Demographics of New Brunswick

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New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. The provincial Department of Finance estimates that the province's population in 2006 was 729,997 of which the majority is English-speaking but with a substantial (32%) French-speaking minority of mostly Acadian origin.

First Nations in New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet). The first European settlers, the Acadians, are descendants of survivors of the Great Expulsion (1755) which drove several thousand French residents into exile in North America, the UK and France for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to King George III during the French and Indian War. American Acadians, who wound up in Louisiana and other parts of the American South, are often referred to as Cajuns.

Many of the English-Canadian population of New Brunswick are descended from Loyalists who fled the American Revolution. This is commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope was restored"). There is also a significant population with Irish ancestry, especially in Saint John and the Miramichi Valley. People of Scottish descent are scattered throughout the Province with higher concentrations in the Miramichi and in Campbellton. A small population of Danish origin may be found in New Denmark in the northwest of the province.

Population[edit]

City Metropolitan Areas[edit]

City 2011 2006 Land Area km² Density /km²
Greater Moncton 138,644 126,424 2,406.31 57.6
Greater Saint John 127,761 122,389 3,362.95 38.0
Greater Fredericton 94,268 85,688 4,886.40 19.3
Greater Bathurst 33,484 34,106 2,292.80 14.6
Greater Miramichi 28,115 28,773 7,578.30 3.7
Greater Edmundston 21,903 22,471 916.85 23.9
Greater Campbellton 17,842 17,878 1,629.94 10.9

Cities and towns[edit]

Town Population (2011) Population Ranking Land Area km² Area Ranking Density /km² Density Ranking
Bathurst 12,275 9 91.86 6 133.6 24
Beresford 4,351 20 19.20 17 226.6 18
Bouctouche 2,423 26 18.34 19 132.1 25
Campbellton 7,385 12 18.66 18 395.7 9
Caraquet 4,169 23 68.26 8 61.1 35
Dalhousie 3,512 24 14.51 23 242.1 17
Dieppe 23,310 4 54.11 11 430.8 6
Edmundston 16,032 8 107.00 5 149.8 23
Florenceville-Bristol 1,639 29 15.61 22 105.0 29
Fredericton 56,224 3 131.67 4 427.0 7
Grand Bay–Westfield 5,117 17 59.86 9 85.5 33
Grand Falls 5,706 14 18.05 20 315.9 13
Hampton 4,292 22 21.00 16 204.3 21
Hartland 947 35 9.63 30 98.4 31
Lamèque 1,432 31 12.45 28 115.1 27
Miramichi 17,811 7 179.93 2 99.0 30
McAdam 1,404 32 14.47 24 97.02 32
Moncton 69,074 2 141.17 3 489.3 2
Nackawic 1,049 34 8.40 32 124.9 26
Oromocto 8,932 11 22.37 15 399.2 8
Quispamsis 17,886 6 57.06 10 313.5 14
Richibucto 1,286 33 11.83 27 108.7 28
Riverview 19,128 5 33.88 13 564.6 1
Rothesay 11,947 10 34.77 12 343.6 12
Sackville 5,558 15 74.32 7 74.8 34
Saint Andrews 1,889 28 8.35 33 226.2 19
Saint John 70,063 1 315.82 1 221.8 20
Saint-Léonard 1,343 32 5.20 34 258.3 16
Saint-Quentin 2,095 27 4.30 35 486.7 3
Shediac 6,053 13 12.50 26 484.4 4
Shippagan 2,603 25 9.94 29 261.9 15
St. George 1,543 30 16.13 21 95.6 32
St. Stephen 4,817 19 13.45 24 358.0 11
Sussex 4,312 21 9.03 31 477.4 5
Tracadie–Sheila 4,933 18 24.65 14 200.1 22
Woodstock 5,254 16 13.41 25 391.7 10

Population of New Brunswick since 1851[edit]

Year Population Five Year
 % change
Ten Year
 % change
Rank Among
Provinces
1851 193,800 n/a n/a 4
1861 252,047 n/a 30.0 4
1871 285,594 n/a 13.3 4
1881 321,233 n/a 12.5 4
1891 321,263 n/a 0.0 4
1901 331,120 n/a 3.1 4
1911 351,889 n/a 6.3 8
1921 387,876 n/a 10.2 8
1931 408,219 n/a 5.2 8
1941 457,401 n/a 12.0 8
1951 515,697 n/a 12.7 8
1956 554,616 7.5 n/a 8
1961 597,936 7.8 15.9 8
1966 616,788 3.2 11.2 8
1971 634,560 2.9 6.9 8
1976 677,250 6.7 9.8 8
1981 696,403 2.8 9.7 8
1986 709,445 1.9 4.8 8
1991 723,900 2.0 3.9 8
1996 738,133 2.0 4.0 8
2001 729,498 -1.2 0.8 8
2006 729,997 0.1 -1.1 8
2011 751,171 2.9 3.0 8

Source: Statistics Canada [1][2]

Ethnic origin[edit]

Ethnic Origin Population Percent
Canadian / Canadien 415,810 57.78%
French 193,470 26.8%
English 165,235 22.96%
Irish 135,835 18.87%
Scottish 127,635 17.73%
German 27,490 3.82%
Acadian 26,220 3.64%
North American Indian 23,815 3.31%
Dutch (Netherlands) 13,355 1.86%
Welsh 7,620 1.06%
Italian 5,610 0.78%
Métis 4,955 0.69%
American (USA) 3,925 0.55%
Danish 3,390 0.47%


The information at the left is from Statistics Canada [3] Percentages add to more than 100% because of dual responses e.g. "Danish-Canadian" generates an entry in both the category "Danish" and the category "Canadian". Groups with more than 3,000 responses are included.

Visible minorities and Aboriginals[edit]

Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2006 Census)
Population group Population  % of total population
White 688,655 95.7%
Visible minority group
Source:[4]
South Asian 1,960 0.3%
Chinese 2,450 0.3%
Black 4,455 0.6%
Filipino 530 0.1%
Latin American 720 0.1%
Arab 840 0.1%
Southeast Asian 445 0.1%
West Asian 550 0.1%
Korean 625 0.1%
Japanese 170 0%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 150 0%
Multiple visible minority 455 0.1%
Total visible minority population 13,345 1.9%
Aboriginal group
Source:[5]
First Nations 12,385 1.7%
Métis 4,270 0.6%
Inuit 185 0%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 710 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 100 0%
Total Aboriginal population 17,650 2.5%
Total population 719,650 100%

Languages[edit]

Mother tongue in New Brunswick. Red and orange indicates majority Anglophone areas; blue and green shows majority Francophone areas.

The 2006 Canadian census showed a population of 729,997. Of the 714,490 singular responses to the question concerning mother tongue the most commonly reported languages were:

1. English 463,190 64.83%
2. French 232,975 32.61%
3. Algonquian languages 3,050 0.43%
Mi'kmaq 2,515 0.35%
Malecite 490 0.07%
4. Chinese languages 2,160 0.30%
Mandarin 505 0.07%
Cantonese 295 0.04%
Taiwanese 90 0.01%
5. German 1,935 0.27%
6. Dutch (Nederlands) 1,290 0.18%
7. Spanish 1,040 0.15%
8. Arabic 970 0.14%
9. Korean 630 0.09%
10. Italian 590 0.08%
11= Scandinavian languages 500 0.07%
Danish 385 0.05%
Norwegian 70 0.01%
11= Serbo-Croatian languages 500 0.07%
Croatian 160 0.02%
Bosnian 115 0.02%
Serbian 95 0.01%
13. Persian 460 0.06%
14. Bantu languages 375 0.05%
Swahili 140 0.02%
15. Tagalog (Pilipino/Filipino) 330 0.05%
16. Russian 315 0.04%
17. Urdu 295 0.04%
18. Greek 275 0.04%
19. Russian 235 0.03%
20. Hungarian (Magyar) 230 0.03%
21. Polish 220 0.03%
22. Portuguese 210 0.03%
23. Vietnamese 205 0.03%
24. Creole 180 0.03%
25. Niger–Congo languages n.i.e. 165 0.02%

Note: "n.i.e.": not included elsewhere

There were also 160 single-language responses for Gujarati; 140 for Romanian; 125 for Non-verbal languages (Sign languages); 115 for Japanese; 110 for Bengali; 105 for Indo-Iranian languages n.i.e.; 85 for Somali; 80 for Gaelic languages; 80 for Sinhala (Sinhalese); and 75 for Malayalam. In addition, there were also 560 responses of English and a non-official language; 120 of French and a non-official language; 4,450 of English and French; and 30 of English, French, and a non-official language. New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. (Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.)[6]

Migration[edit]

Immigration[edit]

The 2006 Canadian census counted a total of 28,395 immigrants living in New Brunswick.
The most commonly reported origins for these immigrants were: [7]

1. United States 8,660
2. United Kingdom 5,205
3. Germany 1,770
4. Netherlands 995
5. China 925
6. India 600
7. Italy 405
8. South Korea 370
9. former Yugoslavia 355
10. Philippines 350
11. France 320
12. Iran 265
13. Lebanon 220
14. Pakistan 205

There were also 195 immigrants from the Democratic Republic of Congo; 180 from Vietnam; 170 from Colombia; 165 each from Hungary and Romania; 155 each from Belgium and El Salvador; 140 each from Greece and Ireland (Éire); 125 from Poland; 120 each from Afghanistan and South Africa; 115 from Ukraine; 110 from Guyana; 105 each from Denmark and from Trinidad and Tobago; and 100 from Austria.

Internal migration[edit]

A total of 64,205 people moved to New Brunswick from other parts of Canada between 1996 and 2006 while 83,240 people moved in the opposite direction. These movements resulted in a net outmigration of 8,410 people to Alberta, 4,330 to Ontario, 2,930 to Nova Scotia, and 1,995 to Quebec. During this period there was a net outmigration of 2,125 francophones to Quebec, 1,460 francophones going to Ontario, 1,355 to Alberta and 145 to Nova Scotia; and also a net influx of 240 anglophones from Quebec. (All net inter-provincial movements of more than 500 persons and official minority movements of more than 100 persons are given.)[8][9]

Religion[edit]

The Catholic Church (53.4%) is the largest denomination. The three largest Protestant denominations (35.7%) in New Brunswick are the United Church of Canada and the Baptist and Anglican churches. Other Christians (1.4%), other religions (0.8%) and no religious affiliation (8.7%) make of the remainder of the population.

See also[edit]

NB
Canadian Provinces and Territories
Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

References[edit]