Demographics of Poland

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The population of Poland, Data of FAO, 1961-2010 ; Number of inhabitants in millions.

The demographics of Poland constitute all demographic features of the population of Poland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

According to estimates produced by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS), at the end of 2007 Poland had a population of 37,115,000, which translates into an average population density of 122 people/km² (urban 1105 per 1 km², rural 50 per 1 km²). 61.5% of Polish population lives in urban areas, a number which is slowly diminishing. Poland is the 33rd most populous country in the world (9th in Europe, with 5.4% of European population). Total population of Poland is almost stagnant (population growth was 0.08%). Average life expectancy was 70.5 for men and 78.9 for women. In 2009 it is expected to be 73.1 for men and 79.5 for women. Population distribution is uneven. Ethnically, Poland is a very homogeneous country, with 96.7% of population being Polish.

A number of censuses have assessed this data, including a national census in 2002, and a survey by the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (HFHR), which confirmed there are numerous autochthonous ethnic groups in Poland. Estimates by INTEREG and Eurominority present a similar demographics picture of Poland but they provide estimates only for the most numerous of these ethnic groups.

Poland is aging rapidly. In 1950, the median age was 25.8: half of the Polish population was younger, half older. Today it is 38.2. If current trends continue, it will be 51 by 2050.[1] As the population is aging, it has also started to decline mainly due to low birth rates and continued emigration which is impacting the economy. Number of children born in Polish families (TFR of 1,31, down from 2 in 1990) is one of the lowest in Eastern Europe.[2][3]

Historical population[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Historical demography of Poland.

For many centuries, until the end of World War II, the Polish population was composed of many significant ethnic minorities. The population of Poland decreased due to the losses sustained during the Holocaust, and became one of the most ethnically homogeneous in Europe as a result of radically altered borders after the war. The subsequent repatriations were accompanied by two waves of forced migrations ordered by the Soviet and Polish communist authorities, including the transfers of sizable Polish population from the prewar territories of Eastern Poland, which today are divided between Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine, the transfer of ethnic Ukrainians back to USSR, and the Germans to Germany from lands ceded to Poland after the Yalta Conference.

At present[edit]

According to GUS, about 38,325,000 people live in Poland, however, the same report states that the number of residents living in the country all the time is approximately 37,200,000; with 1,125,000 people living abroad for 6–7 months or more. It means that the permanent population may be correspondingly smaller.[4]

Vital statistics [5][6][7][edit]

Before WW II[8][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1921 27 224 890 400 568 300 322 100 32.7 20.9 11.8
1922 27 846 983 100 554 600 482 500 35.3 19.9 15.4
1923 28 480 1 014 700 493 800 520 900 35.6 17.3 18.3
1924 29 007 1 000 100 519 200 480 900 34.5 17.9 16.6
1925 29 475 1 036 600 492 200 544 400 35.2 16.7 18.5
1926 29 906 989 100 532 700 456 400 33.1 17.8 15.3
1927 30 302 958 733 525 633 433 100 31.6 17.3 14.3
1928 30 693 990 993 504 207 486 786 32.3 16.4 15.9
1929 31 084 994 101 518 929 475 172 32.0 16.7 15.3
1930 31 490 1 022 811 488 417 534 394 32.5 15.5 17.0
1931 31 935 964 573 493 703 470 870 30.2 15.5 14.7
1932 32 394 934 663 486 548 448 115 28.9 15.0 13.8
1933 32 823 868 675 466 210 402 465 26.5 14.2 12.3
1934 33 223 881 615 479 684 401 931 26.5 14.4 12.1
1935 33 616 876 667 470 998 405 669 26.1 14.0 12.1
1936 34 020 892 320 482 633 409 687 26.2 14.2 12.0
1937 34 441 856 064 481 594 374 470 24.9 14.0 10.9
1938 34 849 849 873 479 602 370 271 24.4 13.8 10.6

After WW II[edit]

[9] [10] [11]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates Life expectancy (males) Life expectancy (females) Share of births outside marriage
1946 23 777 570 000 335 000 235 000 24.0 14.1 9.9
1947 23 970 630 000 271 000 359 000 26.3 11.3 15.0
1948 23 980 704 772 268 000 436 772 29.4 11.2 18.2
1949 24 410 725 061 284 000 441 061 29.7 11.6 18.1
1950 24 824 763 108 288 685 474 423 30.7 11.6 19.1 3,705 56,07 61,68
1951 25 271 783 597 312 314 471 283 31.0 12.4 18.6 3,745 55,11 60,67
1952 25 753 778 962 286 730 492 232 30.2 11.1 19.1 3,670 57,59 63,07
1953 26 255 779 000 266 527 512 473 29.7 10.2 19.5 3,605 59,58 65,05
1954 26 761 778 054 276 406 501 648 29.1 10.3 18.7 3,580 59,8 65,06
1955 27 281 793 847 261 576 532 271 29.1 9.6 19.5 3,605 60,82 66,19
1956 27 815 779 835 249 606 530 229 28.0 9.0 19.1 3,605 62,29 67,52
1957 28 310 782 319 269 137 513 182 27.6 9.5 18.1 3,485 61,2 66,7
1958 28 770 752 600 241 435 511 165 26.2 8.4 17.8 3,355 63,08 68,57
1959 29 240 722 928 252 430 470 498 24.7 8.6 16.1 3,215 62,71 68,3
1960 29 561 669 485 224 167 445 318 22.6 7.6 15.1 2,98 64,94 70,6
1961 29 965 627 624 227 759 399 865 20.9 7.6 13.3 2,83 64,91 70,78
1962 30 324 599 505 239 199 360 306 19.8 7.9 11.9 2,72 64,53 70,49
1963 30 691 588 235 230 072 358 163 19.2 7.5 11.7 2,70 65,41 71,52
1964 31 161 562 855 235 919 326 936 18.1 7.6 10.5 2,57 65,78 71,6
1965 31 496 546 362 232 421 313 941 17.3 7.4 10.0 2,52 66,58 72,4
1966 31 698 530 307 232 945 297 362 16.7 7.3 9.4 2,33 66,87 72,85
1967 31 944 520 383 247 705 272 678 16.3 7.8 8.5 2,30 66,44 72,61
1968 32 426 524 174 244 115 280 059 16.2 7.5 8.6 2,24 67,04 73,55
1969 32 555 531 135 262 823 268 312 16.3 8.1 8.2 2,20 66,5 73,09
1970 32 526 545 973 266 799 279 174 16.8 8.2 8.6 2,22 66,62 73,33 5,0
1971 32 805 562 341 283 702 278 639 17.1 8.6 8.5 2,25 66,13 73,25
1972 33 068 575 725 265 250 310 475 17.4 8.0 9.4 2,24 67,32 74,17
1973 33 363 598 559 277 188 321 371 17.9 8.3 9.6 2,24 67,15 74,3
1974 33 691 621 080 277 085 343 995 18.4 8.2 10.2 2,26 67,8 74,64
1975 34 022 643 772 296 896 346 876 18.9 8.7 10.2 2,27 67,02 74,26 4,7
1976 34 362 670 140 304 057 366 083 19.5 8.8 10.7 2,31 66,92 74,55
1977 34 698 662 582 312 956 349 626 19.1 9.0 10.1 2,33 66,49 74,5
1978 35 010 666 336 325 104 341 232 19.0 9.3 9.7 2,30 66,36 74,53
1979 35 257 688 293 323 048 365 245 19.5 9.2 10.4 2,39 66,79 74,91 4,8
1980 35 578 692 798 350 203 342 595 19.5 9.8 9.6 2,42 66,01 74,44
1981 35 902 678 696 328 923 349 773 18.9 9.2 9.7 2,34 67,1 75,24
1982 36 227 702 351 334 869 367 482 19.4 9.2 10.1 2,38 67,24 75,2
1983 36 571 720 756 349 388 371 368 19.7 9.6 10.2 2,41 67,04 75,16
1984 36 914 699 041 364 883 334 158 18.9 9.9 9.1 2,36 66,84 74,97
1985 37 203 677 576 381 458 296 118 18.2 10.3 8.0 2,33 66,5 74,81 5,0
1986 37 456 634 748 376 316 258 432 16.9 10.0 6.9 2,21 66,76 75,13
1987 37 664 605 492 378 365 227 127 16.1 10.0 6.0 2,15 66,81 75,2
1988 37 862 587 741 370 821 216 920 15.5 9.8 5.7 2,12 67,15 75,67
1989 37 963 562 530 381 173 181 357 14.8 10.0 4.8 2,08 66,76 75,45
1990 38 119 545 817 390 343 155 474 14.3 10.2 4.1 2,04 66,23 75,24 6,2
1991 38 245 547 719 405 716 142 003 14.3 10.6 3.7 2,05 65,88 75,06 6,6
1992 38 365 515 214 394 729 120 485 13.4 10.3 3.1 1,91 66,47 75,48 7,2
1993 38 459 494 310 392 259 102 051 12.9 10.2 2.7 1,86 67,17 75,81 8,2
1994 38 544 481 285 386 398 94 887 12.5 10.0 2.5 1,78 67,5 76,08 9,0
1995 38 588 443 109 386 084 57 025 11.5 10.0 1.5 1,65 67,62 76,39 9,5
1996 38 618 428 203 385 496 42 707 11.1 10.0 1.1 1,58 68,12 76,57 10,2
1997 38 650 412 635 380 201 32 434 10.7 9.8 0.8 1,52 68,45 76,99 11,0
1998 38 666 395 619 375 354 20 265 10.2 9.7 0.5 1,44 68,87 77,34 11,6
1999 38 654 382 002 381 415 587 9.9 9.9 0.0 1,37 68,83 77,49 11,7
2000 38 649 378 348 368 028 10 320 9.8 9.5 0.3 1,35 69,74 78 12,1
2001 38 248 368 205 363 220 4 985 9.6 9.5 0.1 1,32 70,21 78,38 13,1
2002 38 231 353 765 359 486 -5 721 9.3 9.4 -0.1 1,25 70,42 78,78 14,4
2003 38 205 351 072 365 230 -14 158 9.2 9.6 -0.4 1,22 70,52 78,9 15,8
2004 38 183 356 131 363 522 -7 391 9.3 9.5 -0.2 1,23 70,67 79,23 17,1
2005 38 166 364 383 368 285 -3 902 9.5 9.6 -0.1 1,24 70,81 79,4 18,5
2006 38 141 374 244 369 686 4 558 9.8 9.7 0.1 1,27 70,93 79,62 18,9
2007 38 121 387 873 377 226 10 647 10.2 9.9 0.3 1,31 70,96 79,74 19,5
2008 38 126 414 499 379 399 35 100 10.9 10.0 0.9 1,39 71,26 79,96 19,9
2009 38 152 417 589 384 940 32 649 10.9 10.1 0.9 1,40 71,53 80,05 20,2
2010 38 530 413 300 378 500 34 800 10,7 9,8 0,9 1,38 72,1 80,59 20,6
2011 38 538 388 400 375 500 12 900 10,1 9,7 0,3 1,30 72,44 80,9 21,2
2012 38 533 387 858 384 788 3 070 10,1 10,0 0,1 1,30 72,71 80,98 22,3
2013 38 496 369 600 387 300 -17 700 9,6 10,1 -0,5 1,26 73,1 81,1 23,4

Current vital statistics[edit]

[12]

Number of births from January to June 2013 = Decrease 181,400

Number of births from January to June 2014 = Increase 187,000

Number of deaths from January to June 2013 = Increase 201,700

Number of deaths from January to June 2014 = Decrease 187,500

Natural increase from January to June 2013 = Decrease -20,300

Natural increase from January to June 2014 = Increase -500

Nationalities[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Ethnic minorities in Poland.

96.5% of the people of Poland claim Polish nationality, and 97.9% declare that they speak Polish at home (2010).

Largest metropolitan and urban areas[edit]

Population numbers by database
Area ESPON [13] Eurostat LUZ [14] Ministry of Regional Development[15] United Nations [16] Demographia.com[17] Citypopulation.de[18] Scientific study by T. Markowski[19] Scientific study by Swianiewicz, Klimska [20]
Katowice (Katowice urban area) 3,029,000[21](5,294,000) 2,710,397 3,239,200 3,069,000 2,500,000 2,775,000 2,746,000 2,733,000
Warsaw 2,785,000 2,660,406 2,680,600 2,194,000 2,030,000 2,375,000 2,631,900 2,504,000
Kraków 1,236,000 1,264,322 1,227,200 818,000 750,000 Not listed 1,257,500 1,367,000
Łódź 1,165,000 1,163,516 1,061,600 974,000 950,000 1,060,000 1,178,000 1,129,000
Gdańsk 993,000 1,105,203 1,220,800 854,000 775,000 No data 1,098,400 1,210,000
Poznań 919,000 1,018,511 1,227,200 No data 600,000 No data 1,011,200 846,000
Wrocław 861,000 1,031,439 1,136,900 No data 700,000 No data 1,029,800 956,000
Szczecin 721,000 878,314 724,700 No data 500,000 No data No data 755,806

Demographics by town[edit]

   City  Voivodeship  Inhabitants
May 20, 2002
Inhabitants
December 31, 2006
Inhabitants
December 31, 2010
1 Warsaw Masovia 1,671,670 1,702,139 1,720,398
2 Kraków Lesser Poland 758,544 756,267 756,183
3 Łódź Łódź 789,318 760,251 737,098
4 Wrocław Lower Silesia 640,367 634,630 632,996
5 Poznań Greater Poland 578,886 564,951 551,627
6 Gdańsk Pomerania 461,334 456,658 456,967
7 Szczecin Western Pomerania 415,399 409,068 405,606
8 Bydgoszcz Kuyavia-Pomerania 373,804 363,468 356,177
9 Lublin Lublin 357,110 353,483 348,450
10 Katowice Silesia 327,222 314,500 306,826
11 Białystok (Demographics) Podlaskie 291,383 294,830 295,198
12 Gdynia Pomerania 253,458 251,844 247,324
13 Częstochowa Silesia 251,436 245,030 238,042
14 Radom Masovia 229,699 225,810 222,496
15 Sosnowiec Silesia 232,622 225,030 217,638
16 Toruń Kuyavia-Pomerania 211,243 207,190 205,312
17 Kielce Świętokrzyskie 212,429 207,188 203,804
18 Gliwice Silesia 203,814 198,499 195,472
19 Zabrze Silesia 195,293 190,110 186,913
20 Bytom Silesia 193,546 186,540 181,617
21 Rzeszów Subcarpathia 160,376 165,578 178,227
22 Olsztyn Warmia-Masuria 173,102 174,941 176,463
23 Bielsko-Biała Silesia 178,028 176,453 175,008
24 Ruda Śląska Silesia 150,595 145,471 142,950
25 Rybnik Silesia 142,731 141,388 141,410
26 Tychy Silesia 132,816 130,492 129,386
27 Dąbrowa Górnicza Silesia 132,236 129,559 127,431
28 Płock Masovia 128,361 127,224 126,061
29 Elbląg Warmia-Masuria 128,134 126,985 126,049
30 Opole Opole 129,946 127,602 125,710
31 Gorzów Wielkopolski Lubusz 125,914 125,504 125,394
32 Wałbrzych Lower Silesia 130,268 124,988 120,197
33 Zielona Góra Lubusz 118,293 118,115 117,699
34 Włocławek Kuyavia-Pomerania 121,229 119,256 116,914
35 Tarnów Lesser Poland 119,913 116,967 114,635
36 Chorzów Silesia 117,430 113,978 112,697
37 Koszalin Western Pomerania 108,709 107,693 107,948
38 Kalisz Greater Poland 109,498 108,477 106,664
39 Legnica Lower Silesia 107,100 105,186 103,892
40 Grudziądz Kuyavia-Pomerania 99,943 99,244 98,757
41 Słupsk Pomerania 100,376 98,092 96,665

Demographics by voivodeship[edit]

Inhabitants of voivodeships
(2008, according to GUS)
Lower Silesian 19 947 2 887 059 -0,04
Kuyavian-Pomeranian 17 972 2 067 918 +0,07
Lublin 25 122 2 161 832 -0,15
Lubusz 13 998 1 008 926 0,00
Łódź 18 219 2 548 861 -0,20
Lesser Poland 15 183 3 287 136 +0.22
Masovian 35 558 5 204 495 +0,26
Opole 9412 1 033 040 -0,31
Subcarpathian 17 846 2 099 495 +0,03
Podlaskie (Demographics) 20 187 1 191 470 -0,07
Pomeranian 18 310 2 219 512 +0,32
Silesian 12 334 4 645 665 -0.12
Świętokrzyskie 11 710 1 272 784 -0,20
Warmian-Masurian 24 173 1 427 073 +0,03
Greater Poland 29 827 3 397 617 +0.26
West Pomeranian 22 892 1 692 957 +0,04
Poland 312 679 38 135 876 +0,05

Demographic Statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Total asylum seekers admitted

13,780 (2010) applications, mostly from the Russian Federation,[22] Georgia, Armenia and Ukraine.[23]

Age structure

0–14 years: 14.8% (male 2,931,732/female 2,769,021)
15–64 years: 71.7% (male 13,725,939/female 13,863,103)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,971,763/female 3,202,131) (2010 est.)
0-14 years: 14.7% (male 2,910,324/female 2,748,546)
15-64 years: 71.6% (male 13,698,363/female 13,834,779)
65 years and over: 13.7% (male 2,004,550/female 3,245,026) (2011 est.)

Median age

total: 38.5 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 40.3 years (2011 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.85 years
male: 71.88 years
female: 80.06 years (2010 est.)
total population: 76.25 years
male: 72.31 years
female: 80.43 years (2012 est.)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Religions[edit]

Roman Catholic 88% (41,5% practicing), atheist/agnostic 6%, other 5% (2010)

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Poland
Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/opinion/2012/06/14/poland-aging-and-the-economy Poland: Aging and the Economy
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ http://euromonitor.typepad.com/.a/6a01310f54565d970c017ee868aacf970d-pi
  4. ^ Wyniki wstepne spisu powszechnego 2011, Central Statistical Office (Poland).
  5. ^ B.R. Mitchell. European historical statistics, 1750-1975.
  6. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dybsets/1948%20DYB.pdf United nations. Demographic Yearbook 1948
  7. ^ Central Statistical Office of Poland
  8. ^ INED Base de données des pays développés
  9. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/ludnosc/ludnosc/struktura-ludnosci-do-2013-r-,16,1.html
  10. ^ http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/5840_rocznik_demograficzny_PLK_HTML.htm
  11. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/download/gfx/portalinformacyjny/pl/defaultaktualnosci/5470/1/1/7/poz_ex1950-2012.xls
  12. ^ http://stat.gov.pl/download/gfx/portalinformacyjny/pl/defaultaktualnosci/5498/1/23/3/oz_inform_o_syt_spol-gosp_kraju_1kw_2014.pdf
  13. ^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3), Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007)
  14. ^ Eurostat, Urban Audit database, accessed on 2009-03-12. Data for 2004.
  15. ^ "Koncepcja przestrzennego zagospodarowania kraju" - Ministerstwo Rozwoju Regionalnego, 2003
  16. ^ World Urbanization Prospects - United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs / Population Division, The 2003 Revision (data of 2000)
  17. ^ Demographia.com - World Urban Areas
  18. ^ Thomas Brinkoff, Principal Agglomerations of the World, accessed on 2009-03-12. Data for 2009-01-01.
  19. ^ Funkcje Metropolitalne Pięciu Stolic Województw Wschodnich
  20. ^ "Społeczne i polityczne zróżnicowanie aglomeracji w Polsce" - Paweł Swianiewicz, Urszula Klimska; University of Warsaw 2005
  21. ^ Data of polycentric Silesian metropolitan area
  22. ^ UNHRC "Central Europe: More Asylum Seekers, Less Refugees"
  23. ^ UNHRC Asylum Trends 2007-2009

External links[edit]