Demographics of Niger

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Fulani women with traditional facial tattoos.

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Niger, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The largest ethnic groups in Niger are the Hausa, who also constitute the major ethnic group in northern Nigeria, and the Zarma Songhay (also spelled Djerma-Songhai), who also are found in parts of Mali. Both groups are sedentary farmers who live in the arable, southern tier. The Kanouri (including Beri Beri, Manga) make up the majority of sedentary population in the far southeast of the nation. The remainder of the Nigerien people are nomadic or seminomadic livestock-raising peoples—Tuareg, Fulani,[1] Toubou and Diffa Arabs. With rapidly growing populations and the consequent competition for meager natural resources, lifestyles of these two types of peoples have come increasingly into conflict in Niger in recent years.

Niger's high infant mortality rate is comparable to levels recorded in neighboring countries. However, the child mortality rate (deaths among children between the ages of 1 and 4) is exceptionally high (274 per 1,000) due to generally poor health conditions and inadequate nutrition for most of the country's children. Niger's very high total fertility rate (7.03 children born per woman, which is the highest in the world[2]), nonetheless, means that nearly half (49%) of the Nigerien population is under age 15. School attendance is very low (34%), including 38% of males and only 27% of females. Additional education occurs through Koranic schools.

Population[edit]

Demographics of Niger, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
Year Population
1960 3,240,000
1970 4,210,000 +29.9%
1980 5,578,000 +32.5%
1990 7,754,610 +39.0%
2000 10,492,569 +35.3%
2010 15,203,822 +44.9%

Source: Institut National de la Statistique - Niger[3]

Census Results[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1977 5,102,990 —    
1988 7,251,626 +42.1%
2001 11,060,291 +52.5%
2012 17,129,076 +54.9%

UN estimates[edit]

According to the 2010 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 15 512 000 in 2010, compared to only 2 462 000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 49%, 48.8% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.2% was 65 years or older.[4]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2 462 49.5 49.6 0.9
1955 2 834 48.1 51.1 0.8
1960 3 250 47.1 51.8 1.1
1965 3 766 46.9 51.7 1.3
1970 4 373 47.7 50.8 1.5
1975 5 071 48.1 50.3 1.6
1980 5 871 48.0 50.3 1.7
1985 6 744 48.2 49.9 1.9
1990 7 788 48.3 49.7 2.0
1995 9 179 48.3 49.6 2.1
2000 10 922 48.5 49.4 2.1
2005 12 994 48.9 49.0 2.1
2010 15 512 49.0 48.8 2.2

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events in Niger is incomplete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [4]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 139 000 66 000 74 000 52.6 24.8 27.8 6.86 174
1955-1960 164 000 76 000 88 000 53.8 24.9 29.0 6.96 171
1960-1965 195 000 89 000 105 000 55.5 25.5 30.1 7.13 167
1965-1970 229 000 105 000 124 000 56.2 25.8 30.4 7.32 164
1970-1975 263 000 121 000 142 000 55.8 25.6 30.2 7.52 162
1975-1980 301 000 138 000 164 000 55.1 25.1 29.9 7.63 161
1980-1985 350 000 157 000 193 000 55.4 24.8 30.6 7.76 159
1985-1990 406 000 179 000 227 000 55.9 24.6 31.3 7.81 155
1990-1995 471 000 192 000 279 000 55.5 22.7 32.8 7.78 146
1995-2000 538 000 194 000 344 000 53.5 19.3 34.2 7.60 131
2000-2005 614 000 194 000 420 000 51.3 16.2 35.1 7.40 113
2005-2010 705 000 196 000 509 000 49.5 13.8 35.7 7.19 96
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Population of Niger according to ethnic group in 1988 and 2001
Ethnic
group
census 1988[5] census 2001[5]
Number  % Number  %
Hausa 3,770,927 53.0 6,069,731 55.4
Djerma 1,511,341 21.2 2,300,874 21.0
Tuareg 739,202 10.4 1,016,883 9.3
Fulani 694,428 9.8 935,517 8.5
Kanuri 316,471 4.4 513,116 4.7
Toubou 31,403 0.4 42,172 0.4
Arab 24,178 0.3 40,085 0.4
Gurma 19,714 0.3 39,797 0.4
Other 12,265 0.2 5,951 0.1
Total 7,119,929 10,964,126

Core health indicators[edit]

World Health Organisation 2007 statistics: Core Health Indicators for Niger[6]
Indicator Value (year)
Life expectancy at birth (years) males 42.0 (2005)
Life expectancy at birth (years) females 41.0 (2005)
Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth (years) males 36.0 (2002)
Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth (years) females 35.0 (2002)
Probability of dying (per 1 000 population) between 15 and 60 years (adult mortality rate) males 502 (2005)
Probability of dying (per 1 000 population) between 15 and 60 years (adult mortality rate) females 478 (2005)
Total expenditure on health as percentage of gross domestic product 4.2 (2004)
Per capita total expenditure on health at international dollar rate 25.9 (2004)
Population (in thousands) total 13957 (2005)

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[7]

Sex ratio[edit]


at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]


total population: 52.6 years
male: 51.39 years
female: 53.85 years (2010 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien

Religions[edit]

Main article: Religion in Niger

Islam 99%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians. Source: Institut National de la Statistique[8]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Niger

French (official); Hausa, Djerma, Tamajaq, Fulfulde, Kanuri, Colloquial Arabic, Gurma, and Toubou (national).

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 28.7% (2004 est.; source: UNDP 2006; NB- this figure is given without reference to which languages are considered)
Male: 42.9%
Female: 15.1%

References[edit]

  1. ^ In Fula: Fulɓe; in French: Peul.
  2. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2127rank.html
  3. ^ Annuaire Statistique - Démographie
  4. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  5. ^ a b UN Demographic Yearbooks
  6. ^ World Health Organisation 2007 statistics: Core Health Indicators for Niger.
  7. ^ [The World Factbook - Niger]
  8. ^ Le Niger en Chiffres 2011