Demographics of Montreal

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The Demographics of Montreal concern population growth and structure for Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The information is analyzed by Statistics Canada and compiled every five years, with the most recent census having taken place in 2011.

Population history[edit]

Population of Montreal, and Metropolitan Area by year[1]
Year City[2] Island[3][4] Metropolitan[2]
1660 407
1663 596
1666 624
1681 1,389
1700 2,969
1760 8,300
1771 9,770
1781 17,945
1791 18,000
1801 9,000
1811 13,300
1821 18,767
1831 27,297
1841 40,356
1851 57,715
1861 90,323
1871 130,022 144,044 174,090
1881 176,263 193,171 223,512
1891 254,278 277,525 308,169
1901 325,653 360,838 393,665
1911 490,504 554,761 594,812
1921 618,506 724,205 774,330
1931 818,577 1,003,868 1,064,448
1941 903,007 1,116,800 1,192,235
1951 1,021,520 1,320,232 1,539,308
1956 1,109,439 1,507,653 1,745,001
1961 1,201,559 1,747,696 2,110,679
1966 1,293,992 1,923,971 2,570,985
1971 1,214,352 1,958,595 2,743,208
1976 1,080,545 1,869,645 2,802,485
1981 1,018,609 1,760,120 2,862,286
1986 1,015,420 1,752,361 2,921,357
1991 1,017,666 1,775,871 3,127,242
1996 1,016,376 1,775,778 3,326,447
2001 1,039,534 1,812,723 3,426,350
2006 1,620,693 1,854,442 3,635,571
2011 1,649,519 1,886,481 3,824,221

According to Statistics Canada, at the time of the 2011 Canadian census the city of Montreal proper had 1,649,519 inhabitants.[5] A total of 3,824,221 lived in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) at the same 2011 census, up from 3,635,556 at the 2006 census (within 2006 CMA boundaries), which means a population growth rate of +5.2% between 2006 and 2011.[6] Montreal's 2012-2013 population growth rate was 1.135%, compared with 1.533% for all Canadian CMAs [7]

In the 2006 census, children under 14 years of age (621,695) constituted 17.1%, while inhabitants over 65 years of age (495,685) numbered 13.6% of the total population.[8]

Future projections[edit]

According to a recently published report by the city of Montreal, the population of the island is expected to number 1,991,200 by 2012, with 3.9 million in the Greater Montreal Area, an increase of 15.8% over 2001. The current estimate of the Montreal CMA population, as of July 1, 2013, according to Statistics Canada is 3,981,802.[9] According to StatsCan, by 2030, the Greater Montreal Area is expected to number 5,275,000 with 1,722,000 being visible minorities.[10]

Ethnicities[edit]

Pie chart showing Montreal's visible minority composition (data from Canada Census 2006).

Some 26% of the population of Montreal and 16.5% that of Greater Montreal, are members of a visible minority (non-white) group.[11] Blacks contribute to the largest minority group, with Montreal having the 2nd highest number of Blacks in Canada after Toronto. Other groups, such as Arabs, Latin Americans, South Asians, and Chinese are also large in number.[12] "[11][13] Visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginals, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour."[14]

Visible minority and Aboriginal population[15][16][17]
Population group Population (2011)  % of total population (2011) Population (2006)  % of total population (2006)
White 1,092,470 67.7% 1,171,295 73.5%
Visible minority group South Asian 53,515 3.3% 51,255 3.2%
Chinese 46,845 2.9% 47,980 3%
Black 147,100 9.1% 122,880 7.7%
Filipino 21,750 1.3% 17,100 1.1%
Latin American 67,160 4.2% 53,970 3.4%
Arab 102,625 6.4% 68,600 4.3%
Southeast Asian 39,570 2.5% 30,850 1.9%
West Asian 12,155 0.8% 8,310 0.5%
Korean 3,330 0.2% 2,730 0.2%
Japanese 2,020 0.1% 1,940 0.1%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 4,435 0.3% 2,385 0.1%
Multiple visible minorities 10,150 0.6% 6,820 0.4%
Total visible minority population 510,665 31.7% 414,830 26%
Aboriginal group First Nations 5,080 0.3% 4,285 0.3%
Métis 3,250 0.2% 2,650 0.2%
Inuit 360 0% 205 0%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 595 0% 360 0%
Multiple Aboriginal identities 220 0% 95 0%
Total Aboriginal population 9,510 0.6% 7,600 0.5%
Total population 1,612,645 100% 1,593,725 100%

Ethnic origin[edit]

Ethnic Origin in Montreal CMA (2006)
Includes Multiple Responses [18]
Ethnic origin Population
Canadian 1,670,655 47%
French 936,990 26%
Italian 260,345 7%
Irish 216,410 6%
English 148,095 4%
Scottish 119,365 3%
Arab 117,245 3%
Jewish 89,650 2%
Haitian 85,785 2%
Chinese 82,665 2%
German 78,315 2%
Latin American 75,400 2%
North American Indian 74,565 2%
Québécois 72,445 2%
South Asian 70,615 2%
Greek 61,770 2%
Spanish 56,770 2%
Lebanese 53,455 1%
Polish 51,920 1%
Berber 50,370 1%
Portuguese 46,535 1%
Southeast Asian 44,965 1%
Romanian 36,275 1%
Russian 35,800 1%
Moroccan 33,270 1%
Vietnamese 30,505
Ukrainian 26,150
Belgian 25,800
Filipino 23,510
Egyptian 16,550

Francophone[edit]

Montreal is the cultural centre of Quebec, French-speaking Canada and French-speaking North America as a whole, and an important city in the Francophonie. The majority of the population is francophone. Montreal is the largest French-speaking city in North America, and second in the world after Paris when counting the number of native-language Francophones (third after Paris and Kinshasa when counting second-language speakers). The city is a hub for French language television productions, radio, theatre, circuses, performing arts, film, multimedia and print publishing.

Montreal plays a prominent role in the development of French-Canadian and Québécois culture. Its contribution to culture is therefore more of a society-building endeavour rather than limited to civic influence. The best talents from French Canada and even the French-speaking areas of the United States converge in Montreal and often perceive the city as their cultural capital. Montreal is also the most important stop in the Americas for Francophone artists from Europe, Africa and Asia.

The cultural divide between Canada's Francophone and Anglophone culture is strong and was famously referred to as the "Two Solitudes" by Canadian writer Hugh MacLennan. Reflecting their deep-seated colonial roots, the Solitudes were historically strongly entrenched in Montreal, splitting the city geographically at Saint Laurent Boulevard.

Anglophone[edit]

Montreal is also the cultural capital for English Quebec. The Montreal Gazette newspaper, McGill University, and the Centaur Theatre are traditional hubs of Anglo culture. Notable English-speaking Montrealers such as Oliver Jones, Leonard Cohen, Oscar Peterson, William Shatner, Nick Auf der Maur, Melissa Auf der Maur and Mordecai Richler have been influential. Anglophones from the Eastern Townships, Ottawa Valley and Northern Quebec enjoy radio and television that is produced in English in Montreal.

Some 30 years after the adoption of the Charter of the French Language, French is the mandated lingua-franca of Montreal's various cultural communities. There are effectively two distinct kinds of English spoken in Montréal; the standard English, with its local idioms and eccentricities, passed down through Anglophone community and its institutions. Then there is 'frenglish' or 'franglais' - a highly malleable combination of both languages into cogent sentences, thoughts and expressions, well-seasoned with local slang borrowed (and often used inter-changeably) from both principle languages. The rate of bilingualism among Montréal Anglophones is estimated to be in excess of 67% with a rapidly growing number among them able to speak three or more languages. It is now common to hear the children of Vietnamese, Italian, Haitian and Arab immigrants speaking French with a distinct Québécois accent, as well as English and their own mother tongues.

While socio-cultural differences and a demonstrable general income disparity between Anglophones and Francophones have led to violence in the past, contemporary Montréal is home to a diverse collection of cultures and peoples who live together quite amicably. Montréal, like many American and Canadian cities, has experienced racial and cultural conflicts during the same specific periods of time as other cities such as the increased racial and linguistic tensions towards the late-1980s and early-1990s, concurrent with similar periods of racial violence in New York City or Los Angeles, or in the late-1960s and early-1970s, at the height of the Civil Rights Era, when Montréal was beset with strikes, armed confrontations with revolutionaries, occupations etc.

Italian[edit]

Main article: Italians in Montreal

Montreal's Italian community is one of the largest in Canada, second only to Toronto. With 250,000 residents of Italian ancestry, Montreal has many Italian districts, such as Little Italy, Saint-Leonard (Città Italiana), R.D.P., and LaSalle. Italian is the 3rd most spoken language in Montreal and in the province of Quebec. There is such a large number of Italian Canadians in Montreal that when Italy won the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the number of Italian Montrealers taking to the streets to celebrate en masse resulted in the closure of many major streets, such as Saint Lawrence Boulevard.

West Indians[edit]

Additional West Indian women came to Montreal after the Domestic Immigration Program of 1955 was established.[19]

Haitian[edit]

Montreal's Haitian community of 100,000 people is the largest in Canada. Large percentages of Haitians live in Montréal-Nord, Saint-Michel and R.D.P. Today, Haitian Creole is the sixth most spoken language in Montreal and the seventh most spoken language in the province of Quebec.[citation needed]

Arab[edit]

See also: Arab Canadians

According to CH (Montreal's multicultural channel) there are now over 117,000 people of Arab origin in Montreal. Montreal has sizeable communities of Lebanese, Syrian, Palestinian and Egyptian origin. The main Arab district is the borough of St. Laurent, which contains an Arab population of about 32,000 (52 percent of the population).[citation needed]

In 1931 the Syrians were the largest non-French and non-British ethnic group in Ville Marie.[20]

Moroccans[edit]

As of the 2001 Canadian Census there were over 16,000 Canadians of Moroccan descent in Montreal, about 75% of the total Moroccan population of Canada.[21]

Other European ethnic groups[edit]

In 1931 the largest non-French, non-British ethnic group in St. Eusebe and St. Gabriel was the Poles.[20]

In 1931 the largest non-French, non-British ethnic group in Cremaizi was the Czecho-Slovaks.[20]

In 1931 the largest non-French, non-British ethnic group in St. Marie was the Lithuanians.[20]

In 1931 the largest non-French, non-British ethnic group in St. Georges was the Finns.[20]

Armenian[edit]

As of 2005 there were almost 30,000 ethnic Armenians in Montreal.[22]

There are Armenian community institutions such as schools, youth organizations, and churches. The authors of "The Chameleon Character of Multilingual Literacy Portraits: Researching in "Heritage" Language Places and Spaces" wrote that in Montreal "there is no recognizable materially bounded Armenian neighborhood".[23] As of 2005 there are three Armenian schools in Montreal, one of which is a day school,[24] L'École Arménienne Sourp Hagop.

The Armenians first settled Canada in 1880. The first Armenian community in Montreal originally had 225 people.[22]

Japanese[edit]

As of 2005 there were an estimated 2,360 ethnic Japanese in Montreal.[25] There are two supplementary Japanese schools in Montreal: the Montreal Japanese Language Centre and the Montreal Hokusho School Inc. (French: École Hoshuko Montréal Inc, Japanese: モントリオール日本語補習校 Montoriōru Nihongo Hoshū Jugyō Kō). The members of the Montreal Shokokai (Japanese Association of Commerce and Industry) manage and assist the administrative and financial aspects of the Montreal Hokusho and have done so since the school's founding. The Montral Hokusho serves both Japanese nationals and Japanese Canadians.[26] Classes are held at the Trafalgar School for Girls.[27]

In 1942 the Canadian government forced ethnic Japanese to move from areas on the West Coast of Canada, so many moved to Montreal. The authors of "The Chameleon Character of Multilingual Literacy Portraits: Researching in "Heritage" Language Places and Spaces" stated that in the immediate post-World War II period, the Japanese in Montreal had a "long invisible presence".[25] Due to requests from Japanese national parents, the Montreal Hokusho School opened in 1972.[26] The Japanese population increased in the 1970s. The opening of two Japanese schools, including Montreal Hokusho, and economic expansion in both Japan and Montreal contributed to the expansion of the Japanese population.[28]

The Japanese school initially had a mission entirely focused on the expatriate population. Because many Japanese corporations and other corporations removed operations from Quebec, enrollment decreased in the 1980s. The school had 95 students in 1989, its peak enrollment. Around that time Japanese Canadians began enrolling in the school, and as fewer Japanese nationals attended, the Hokusho School increasingly began to accommodate the Canadian students.[28]

Greek[edit]

Main article: Greek Canadians

Greek is the eighth language in importance. The Greek community remains vibrant: several neighborhoods contain a number of Greek-owned businesses and local festivals and churches add the to the multicultural character of the city. The neighbouring city of Laval also has a sizable Greek community, predominantly residing in the borough of Chomedey.

Chinese[edit]

Main article: Chinese Canadian

As of 2006 Montreal has Canada's third largest ethnic Chinese population at 72,000 members.[29] As of 2005 there is an estimate of 42,765 ethnic Chinese in Montreal. Of the ethnic minorities, the Chinese are the fourth largest. National origins include Hong Kong, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and Singapore.[30]

The South Shore suburb of Brossard in particular has a high ethnic Chinese population, at 12% of its population.[31] Montreal also has a small Chinatown sandwiched in between Old Montreal, the Quartier international and downtown.

As of 2005 Sinoquebec is the newest Chinese-language newspaper in Montreal.[32]

Several Chinese-language special schools are in Montreal.[32] The Montreal Chinese Hospital is located in the city.

Latin Americans[edit]

Montreal is host to the second largest Latin American community in Canada at 75,400 (Toronto ranks first, with 99,290). The majority of Latin American Canadians are recent immigrants arriving in the late 20th century who have come from El Salvador, Colombia, Mexico, Chile and Guatemala with relatively smaller communities from the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Venezuela, Nicaragua and Ecuador.[33] Spanish is currently the fifth most spoken language in Montreal.

Berbers[edit]

Especially from Algeria and Morocco, this immigration is recent and almost 50,000 Berbers live in Montreal.

Cambodians[edit]

As of 1999 the Communauté Khmere du Canada (Khmer Community Association) and the Pagode Khmer du Canada (Khmer Buddhist Temple) cooperate with one another.[34]

Some Muslim Cham people also moved to Montreal.[35]

As of 1999 in Montreal duan chee give active help in resolving emotional issues with Khmer women, while this is not the case with duan chee in Toronto.[36]

Jewish[edit]

Main article: Jews in Montreal

Montreal's Jewish community is one of the oldest and most populous in the country, formerly first but now second to Toronto and numbering about 100,000 according to the 2001 census. The community is quite diverse, and is composed of many different Jewish ethnic divisions that arrived in Canada at different periods of time and under differing circumstances.

Language[edit]

Census tracts in Montreal identified by mother tongue language.

In terms of mother language (first language learned), the 2006 census reported that in the Greater Montreal Area, 66.5% spoke French as a first language, followed by English at 13.2%, while 0.8% spoke both as a first language.[37] The remaining 22.5% of Montreal-area residents are allophones, speaking languages including Italian (3.5%), |Arabic (3.1%), Spanish (2.6%), Haitian Creole (1.3%), Chinese (1.2%), Greek (1.2%), Portuguese (0.8%), Romanian (0.7%), Vietnamese (0.7%), and Russian (0.5%).[37] In terms of additional languages spoken, a unique feature of Montreal among Canadian cities, noted by Statistics Canada, is the working knowledge of both French and English possessed by most of its residents.

Language most spoken at home
in the Montreal metropolitan area (CMA)
1996[38] 2001[39] 2006[40] 2011[41]
French 71.2% 72.1% 70.5% 70.4%
English 15.4% 14.8% 14.9% 14.0%
Other language 13.4% 13.1% 14.6% 16.6%
Note that percentages add up to more than 100% because
some people speak two or more languages at home.
Mother tongue languages (2006)[37]
Includes Multiple Responses
Language Greater Montreal Quebec Canada
French 65.8% 79.7% 22.0%
English 13.2% 9.0% 58.6%
Arabic 3.9% 2.1% 1.1%
Spanish 3.1% 1.8% 1.3%
Italian 3.1% 1.6% 1.3%
Creole 1.5% 0.8% 0.2%
Greek 1.1% 0.5% 0.4%
Chinese 1.1% 0.6% 1.3%
Portuguese 0.8% 0.5% 0.7%
Romanian 0.7% 0.4% 0.3%
Vietnamese 0.7% 0.4% 0.5%
Russian 0.6% 0.3% 0.5%
Persian 0.5% 0.3% 0.5%
Tagalog 0.4% 0.2% 1.2%
Armenian 0.4% 0.2% 0.1%
Polish 0.4% 0.2% 0.6%
Tamil 0.4% 0.2% 0.4%
Punjabi 0.3% 0.2% 1.4%
German 0.3% 0.2% 1.3%
Bengali 0.3% 0.1% 0.2%
Cantonese 0.3% 0.1% 1.2%
Urdu 0.3% 0.1% 0.6%
Mandarin 0.3% 0.1% 0.8%

Religion[edit]

The Greater Montreal Area is predominantly Roman Catholic; however, weekly attendance in Quebec is among the lowest in Canada.[42] Historically Montreal has been a centre of Catholicism in North America with its numerous seminaries and churches, including the Notre-Dame Basilica, the Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. Some 84.6% of the total population is Christian,[43] largely Roman Catholic (74.5%), primarily due to descendants of original French settlers, and others of Italian and Irish origins. Protestants which include Anglican, United Church, Lutheran, owing to British and German immigration, and other denominations number 7.0%, with a further 3.0% consisting mostly of Orthodox Christians, fuelled by a large Greek population. There is also a number of Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox parishes. Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with 100,185 members,[43] the second-largest concentration of Muslims in Canada. The Jewish community in Montreal has a population of 92,970.[43] In cities such as Côte Saint-Luc and Hampstead, Jewish people constitute the majority,[44][45] or a substantial part of the population. As recently as 1971 the Jewish community in Greater Montreal was as high as 109,480.[3] Political and economic uncertainties led many to leave Montreal and the province of Quebec.[46]

The religious breakdown of the population of Montreal is:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Maguire, Mary H., Ann J. Beer, Hourig Attarian, Diane Baygin, Xiao Lan Curdt-Christiansen, and Reiko Yoshida (McGill University). "The Chameleon Character of Multilingual Literacy Portraits: Researching in "Heritage" Language Places and Spaces" (Chapter 7). In: Anderson, Jim, Maureen Kendrick, Theresa Rogers, and Suzanne Smythe (editors). Portraits of Literacy Across Families, Communities, and Schools: Intersections and Tensions. Routledge, May 6, 2005. Start page 141. ISBN 1135615535, 9781135615536.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Montréal en statistiques - Population totale". Ville de Montréal. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Montréal En Bref". City of Montreal. Archived from the original on 2009-12-05. Retrieved June 2007. 
  3. ^ a b "Statistical Tables — Religion". Statistics Canada Census. Gouvernement du Québec. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  4. ^ "Vol. 1 - Table 2" (XLS). 1951 Canadian Census. University of Toronto. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  5. ^ http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=2466023&Geo2=PR&Code2=24&Data=Count&SearchText=montreal&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=24&B1=All&Custom=&TABID=1
  6. ^ http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMA&Code1=462&Geo2=PR&Code2=24&Data=Count&SearchText=montreal&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=Population&Custom=&TABID=1
  7. ^ http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/140226/longdesc-cg140226b001-eng.htm
  8. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data". Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  9. ^ "Annual population estimates by census metropolitan area, Canada — Population at July 1". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  10. ^ "Appendix: Table A1 Population by visible minority group and place of residence, scenario C (high growth), Canada, 2006". Statcan.gc.ca. 2010-03-09. Retrieved 2010-04-13. 
  11. ^ a b "Canada's Ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006 Census: Canada's major census metropolitan areas". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. 2010-02-11. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  12. ^ Statistics Canada (2002). "Selected Ethnic Origins, for Census Subdivisions". Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  13. ^ Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census
  14. ^ "Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census". 2.statcan.ca. 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  15. ^ [1], Aboriginal Population Profile from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
  16. ^ [2], Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
  17. ^ [3], National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  18. ^ "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada, Highlight Tables, 2006 Census: Montreal (CMA)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  19. ^ Dubinsky, Karen. ""We Adopted a Negro": Interractial Adoption and the Hybrid Baby in 1960s Canada" (Chapter 11). In: Rutherdale, Robert and Magda Fahrni. Creating Postwar Canada: Community, Diversity, and Dissent, 1945-75. UBC Press, July 1, 2008. ISBN 077485815X, 9780774858151. Start: p. 268. CITED: p. 279. Retrieved on October 7, 2014.
  20. ^ a b c d e Rosenberg, Louis and Morton Weinfeld. Canada's Jews: A Social and Economic Study of Jews in Canada in the 1930s (Volume 16 of McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History). McGill-Queen's Press (MQUP), Oct 12, 1993. ISBN 0773563946, 9780773563940. p. 33.
  21. ^ Powell, John. Encyclopedia of North American Immigration (Facts on File library of American history). Infobase Publishing. January 1, 2009. ISBN 143811012X, 9781438110127. p. 195.
  22. ^ a b Maguire, et al, p. 151.
  23. ^ Maguire, et al, p. 154.
  24. ^ Maguire, et al, p. 152.
  25. ^ a b Maguire, et al, p. 161.
  26. ^ a b Maguire, et al, p. 162.
  27. ^ "所在地." Montreal Hoshuko School. Retrieved on March 30, 2014.
  28. ^ a b Maguire, et al, p. 161-162.
  29. ^ "Visible minority groups, 2006 counts, for Canada and census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations - 20% sample data". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. April 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  30. ^ Maguire, et al, p. 155.
  31. ^ 2006 Canadian Census: Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlights Tables: Brossard, Quebec
  32. ^ a b Maguire, et al, p. 156.
  33. ^ "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada — Data table". 2.statcan.ca. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  34. ^ McLellan, Janet (University of Toronto). "Cambodian Buddhists in Toronto" (Chapter 5). In: McLellan, Janet. Many Petals of the Lotus: Five Asian Buddhist Communities in Toronto. University of Toronto Press, 1999. ISBN 0802082254, 9780802082251. Start p. 133. - CITED: p. 141.
  35. ^ McLellan, Janet. "CAMBODIANS/KHMER." In: Magosci, Paul R. (editor). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples (G - Reference,Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series). University of Toronto Press, 1999. ISBN 0802029388, 9780802029386. CITED: p. 296.
  36. ^ McLellan, Janet (University of Toronto). "Cambodian Buddhists in Toronto" (Chapter 5). In: McLellan, Janet. Many Petals of the Lotus: Five Asian Buddhist Communities in Toronto. University of Toronto Press, 1999. ISBN 0802082254, 9780802082251. Start p. 133. - CITED: p. 148.
  37. ^ a b c "Montreal (CMA) - Detailed Mother Tongue". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. April 1, 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  38. ^ (French) Institut de la statistique du Québec. "Tableau 2 - Langue maternelle et langues parlées à la maison, connaissance des langues officielles, 1996, 1991 et 1986 - Régions métropolitaines de recensement" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  39. ^ "Language Spoken Most Often at Home (8), Language Spoken at Home on a Regular Basis (9), Sex (3) and Age Groups (15) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas 1 and Census Agglomerations, 2001 Census - 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada, 2001 Census of Population. Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  40. ^ "Population by language spoken most often at home and age groups, 2006 counts, for Canada and census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations – 20% sample data". Retrieved 2007-12-05. 
  41. ^ "Montréal, Quebec (Code 462) and Quebec (Code 24) (table). Census Profile.". Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  42. ^ CBC Article - Church attendance declining in Canada
  43. ^ a b c "2001 Community Highlights for Montréal". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  44. ^ "2001 Community Highlights for Hampstead". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  45. ^ "2001 Community Highlights for Côte-Saint-Luc". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  46. ^ "The Jewish Communities of Canada". Am Yisrael. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 

Further reading[edit]

General:

  • Lavoie, Nathalie and Pierre Serre. "From Bloc Voting to Social Voting: The case of Citizenship Issues of Immigration to Montreal, 1995-1996." Peace Research Abstracts 39, no. 6 (2002): 763-957.
  • Linteau, Paul-André. Histoire de la ville de Montréal depuis la Confédération. Montreal, Boreal, 1992.
  • Marois, Claude. "Cultural Transformations in Montreal since 1970." Journal of Cultural Geography 8, No. 2 (1988): 29-38.
  • McNicoll, Claire. Montréal, une société multiculturelle. Paris: Belin, 1993.
  • Monette, Pierre. L'immigrant Montréal. Montreal: Triptyque, 1994.

On specific ethnic groups:

  • Berdugo-Cohen, Marie and Yolande Cohen. Juifs marocains à montreal: témoignages d'une immigration moderne. Montreal: VLB, 1987.
  • Lam, Lawrence. From Being Uprooted to Surviving: Resettlement of Vietnamese-Chinese "Boat People" in Montreal, 1980-1990. Toronto: York Lanes Press, 1996.
  • Penisson, Bernard. "L'émigration française au Canada." In: L'émigration française: études de cas: Algérie-Canada-Etats-Unis. Paris: Université de Paris I, Centre de recherches d'histoire nord-américaine, 1985.
  • Robinson, Ira, Pierre Anctil, and Mervin Butovsku (editors). An Everyday Miracle: Yiddish Culture in Montreal. Montreal: Véhicule Press, 1990.
  • Robinson, Ira and Mervin Butovsky (editors). Renewing Our Days Montreal Jews in the Twentieth Century. Montreal: Véhicule Press, 1995.

External links[edit]