Demographics of Montenegro

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Montenegro, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Total population[edit]

Population censuses in 1921–2011[1][edit]

census date population population density
(per km2)
1921 311,341 22.5
1931 360,044 26.1
1948 377,189 27.3
1953 419,873 30.4
1961 471,894 34.2
1971 529,604 38.3
1981 584,310 42.3
1991 615,035 44.5
2003 620,145 44.9
2011 620,029 44.9

The 2003 census was undertaken by Montenegro, which, together with Serbia, constituted Serbia and Montenegro. The census population was 620,145 (including diaspora 672,656).

  • According to a 2005 estimate made by the Statistical Office of Montenegro, Montenegro has about 623,000 inhabitants. [2]
  • According to a 2006 estimate made by the Statistical Office of Montenegro, Montenegro has about 624,000 inhabitants. [3]
  • According to a 2007 estimate made by the Statistical Office of Montenegro, Montenegro has about 625,000 inhabitants. [4]
  • According to a 2008 estimate made by the Statistical Office of Montenegro, Montenegro has 627,478 inhabitants. [5]

Age structure[edit]

census date 0–14 years 15–64 years 65 years or older
1921 37.7% 56.3% 6.0%
1931 36.5% 57.2% 6.3%
1948 38.3% 54.4% 7.4%
1953 35.5% 57.1% 7.4%
1961 36.4% 56.5% 7.1%
1971 31.9% 60.4% 7.6%
1981 27.5% 64.3% 8.2%
1991 25.3% 66.5% 8.2%
2003 20.6% 67.5% 12.0%
2011 19.2% 68.1% 12.8%

Vital statistics[edit]

Montenegros statistics body maintains demographic information:[2]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate (per 1000 births) Life expectancy males Life expectancy females
1947 372 10 800 4 300 6 500 29.0 11.6 17.5
1948 380 11 600 4 600 7 000 30.5 12.1 18.4 4,41
1949 389 12 600 4 700 7 900 32.4 12.1 20.3 4,63
1950 397 11 904 3 682 8 222 30.0 9.3 20.7 4,33
1951 407 12 898 4 416 8 482 31.7 10.9 20.8 4,70 84.7
1952 415 13 308 3 859 9 449 32.1 9.3 22.8 4,54
1953 422 13 880 4 775 9 105 32.9 11.3 21.6 4,57
1954 428 14 428 3 862 10 566 33.7 9.0 24.7 4,55
1955 435 13 550 3 935 9 615 31.1 9.0 22.1 4,11
1956 441 13 654 3 871 9 783 31.0 8.8 22.2 4,00
1957 447 13 751 4 172 9 579 30.8 9.3 21.4 3,93
1958 453 13 684 3 537 10 147 30.2 7.8 22.4 3,80
1959 460 12 614 3 469 9 145 27.4 7.5 19.9 3,43
1960 467 13 127 3 583 9 544 28.1 7.7 20.4 3,51
1961 474 12 994 3 335 9 659 27.4 7.0 20.4 3,46 61.4
1962 481 13 006 3 747 9 259 27.0 7.8 19.2 3,43
1963 487 12 982 3 454 9 528 26.7 7.1 19.6 3,32
1964 493 12 599 3 550 9 049 25.6 7.2 18.4 3,28
1965 499 12 333 3 431 8 902 24.7 6.9 17.8 3,20
1966 505 12 209 3 199 9 010 24.2 6.3 17.8 3,13
1967 510 11 486 3 385 8 101 22.5 6.6 15.9 2,92
1968 515 11 027 3 429 7 598 21.4 6.7 14.8 2,79
1969 520 11 259 3 325 7 934 21.7 6.4 15.3 2,84
1970 525 10 636 3 516 7 120 20.3 6.7 13.6 2,64
1971 531 10 866 3 264 7 602 20.5 6.1 14.3 2,69 27.8
1972 539 10 938 3 512 7 426 20.3 6.5 13.8 2,62
1973 546 10 665 3 304 7 361 19.5 6.1 13.5 2,50
1974 554 10 551 3 199 7 352 19.0 5.8 13.3 2,41
1975 561 10 557 3 279 7 278 18.8 5.8 13.0 2,32
1976 568 10 711 3 465 7 246 18.9 6.1 12.8 2,31
1977 575 10 738 3 559 7 179 18.7 6.2 12.5 2,25
1978 582 10 584 3 660 6 924 18.2 6.3 11.9 2,17
1979 585 10 365 3 826 6 539 17.7 6.5 11.2 2,09
1980 583 10 542 3 703 6 839 18.1 6.4 11.7 2,15
1981 586 10 335 3 680 6 655 17.6 6.3 11.4 2,16 21.7
1982 593 10 579 3 618 6 961 17.8 6.1 11.7 2,23
1983 599 10 657 4 194 6 463 17.8 7.0 10.8 2,15
1984 606 10 521 3 915 6 606 17.4 6.5 10.9 2,09
1985 613 10 724 3 926 6 798 17.5 6.4 11.1 2,11
1986 619 10 455 3 922 6 533 16.9 6.3 10.6 2,03
1987 626 10 567 3 990 6 577 16.9 6.4 10.5 2,03
1988 632 10 190 3 661 6 529 16.1 5.8 10.3 1,95
1989 638 9 634 3 833 5 801 15.1 6.0 9.1 1,84
1990 644 9 257 3 519 5 738 14.4 5.5 8.9 1,82
1991 592 9 606 3 970 5 636 16.2 6.7 9.5 2,06 11.1
1992 594 9 524 4 393 5 131 16.0 7.4 8.6 2,10
1993 596 8 922 4 471 4 451 15.0 7.5 7.5 1,97
1994 599 8 887 4 660 4 227 14.8 7.8 7.1 1,95
1995 601 9 492 4 931 4 561 15.8 8.2 7.6 2,05
1996 603 9 094 4 982 4 112 15.1 8.3 6.8 1,90
1997 606 8 758 5 153 3 605 14.5 8.5 5.9 1,76
1998 608 9 211 5 312 3 899 15.1 8.7 6.4 1,87
1999 610 8 828 5 393 3 435 14.5 8.8 5.6 1,78
2000 613 9 184 5 412 3 772 15.0 8.8 6.2 1.85 11.4
2001 615 8 839 5 431 3 408 14.4 8.8 5.5 1.79 14.6
2002 617 8 499 5 513 2 986 13.8 8.9 4.8 1.91 10.8
2003 618 8 344 5 704 2 640 13.5 9.2 4.3 1.84 11.0
2004 621 7 849 5 707 2 142 12.6 9.2 3.5 1.71 7.8
2005 624 7 352 5 839 1 513 11.8 9.4 2.4 1.60 9.5
2006 624 7 531 5 968 1 563 12.1 9.6 2.5 1.64 11.0
2007 626 7 834 5 979 1 855 12.5 9.5 3.0 1.69 7.4
2008 629 8 258 5 708 2 550 13.1 9.1 4.1 1.80 7.5
2009 632 8 642 5 862 2 780 13.7 9.3 4.4 1.85 5.7
2010 6191 7 418 5 633 1 785 12.0 9.1 2.9 1.66 6.7
2011 621 7 215 5 847 1 368 11.6 9.4 2.2 1.65 4.4
2012[3] 620 7 459 5 922 1 537 12.0 9.5 2.5 1.71
2013 620 7 475 5 917 1 558 12.1 9.5 2.6
1 The population was adjusted to the 2011 census.

Nationality/Ethnicity[edit]

Ethnic population 1948–20111[edit]

The vast majority (over 90%) of the population of Montenegro is of Slavic origin. Albanians make up 5 percent of the population (4.9% at the 2011 census), while there is also a small Romani minority (0.8% at the 2011 census). The Slavic population of Montenegro uses a large diversity in ethnic identities to describe their ethnicity. During the first decades after WW II most Slavic people identified themselves as Montenegrins, with less than 2% Serbs and less than 2% Croats in 1948. During the last decades of the existence of Yugoslavia up to 5% of the population declared themselves Yugoslavs (South-Slavs). During and after the Yugoslav Wars the ethnic identity of the Serbs (and in general the political influence of Serbia) became increasingly important in Montenegro and at the 2003 census almost one third of the population identified themselves as Serbs. The Serbs live mostly along the borders with Bosnia and Serbia, while the Montenegrins live in the center of the country. The Slavic population are in majority Orthodox Christians, but there is also a large Muslim minority, like in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although most of the Slavic Muslims initially also identified themselves as Montenegrins, gradually over time more and more Slavic Muslims started to use Muslim as an ethnic identity instead of only a religious identity. After the Yugoslav Wars this changed again and at the 2003 and 2011 census most Slavic Muslims declared themselves Bosniaks, because they have relations with Bosniaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina and mostly live in the northeast of Montenegro.

Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 census 2003 census 2011
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Montenegrins 342,009 90.7 363,686 86.6 383,988 81.4 355,632 67.2 400,488 68.5 380,647 61.9 267,669 43.2 278,865 45.0
Serbs 6,707 1.8 13,864 3.3 14,087 3.0 39,512 7.5 19,407 3.3 57,453 9.3 198,414 32.0 178,110 28.7
Croats 6,808 1.8 9,814 2.3 10,664 2.3 9,192 1.7 6,904 1.2 6,244 1.0 6,811 1.1 6,021 0.9
Yugoslavs 1,559 0.3 10,943 2.1 31,243 5.3 26,159 4.3 1,860 0.3 1,154 0.2
Muslims 387 0.1 6,424 1.5 30,665 6.5 70,236 13.3 78,080 13.4 89,614 14.6 24,625 4.0 20,537 3.3
Bosniaks 48,184 7.8 53,605 8.6
Albanians 19,425 5.1 23,460 5.6 25,803 5.5 35,671 6.7 37,735 6.5 40,415 6.6 31,163 5.0 30,439 4.9
Romani 162 0.0 230 0.1 183 0.0 396 0.1 1,471 0.3 3,282 0.5 2,601 0.4 5,251 0.8
Macedonians 133 0.0 362 0.1 593 0.1 723 0.1 875 0.1 1,072 0.2 819 0.1 900 0.1
Others/undeclared 1,558 0.4 2,033 0.5 4,352 0.9 7,299 1.4 8,107 1.4 10,149 1.7 37,9992 6.1 30,5474 4.9
Total 377,189 419,873 471,894 529,604 584,310 615,035 620,1453 620,029
1 Source: Statistical Office of Montenegro[dubious ]

2 including 415 Slovenes (0.07%), 362 Hungarians (0.06%), 240 Russians (0.03%), 225 Egyptians (0.04%), 127 Italians (0.02%), 118 Germans (0.02%), 2,180 others (0.31%), no response 26,906 (4.34%), Regional affiliation 1,258 (0.2%), Unknown 6,168 (0.99%)

3 The total population including diaspora was 672,656 (Montenegrins 273,366 or 40.64%, Serbs: 201,892 or 30.01%, Bosniaks: 63,272 or 9.41%, Albanians: 47,682 or 7.09%, Muslims: 28,714 or 4.27%, Croats: 7,062 or 1.05%)

4 including 354 Slovenes (0.05%), 337 Hungarians (0.05%), 946 Russians (0.15%), 2,054 Egyptians (0.33%), 135 Italians (0.02%), 131 Germans (0.02%), 197 Goran (0.03%),194 Turkish (0.03%), 8,090 others (1,30%), Regional affiliation 1,202 (0.2%), Unknown 30,170 (4.8%)

Ethnic structure by region[edit]

Ethnic structure of Montenegro by settlements 2003.
Ethnic structure of Montenegro by settlements 2003.
Ethnic structure of Montenegro by settlements 2003.
Share of Montenegrins in Montenegro by settlements 2003.
Share of Serbs in Montenegro by settlements 2003.
Share of Muslims in Montenegro by settlements 2003.
Share of Albanians in Montenegro by settlements 2003.
Ethnic structure of Montenegro by municipalities 2003.
Ethnic structure of Montenegro by municipalities 2003.
Ethnic structure of Montenegro by municipalities 2003.
Ethnic structure of Montenegro by municipalities 2003.

According to the 2003 census (November 2003 data)

Andrijevica total 6.384

not declared 234 or 3,67% no data 488 or 7,64%

Bar total 45.223

Berane total 40.885

Bijelo Polje total 57.124

other 165 or 0,29% not declared 1.033 or 1,81% no data 1.514 or 2,65%

Budva total 16.095

Cetinje total 18.749

Danilovgrad total 16.400

Herceg Novi total 33971

Kolasin total 9.975

Kotor total 23.481

Mojkovac total 10.274

Niksic total 76.671

Plav total 21.604

Pljevlja total 36.918

Pluzine total 4.294

Podgorica total 179.403

Rozaje total 27.562

Savnik total 2.972

Tivat total 13.991

Ulcinj total 26.435

Zabljak total 4.245

This census witnessed the forming of the Bosniak nation; although there are still people who declare themselves as Muslims by nationality. Also, there are very few people left who consider themselves Yugoslavs. Also a noticeable difference compared to 1991 census is the reemerging in the number of Serbs, from nearly 60,000 to 200,000 in a decade (compared to 1931s 90% strong Serb community).

Others include small ethnic groups of perceived non-European/Slavic origins: Romani, Balkan Egyptians and Black Montenegrins who are thought to be local Turks.

Linguistic structure[edit]

Linguistic map of the Republic of Montenegro according to the 2003 census.
Linguistic structure of Montenegro by municipalities 2003.
Linguistic structure of Montenegro by municipalities 2003.

Religious structure[edit]

Religion map of the Republic of Montenegro according to the 2003 census.
Religious structure of Montenegro by municipalities 2003.
Religious structure of Montenegro by municipalities 2003.
See also: Serbian Orthodox Church, Montenegrin Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar, Islam in Montenegro

Refugees from Kosovo[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]