes http://www.forbes.com/sites/nathanielparishflannery/2013/04/30/as-spain-falters-spaniards-look-to-latin-america/ |url= missing title (help). 
  26. ^ American Citizens Abroad
  27. ^ Retiring Americans, Go south, old man by The Economist
  28. ^ a b Población nacida en otro país residente en México por entidad federativa según sexo, 2000
  29. ^ a b c Mexico-US Migration in Nafta Revisited by the International Institute of Economics.
  30. ^ The Hispanic Population in the United States
  31. ^ Indicadores seleccionados de la población nacida en México residente en Estados Unidos de América, 1970 a 2000.
  32. ^ Población emigrante a Estados Unidos de América por entidad federativa según sexo, 2000.
  33. ^ Distribución porcentual de la población emigrante a Estados Unidos de América por tamaño de la localidad de residencia para cada sexo, 1990 a 1995 y 1995 a 2000.
  34. ^ Población migrante de retorno de Estados Unidos de América por entidad federativa según sexo, 2000
  35. ^ Lizette Alvarez (20 December 2006). "A Growing Stream of Illegal Immigrants Choose to Remain Despite the Risks". New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2013. 
  36. ^ http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2012/apr/24/tp-mexican-migration-appears-to-be-in-reverse/
  37. ^ http://www.newsday.com/opinion/oped/navarrette-the-mexican-reverse-migration-1.3686534
  38. ^ "Mexicans feeling persecuted flee U.S. - CNN.com". CNN. November 27, 2012. 
  39. ^ "L.A. Now". Los Angeles Times. October 23, 2012. 
  40. ^ Preston, Julia (July 31, 2008). "Decline Seen in Numbers of People Here Illegally". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  41. ^ http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/04/23/net-migration-from-mexico-falls-to-zero-and-perhaps-less/
  42. ^ Mexicans in the World (Spanish Wikipedia)
  43. ^ conapo.gob.mx; Mexicanos en Estados Unidos
  44. ^ statcan.ca; Mexicanos en Canadá Censo de 2001
  45. ^ Mexicanos en España INE 2007
  46. ^ Investigación de la Migración Internacional en Latinoamérica (IMILA).
  47. ^ Bolivia - Censo de Población y Vivienda 2001
  48. ^ Statische Bundesamt Deutschland
  49. ^ Argentina - Población extrenjera residente en Argentina de 2000–2008
  50. ^ ime.gob.mx; Mexicanos en Reino Unido
  51. ^ INED
  52. ^ Investigación de la Migración Internacional en Israel
  53. ^ a b Istat
  54. ^ INE
  55. ^ 2000 Housing and Population Census
  56. ^ Censo de Población y Vivienda 2000
  57. ^ Censo de Población y Vivienda 2000 - Jerarquía Censal
  58. ^ Colombia - Sistema de Consulta Información Censal (Censo 2005)
  59. ^ Mexicanos en países escandinavos
  60. ^ Chile - Censos Nacionales de Población y Vivienda 1992 y 2002
  61. ^ Censo Nacional de Población y Viviendas 2002
  62. ^ a b II Conteo de población y vivienda 2005
  63. ^ a b CONAPO Áreas Metropolitanas
  64. ^ a b Síntesis de resultados 2005
  65. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (2008). "Perfil sociodemográfico de Yucatán". p. 8. Retrieved September 19, 2010. 
  66. ^ Wade, Peter. 1997. Race and Ethnicity in Latin America. Pluto Press.
  67. ^ Knight, Alan. 1990. "Racism, Revolution and indigenismo: Mexico 1910–1940". Chapter 4 in The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870–1940. Richard Graham (ed.) pp.  pp. 78-85)
  68. ^ Bartolomé, Miguel Alberto. (1996) "Pluralismo cultural y redefinicion del estado en México". in Coloquio sobre derechos indígenas, Oaxaca, IOC.[2] p. 2)
  69. ^ Wade (1997:44-47)
  70. ^ Knight (1990:75)
  71. ^ Friedlander, Judith. 1975. Being Indian in Hueyapan: A Study of Forced Identity in Contemporary Mexico. New York: Saint Martin's Press.
  72. ^ Bartolomé, Miguel Alberto. (1996) "Pluralismo cultural y redefinicion del estado en México". in Coloquio sobre derechos indígenas, Oaxaca, IOC.[3] p.5)
  73. ^ Knight, Alan. 1990. "Racism, Revolution and indigenismo: Mexico 1910–1940". Chapter 4 in The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870–1940. Richard Graham (ed.) pp.  pp.73-74)
  74. ^ Bartolomé, Miguel Alberto. (1996) "Pluralismo cultural y redefinicion del estado en México". in Coloquio sobre derechos indígenas, Oaxaca, IOC.[4] pp. 3-4)
  75. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/379167/Mexico,
  76. ^ "POBLACIÓN DE 5 AÑOS Y MÁS POR ENTIDAD FEDERATIVA, SEXO Y GRUPOS LENGUA INDÍGENA QUINQUENALES DE EDAD, Y SU DISTRIBUCIÓN SEGÚN CONDICIÓN DE HABLA INDÍGENA Y HABLA ESPAÑOLA" (PDF). INEGI, México. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  77. ^ CDI
  78. ^ a b Los Extranjeros en México, La inmigración y el gobierno ¿Tolerancia o intolerancia religiosa?
  79. ^ Refugiados españoles en México
  80. ^ Nexos entre los cripto-judios coloniales y contemporáneos
  81. ^ Menonitas en México
  82. ^ El dialecto veneto de Chipilo
  83. ^ http://www.inegi.gob.mx/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/censos/poblacion/2010/princi_result/cpv2010_principales_resultadosVI.pdf
  84. ^ a b Artículo 30. Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.
  85. ^ Volumen y porcentaje de la población según profese alguna religión y tipo de religión, 1895 a 2010
  86. ^ Church attendance in Latin America
  87. ^ a b Población de 5 años y más por entidad federativa, sexo y religión y su distribución según grupos quinquenales de edad.
  88. ^ Tasa de crecimiento media anual de la población según credo religioso para cada período decenal, 1950 a 2000
  89. ^ Tasa de crecimiento media anual de la población, 1950 a 2005
  90. ^ Constitución Nacional de la República Argentina

External links[edit]