Demographics of Montreal
The Demographics of Montreal concern population growth and structure for Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The information is analyzed by Statistics Canada and compiled every five years, with the most recent census having taken place in 2011.
- 1 Population history
- 2 Ethnicities
- 3 Ethnic origin
- 4 Language
- 5 Religion
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Notes
- 9 Further reading
|Population of Montreal, and Metropolitan Area by year|
According to Statistics Canada, at the time of the 2011 Canadian census the city of Montreal proper had 1,649,519 inhabitants. A total of 3,824,221 lived in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) at the same 2011 census, up from 3,635,556 at the 2006 census (within 2006 CMA boundaries), which means a population growth rate of +5.2% between 2006 and 2011. Montreal has been growing more slowly than many other Canadian cities.
In the 2006 census, children under 14 years of age (621,695) constituted 17.1%, while inhabitants over 65 years of age (495,685) numbered 13.6% of the total population.
According to a recently published report by the city of Montreal, the population of the island is expected to number 1,991,200 by 2012, with 3.9 million in the Greater Montreal Area, an increase of 15.8% over 2001. The current estimate of the Montreal CMA population, as of July 1, 2013, according to Statistics Canada is 3,981,802. According to StatsCan, by 2030, the Greater Montreal Area is expected to number 5,275,000 with 1,722,000 being visible minorities.
Some 26% of the population of Montreal and 16.5% that of Greater Montreal, are members of a visible minority (non-white) group. Blacks contribute to the largest minority group, with Montreal having the 2nd highest number of Blacks in Canada after Toronto. Other groups, such as Arabs, Latin Americans, South Asians, and Chinese are also large in number. " Visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginals, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour."
|Visible minority and Aboriginal population|
|Population group||Population (2011)||% of total population (2011)||Population (2006)||% of total population (2006)|
|Visible minority group||South Asian||53,515||3.3%||51,255||3.2%|
|Visible minority, n.i.e.||4,435||0.3%||2,385||0.1%|
|Multiple visible minorities||10,150||0.6%||6,820||0.4%|
|Total visible minority population||510,665||31.7%||414,830||26%|
|Aboriginal group||First Nations||5,080||0.3%||4,285||0.3%|
|Multiple Aboriginal identities||220||0%||95||0%|
|Total Aboriginal population||9,510||0.6%||7,600||0.5%|
|North American Indian||74,565||2%|
Montreal is the cultural centre of Quebec, French-speaking Canada and French-speaking North America as a whole, and an important city in the Francophonie. The majority of the population is francophone. Montreal is the largest French-speaking city in North America, and second in the world after Paris when counting the number of native-language Francophones (third after Paris and Kinshasa when counting second-language speakers). The city is a hub for French language television productions, radio, theatre, circuses, performing arts, film, multimedia and print publishing.
Montreal plays a prominent role in the development of French-Canadian and Québécois culture. Its contribution to culture is therefore more of a society-building endeavour rather than limited to civic influence. The best talents from French Canada and even the French-speaking areas of the United States converge in Montreal and often perceive the city as their cultural capital. Montreal is also the most important stop in the Americas for Francophone artists from Europe, Africa and Asia.
The cultural divide between Canada's Francophone and Anglophone culture is strong and was famously referred to as the "Two Solitudes" by Canadian writer Hugh MacLennan. Reflecting their deep-seated colonial roots, the Solitudes were historically strongly entrenched in Montreal, splitting the city geographically at Saint Laurent Boulevard.
Montreal is also the cultural capital for English Quebec. The Montreal Gazette newspaper, McGill University, and the Centaur Theatre are traditional hubs of Anglo culture. Notable English-speaking Montrealers such as Oliver Jones, Leonard Cohen, Oscar Peterson, William Shatner, Nick Auf der Maur, Melissa Auf der Maur and Mordecai Richler have been influential. Anglophones from the Eastern Townships, Ottawa Valley and Northern Quebec enjoy radio and television that is produced in English in Montreal.
Some 30 years after the adoption of the Charter of the French Language, French is the mandated lingua-franca of Montreal's various cultural communities. There are effectively two distinct kinds of English spoken in Montréal; the standard English, with its local idioms and eccentricities, passed down through Anglophone community and its institutions. Then there is 'frenglish' or 'franglais' - a highly malleable combination of both languages into cogent sentences, thoughts and expressions, well-seasoned with local slang borrowed (and often used inter-changeably) from both principle languages. The rate of bilingualism among Montréal Anglophones is estimated to be in excess of 67% with a rapidly growing number among them able to speak three or more languages. It is now common to hear the children of Vietnamese, Italian, Haitian and Arab immigrants speaking French with a distinct Québécois accent, as well as English and their own mother tongues.
While socio-cultural differences and a demonstrable general income disparity between Anglophones and Francophones have led to violence in the past, contemporary Montréal is home to a diverse collection of cultures and peoples who live together quite amicably. Montréal, like many American and Canadian cities, has experienced racial and cultural conflicts during the same specific periods of time as other cities such as the increased racial and linguistic tensions towards the late-1980s and early-1990s, concurrent with similar periods of racial violence in New York City or Los Angeles, or in the late-1960s and early-1970s, at the height of the Civil Rights Era, when Montréal was beset with strikes, armed confrontations with revolutionaries, occupations etc.
Montreal's Italian community is one of the largest in Canada, second only to Toronto. With 250,000 residents of Italian ancestry, Montreal has many Italian districts, such as Little Italy, Saint-Leonard (Città Italiana), R.D.P., and LaSalle. Italian is the 3rd most spoken language in Montreal and in the province of Quebec. There is such a large number of Italian Canadians in Montreal that when Italy won the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the number of Italian Montrealers taking to the streets to celebrate en masse resulted in the closure of many major streets, such as Saint Lawrence Boulevard.
Montreal's Haitian community of 100,000 people is the largest in Canada. Large percentages of Haitians live in Montréal-Nord, Saint-Michel and R.D.P. Today, Haitian Creole is the sixth most spoken language in Montreal and the seventh most spoken language in the province of Quebec.
According to CH (Montreal's multicultural channel) there are now over 117,000 people of Arab origin in Montreal. Montreal has sizeable communities of Lebanese, Syrian, Palestinian and Egyptian origin. The Arab district is St. Laurent, which contains an Arab population of about 32,000 (52 percent of the population).
As of 2005 there were almost 30,000 ethnic Armenians in Montreal.
There are Armenian community institutions such as schools, youth organizations, and churches. The authors of "The Chameleon Character of Multilingual Literacy Portraits: Researching in "Heritage" Language Places and Spaces" wrote that in Montreal "there is no recognizable materially bounded Armenian neighborhood". As of 2005 there are three Armenian schools in Montreal, one of which is a day school, L'École Arménienne Sourp Hagop.
The Armenians first settled Canada in 1880. The first Armenian community in Montreal originally had 225 people.
|This section requires expansion. (March 2014)|
As of 2005 there were an estimated 2,360 ethnic Japanese in Montreal. There are two supplementary Japanese schools in Montreal: the Montreal Japanese Language Centre and the Montreal Hokusho School Inc. (French: École Hoshuko Montréal Inc, Japanese: モントリオール日本語補習校 Montoriōru Nihongo Hoshū Jugyō Kō). The members of the Montreal Shokokai (Japanese Association of Commerce and Industry) manage and assist the administrative and financial aspects of the Montreal Hokusho and have done so since the school's founding. The Montral Hokusho serves both Japanese nationals and Japanese Canadians. Classes are held at the Trafalgar School for Girls.
In 1942 the Canadian government forced ethnic Japanese to move from areas on the West Coast of Canada, so many moved to Montreal. The authors of "The Chameleon Character of Multilingual Literacy Portraits: Researching in "Heritage" Language Places and Spaces" stated that in the immediate post-World War II period, the Japanese in Montreal had a "long invisible presence". Due to requests from Japanese national parents, the Montreal Hokusho School opened in 1972. The Japanese population increased in the 1970s. The opening of two Japanese schools, including Montreal Hokusho, and economic expansion in both Japan and Montreal contributed to the expansion of the Japanese population.
The Japanese school initially had a mission entirely focused on the expatriate population. Because many Japanese corporations and other corporations removed operations from Quebec, enrollment decreased in the 1980s. The school had 95 students in 1989, its peak enrollment. Around that time Japanese Canadians began enrolling in the school, and as fewer Japanese nationals attended, the Hokusho School increasingly began to accommodate the Canadian students.
Greek is the eighth language in importance. The Greek community remains vibrant: several neighborhoods contain a number of Greek-owned businesses and local festivals and churches add the to the multicultural character of the city. The neighbouring city of Laval also has a sizable Greek community, predominantly residing in the borough of Chomedey.
As of 2006 Montreal has Canada's third largest ethnic Chinese population at 72,000 members. As of 2005 there is an estimate of 42,765 ethnic Chinese in Montreal. Of the ethnic minorities, the Chinese are the fourth largest. National origins include Hong Kong, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and Singapore.
The South Shore suburb of Brossard in particular has a high ethnic Chinese population, at 12% of its population. Montreal also has a small Chinatown sandwiched in between Old Montreal, the Quartier international and downtown.
Montreal is host to the second largest Latin American community in Canada at 75,400 (Toronto ranks first, with 99,290). The majority of Latin American Canadians are recent immigrants arriving in the late 20th century who have come from El Salvador, Colombia, Mexico, Chile and Guatemala with relatively smaller communities from the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Venezuela, Nicaragua and Ecuador. Spanish is currently the fifth most spoken language in Montreal.
Montreal's Jewish community is one of the oldest and most populous in the country, formerly first but now second to Toronto and numbering about 100,000 according to the 2001 census. The community is quite diverse, and is composed of many different Jewish ethnic divisions that arrived in Canada at different periods of time and under differing circumstances. Predominant in number and cultural influence throughout much of the 20th century were the European Jews (Ashkenazim) who arrived mostly prior to and following World War II; they settled largely along The Main and in Mile End, a life vividly chronicled by Mordecai Richler. There are also substantial French-speaking groups called Mizrahim, originating from former French colonies in the Middle East and North Africa. In addition, there were a few Spanish Jews (Sepharadim) and again Ashkenazim who had previously settled in Britain and from there moved to Canada as far back as the 18th century. More recent arrivals include significant numbers of Russian, Argentinian, and French Jews as well as some individual Indian Jews, Ethiopian Jews and others. Close to 25% of Montreal's Jewish population have French as their mother tongue. Yiddish is still a living part of the Montreal language mix, amongst for example the substantial Hassidic community.
Demographically smaller as a result of the exodus that came with the instability provoked by Quebec sovereignty movement, Montreal's Jewish community has nevertheless been a leading contributor to the city's cultural landscape and is renowned for its level of charitable giving and its plethora of social service community institutions. Among these are the world renowned Jewish Public Library of Montreal, Saidye Bronfman Centre for the Arts, Dora Wasserman Yiddish Theatre and Montreal Holocaust Memorial Centre.
Jewish culinary contributions have also been a source of pride for Montrealers; two contributions are its smoked meat sandwiches and its distinctive style of bagels. There are many private Jewish schools in Montreal, receiving partial funding of the secular courses in their curriculum from the Quebec government (like most denominational schools in Quebec). Approximately 7,000 children attend Jewish day schools, over 50% of the total Jewish school age population, an extremely high percentage for North American cities.
In terms of mother language (first language learned), the 2006 census reported that in the Greater Montreal Area, 66.5% spoke French as a first language, followed by English at 13.2%, while 0.8% spoke both as a first language. The remaining 22.5% of Montreal-area residents are allophones, speaking languages including Italian (3.5%), |Arabic (3.1%), Spanish (2.6%), Haitian Creole (1.3%), Chinese (1.2%), Greek (1.2%), Portuguese (0.8%), Romanian (0.7%), Vietnamese (0.7%), and Russian (0.5%). In terms of additional languages spoken, a unique feature of Montreal among Canadian cities, noted by Statistics Canada, is the working knowledge of both French and English possessed by most of its residents.
|Note that percentages add up to more than 100% because
some people speak two or more languages at home.
The Greater Montreal Area is predominantly Roman Catholic; however, weekly attendance in Quebec is among the lowest in Canada. Historically Montreal has been a centre of Catholicism in North America with its numerous seminaries and churches, including the Notre-Dame Basilica, the Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. Some 84.6% of the total population is Christian, largely Roman Catholic (74.5%), primarily due to descendants of original French settlers, and others of Italian and Irish origins. Protestants which include Anglican, United Church, Lutheran, owing to British and German immigration, and other denominations number 7.0%, with a further 3.0% consisting mostly of Orthodox Christians, fuelled by a large Greek population. There is also a number of Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox parishes. Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with 100,185 members, the second-largest concentration of Muslims in Canada. The Jewish community in Montreal has a population of 92,970. In cities such as Côte Saint-Luc and Hampstead, Jewish people constitute the majority, or a substantial part of the population. As recently as 1971 the Jewish community in Greater Montreal was as high as 109,480. Political and economic uncertainties led many to leave Montreal and the province of Quebec.
The religious breakdown of the population of Montreal is:
- Maguire, Mary H., Ann J. Beer, Hourig Attarian, Diane Baygin, Xiao Lan Curdt-Christiansen, and Reiko Yoshida (McGill University). "The Chameleon Character of Multilingual Literacy Portraits: Researching in "Heritage" Language Places and Spaces" (Chapter 7). In: Anderson, Jim, Maureen Kendrick, Theresa Rogers, and Suzanne Smythe (editors). Portraits of Literacy Across Families, Communities, and Schools: Intersections and Tensions. Routledge, May 6, 2005. Start page 141. ISBN 1135615535, 9781135615536.
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- Statistics Canada (2002). "Selected Ethnic Origins, for Census Subdivisions". Retrieved 2007-02-22.
- Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census
- "Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census". 2.statcan.ca. 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- , Aboriginal Population Profile from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
- , Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
- , National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
- "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada, Highlight Tables, 2006 Census: Montreal (CMA)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
- citation needed
- Powell, John. Encyclopedia of North American Immigration (Facts on File library of American history). Infobase Publishing. January 1, 2009. ISBN 143811012X, 9781438110127. p. 195.
- Maguire, et al, p. 151.
- Maguire, et al, p. 154.
- Maguire, et al, p. 152.
- Maguire, et al, p. 161.
- Maguire, et al, p. 162.
- "所在地." Montreal Hoshuko School. Retrieved on March 30, 2014.
- Maguire, et al, p. 161-162.
- "Visible minority groups, 2006 counts, for Canada and census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations - 20% sample data". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. April 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
- Maguire, et al, p. 155.
- 2006 Canadian Census: Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlights Tables: Brossard, Quebec
- Maguire, et al, p. 156.
- "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada — Data table". 2.statcan.ca. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- "Montreal (CMA) - Detailed Mother Tongue". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. April 1, 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- (French) Institut de la statistique du Québec. "Tableau 2 - Langue maternelle et langues parlées à la maison, connaissance des langues officielles, 1996, 1991 et 1986 - Régions métropolitaines de recensement" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-03-16.
- "Language Spoken Most Often at Home (8), Language Spoken at Home on a Regular Basis (9), Sex (3) and Age Groups (15) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas 1 and Census Agglomerations, 2001 Census - 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada, 2001 Census of Population. Retrieved 2007-03-16.
- "Population by language spoken most often at home and age groups, 2006 counts, for Canada and census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations – 20% sample data". Retrieved 2007-12-05.
- "Montréal, Quebec (Code 462) and Quebec (Code 24) (table). Census Profile.". Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- CBC Article - Church attendance declining in Canada
- "2001 Community Highlights for Montréal". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- "2001 Community Highlights for Hampstead". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
- "2001 Community Highlights for Côte-Saint-Luc". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
- "The Jewish Communities of Canada". Am Yisrael. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
- Lavoie, Nathalie and Pierre Serre. "From Bloc Voting to Social Voting: The case of Citizenship Issues of Immigration to Montreal, 1995-1996." Peace Research Abstracts 39, no. 6 (2002): 763-957.
- Linteau, Paul-André. Histoire de la ville de Montréal depuis la Confédération. Montreal, Boreal, 1992.
- Marois, Claude. "Cultural Transformations in Montreal since 1970." Journal of Cultural Geography 8, No. 2 (1988): 29-38.
- McNicoll, Claire. Montréal, une société multiculturelle. Paris: Belin, 1993.
- Monette, Pierre. L'immigrant Montréal. Montreal: Triptyque, 1994.
On specific ethnic groups:
- Berdugo-Cohen, Marie and Yolande Cohen. Juifs marocains à montreal: témoignages d'une immigration moderne. Montreal: VLB, 1987.
- Lam, Lawrence. From Being Uprooted to Surviving: Resettlement of Vietnamese-Chinese "Boat People" in Montreal, 1980-1990. Toronto: York Lanes Press, 1996.
- Penisson, Bernard. "L'émigration française au Canada." In: L'émigration française: études de cas: Algérie-Canada-Etats-Unis. Paris: Université de Paris I, Centre de recherches d'histoire nord-américaine, 1985.
- Ramirez, Bruno. The Italians of Montreal: From Sojourning to Settlement, 1900-1921. Montreal: Editions du Courtant, 1980.
- Ramirez, Bruno. "Workers without a Cause: Italian Immigrant Labour in Montreal: 1880-1930." In: Arrangiarsi: The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada. Eds. Roberto Perin and Franc Sturino. Montreal: Guernica, 1989.
- Robinson, Ira, Pierre Anctil, and Mervin Butovsku (editors). An Everyday Miracle: Yiddish Culture in Montreal. Montreal: Véhicule Press, 1990.
- Robinson, Ira and Mervin Butovsky (editors). Renewing Our Days Montreal Jews in the Twentieth Century. Montreal: Véhicule Press, 1995.