Demographics of Puerto Rico

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Puerto Rico, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Puerto Rico
Porto-Rico-demography.png
Population Change Timeline
Population Density, PR, 2000 (sample).jpg
Population Density
Population 3,725,789
Male population 1,785,171
Female population 1,940,618
Population growth 0.47%
Birth rate 13.93/1,000
Death rate 7.86/1,000
Infant mortality rate 8.24/1,000
Life expectancy 78.29 years
Nationality Puerto Rican
Demographic bureaus 2010 United States Census

The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Amerindian settlement, European colonization, slavery, economic migration, and Puerto Rico's status as a United States Commonwealth.

History of migration[edit]

The inhabitants of Puerto Rico immediately before the first European contact were part of the Arawak group of Amerindians. They called the island, Borikén (alt. Borinquén) and themselves "Boricuas". They were named by Christopher Columbus in 1493 as the Taíno.

Immigration[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1765 44,883 —    
1775 70,250 +56.5%
1800 155,426 +121.2%
1815 220,892 +42.1%
1832 350,051 +58.5%
1846 447,914 +28.0%
1860 583,308 +30.2%
1877 731,648 +25.4%
1887 798,565 +9.1%
1899 953,243 +19.4%
1910 1,118,012 +17.3%
1920 1,299,809 +16.3%
1930 1,543,913 +18.8%
1940 1,869,255 +21.1%
1950 2,210,703 +18.3%
1960 2,349,544 +6.3%
1970 2,712,033 +15.4%
1980 3,196,520 +17.9%
1990 3,522,037 +10.2%
2000 3,808,610 +8.1%
2010 3,725,789 −2.2%
2013 3,615,086 −3.0%
1910–2010[1]
2013 Estimate[2]
Royal Decree of Graces, 1815
Immigration to Puerto Rico

The Spanish conquered the island, assuming government in 1508, colonized it, and enslaved the natives. The Taíno population dwindled due to disease, warfare, and forced labor, and the Spanish began importing large numbers of slaves from Africa. Spanish men arrived on the island disproportionately to Spanish women; Taíno women would sometimes marry them, resulting in a mestizo, or "mixed" ethnicity.

During the late 19th century large numbers of immigrants from Spain, as well as numerous Spaniards living in former Spanish colonies in South America, also arrived in Puerto Rico (See Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico). European Catholics (and Christian Arabs) who were granted land from Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 (Royal Decree of Graces of 1815), were allowed to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land and enslaved persons.

This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 to almost a million at the close of the century. During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico. The first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s. Puerto Rico's economic boom of the 1950s attracted a considerable number of Jewish families from the U.S. mainland, who were joined after 1959 by an influx of Jewish emigres from Castro's Cuba.[3]

Emigration[edit]

Emigration has been a major part of Puerto Rico's recent history as well. Starting in the post-World War II period waves of Puerto Ricans moved to the continental United States, particularly to New York City; Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, and Camden, New Jersey; Chicago; Providence, Rhode Island; Springfield and Boston, Massachusetts; Orlando, Miami and Tampa, Florida; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Hartford, Connecticut; Washington, D.C., and Los Angeles, California. This continued even as Puerto Rico's economy improved and its birth rate declined. The 2010 Census in fact recorded Puerto Rico's first population drop in history.

Vital statistics[edit]

Puerto Rico's vital statistics 1910–2012[4][5][6]
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1910 1 118 37 600 26 600 11 000 33.6 23.8 9.8
1911 1 140 39 100 26 600 12 500 34.3 23.3 11.0
1912 1 150 40 400 26 900 13 500 35.1 23.4 11.7
1913 1 170 42 700 23 200 19 500 36.5 19.8 16.7
1914 1 190 47 400 22 300 25 100 39.8 18.7 21.1
1915 1 210 45 000 25 000 20 000 37.2 20.7 16.5
1916 1 230 43 200 29 400 13 800 35.1 23.9 11.2
1917 1 250 44 300 38 600 5 700 35.4 30.9 4.5
1918 1 260 51 500 38 900 12 600 40.9 30.9 10.0
1919 1 280 46 000 30 300 15 700 35.9 23.7 12.2
1920 1 300 49 900 29 600 20 300 38.4 22.8 15.6
1921 1 320 50 600 29 700 20 900 38.3 22.5 15.8
1922 1 350 50 500 29 400 21 100 37.4 21.8 15.6
1923 1 370 50 700 26 900 23 800 37.0 19.6 17.4
1924 1 400 53 600 27 200 26 400 38.3 19.4 18.9
1925 1 420 52 700 33 200 19 500 37.1 23.4 13.7
1926 1 450 55 500 32 300 23 200 38.3 22.3 16.0
1927 1 470 58 200 33 500 24 700 39.6 22.8 16.8
1928 1 500 52 900 29 700 23 200 35.3 19.8 15.5
1929 1 520 52 300 40 700 11 600 34.4 26.8 7.6
1930 1 544 54 300 31 500 22 800 35.2 20.4 14.8
1931 1 580 71 600 35 200 36 400 45.3 22.3 23.0
1932 1 615 66 400 35 500 30 900 41.1 22.0 19.1
1933 1 647 61 600 36 700 24 900 37.4 22.3 15.1
1934 1 679 65 595 31 684 33 911 39.1 18.9 20.2
1935 1 710 67 585 30 748 36 837 39.5 18.0 21.5
1936 1 743 68 962 34 790 34 172 39.6 20.0 19.6
1937 1 777 67 919 37 132 30 787 38.2 20.9 17.3
1938 1 810 69 823 33 870 35 953 38.6 18.7 19.9
1939 1 844 73 044 32 631 40 413 39.6 17.7 21.9
1940 1 879 72 388 34 477 37 911 38.5 18.3 20.2
1941 1 926 76 130 35 551 40 579 39.5 18.5 21.1
1942 1 973 78 405 32 218 46 187 39.7 16.3 23.4
1943 2 012 77 304 29 065 48 239 38.4 14.4 24.0
1944 2 037 82 534 29 843 52 691 40.5 14.7 25.9
1945 2 070 86 680 28 837 57 843 41.9 13.9 27.9
1946 2 100 88 421 27 517 60 904 42.1 13.1 29.0
1947 2 149 91 305 25 407 65 898 42.5 11.8 30.7
1948 2 187 87 809 26 209 61 600 40.2 12.0 28.2
1949 2 197 85 625 23 389 62 236 39.0 10.6 28.3
1950 2 218 86 038 21 895 64 143 38.8 9.9 28.9
1951 2 210 84 076 22 374 61 702 38.0 10.1 27.9
1952 2 212 80 438 20 480 59 958 36.3 9.3 27.1
1953 2 221 77 754 17 972 59 782 35.0 8.1 26.9
1954 2 233 78 008 16 783 61 225 34.9 7.5 27.4
1955 2 247 79 221 16 243 62 978 35.2 7.2 28.0
1956 2 262 78 177 16 607 61 570 34.5 7.3 27.2
1957 2 279 76 068 16 022 60 046 33.3 7.0 26.3
1958 2 299 76 128 16 099 60 029 33.1 7.0 26.1
1959 2 323 74 933 15 870 59 063 32.2 6.8 25.4
1960 2 356 76 015 15 841 60 174 32.2 6.7 25.5
1961 2 396 75 563 16 361 59 202 31.5 6.8 24.7
1962 2 442 76 677 16 575 60 102 31.3 6.8 24.6
1963 2 491 77 382 17 386 59 996 31.0 7.0 24.0
1964 2 538 78 837 18 556 60 281 31.0 7.3 23.7
1965 2 578 79 586 17 719 61 867 30.8 6.9 24.0
1966 2 609 75 735 17 506 58 229 29.0 6.7 22.3
1967 2 634 70 755 16 780 53 975 26.8 6.4 20.4
1968 2 656 67 989 17 481 50 508 25.5 6.6 19.0
1969 2 680 67 577 17 669 49 908 25.1 6.6 18.6
1970 2 710 67 438 18 080 49 358 24.8 6.7 18.2
1971 2 746 71 114 18 144 52 970 25.8 6.6 19.2
1972 2 787 68 914 19 011 49 903 24.7 6.8 17.9
1973 2 833 68 821 19 257 49 564 24.2 6.8 17.5
1974 2 882 70 082 19 490 50 592 24.3 6.7 17.5
1975 2 932 69 691 19 073 50 618 23.7 6.5 17.2
1976 2 984 72 883 19 893 52 990 24.4 6.7 17.7
1977 3 037 75 151 19 895 55 256 24.7 6.5 18.2
1978 3 090 75 066 19 876 55 190 24.2 6.4 17.8
1979 3 141 73 781 20 390 53 391 23.4 6.5 17.0
1980 3 188 73 060 20 486 52 574 22.9 6.4 16.4
1981 3 230 71 365 21 197 50 168 22.0 6.5 15.5
1982 3 269 69 336 21 522 47 814 21.2 6.6 14.6
1983 3 305 65 742 21 499 44 243 19.8 6.5 13.4
1984 3 338 63 321 21 733 41 588 18.9 6.5 12.4
1985 3 370 63 629 23 194 40 435 18.8 6.9 12.0
1986 3 400 63 551 23 387 40 164 18.6 6.9 11.8
1987 3 429 64 393 23 954 40 439 18.7 7.0 11.8
1988 3 457 64 081 25 123 38 958 18.5 7.2 11.2
1989 3 487 66 692 25 987 40 705 19.1 7.4 11.6
1990 3 518 66 565 26 138 40 407 18.9 7.4 11.5
1991 3 552 64 498 26 321 38 177 18.2 7.4 10.7
1992 3 587 64 471 27 389 37 082 18.0 7.6 10.3
1993 3 623 65 258 28 493 36 765 18.0 7.9 10.1
1994 3 657 64 341 28 428 35 913 17.6 7.8 9.8
1995 3 690 63 502 30 184 33 318 17.2 8.2 9.0
1996 3 719 63 259 29 871 33 388 17.0 8.0 9.0
1997 3 747 64 214 29 119 35 095 17.1 7.8 9.4
1998 3 770 60 518 29 990 30 528 16.1 8.0 8.1
1999 3 787 59 684 29 145 30 539 15.8 7.7 8.1
2000 3 797 59 460 28 550 30 910 15.7 7.5 8.1
2001 3 799 55 982 28 794 27 188 14.7 7.6 7.2
2002 3 795 52 871 28 098 24 773 13.9 7.4 6.5
2003 3 785 50 803 28 356 22 447 13.4 7.5 5.9
2004 3 773 51 239 29 066 22 173 13.6 7.7 5.9
2005 3 761 50 687 29 702 20 985 13.5 7.9 5.6
2006 3 750 48 597 28 206 20 391 13.0 7.5 5.4
2007 3 739 46 642 29 169 17 473 12.5 7.8 4.7
2008 3 729 45 620 29 050 16 570 12.2 7.8 4.4
2009 3 719 44 773 29 005 15 768 12.0 7.8 4.2
2010 3 710 42 153 29 153 13 000 11.4 7.9 3.5
2011 3 701 41 080 29 742 11 338 11.1 8.0 3.1
2012 3 701 38 676 29 448 9 228 10.5 8.0 2.5

Race and ethnic groups[edit]

Racial groups - Puerto Rico[7][8][9][10][11]
Year White % Non-White
1802 42.0 58.0
1812 40.8 59.2
1820 39.4 60.6
1830 45.1 54.9
1877 52.3 47.7
1887 53.5 46.5
1897 64.3 35.7
1899 61.8 38.2
1910 64.5 35.5
1920 72.0 28.0
1930 73.3 26.7
1935 75.2 24.8
1940 76.0 24.0
1950 79.7 20.3
2000 80.5 19.5
2010 75.8 24.2
Racial composition of the Puerto Rican
population, by the census, 1802-2010.

Racial demographic history[edit]

The first census by the United States in 1899 reported a population of 953,243 inhabitants, 61.8% of them classified as white, 31.9% as mixed, and 6.3% as black.

A strong European immigration wave and large importation of slaves from Africa helped increase the population of Puerto Rico over sixfold during the 19th century, no doubt significantly diluting the Amerindian portion of the Puerto Rican gene pool. No major immigration wave occurred during the 20th century. [12]

The federal Naturalization Act, signed into law on March 26, 1790, by President Washington, explicitly barred anyone not of the White race from applying for U.S. citizenship. This law remained in effect until the 1950s, although its enforcement was tightened in the late 19th century regarding Asian immigrants, and by the Johnson-Reed act of 1924 imposing immigration quotas. In short, until the middle of the 20th century, only immigrants of the White race could hope to become naturalized citizens.

Until 1950 the U.S. Bureau of the Census attempted to quantify the racial composition of the island's population, while experimenting with various racial taxonomies. In 1960 the census dropped the racial identification question for Puerto Rico but included it again in the year 2000. The only category that remained constant over time was white, even as other racial labels shifted greatly—from "colored" to "Black", "mulatto" and "other". Regardless of the precise terminology, the census reported that the bulk of the Puerto Rican population was white from 1899 to 2000.[8]

In the late 1700s, Puerto Rico had laws like the Regla del Sacar or Gracias al Sacar where a person of mixed ancestry could be considered legally white so long as they could prove that at least one person per generation in the last four generations had also been legally white. Therefore people of mixed ancestry with known white lineage were classified as white, the opposite of the "one-drop rule" in the United States.[13]

According to the 1920 Puerto Rico census, 2,505 individuals immigrated to Puerto Rico between 1910 and 1920. Of these, 2,270 were classified as "white" in the 1920 census (1,205 from Spain, 280 from Venezuela, 180 from Cuba, and 135 from the Dominican Republic). During the same 10 year period, 7,873 Puerto Ricans emigrated to the U.S. Of these, 6,561 were listed as "white" on the U.S mainland census, 909 as "Spanish white" and 403 as "black".[14]

Genetic studies[edit]

Puerto Ricans, on average, have genetic contributions from Europeans, West Africans, and Native Americans of approximately 66%, 18%, and 16%, respectively.[20] A recent study of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 800 individuals found that patrilineal input, as indicated by the Y-chromosome, showed 66% of Puerto Ricans could trace their ancestry to male European ancestors, 18% could trace it to male African ancestors, and 16% could trace it to male Native American ancestors.[21] As for maternal DNA, 61.1% of those sampled were found as having Amerindian maternal mtDNA. This means that if a person could trace back in time from daughter to mother, she would eventually reach women who lived in Puerto Rico in Pre-Columbian time. The rest divides between 26.4% with female African ancestors and 12.5% with female European ancestors.[21] Both of these findings are consistent with the popular belief from historical record that male European immigrants took for themselves wives from among the native Indian and, later, black slave populations.[22]

Women in the diaspora[edit]

In a study done on Puerto Rican women born on the island but living in New York by Carolina Bonilla, Mark D. Shriver and Esteban Parra in 2004, the ancestry proportions corresponding to the three parental populations were found to be 53.3±2.8% European, 29.1±2.3% West African, and 17.6±2.4% Native American based on autosomal ancestry informative markers. Although autosomal markers tests seem to draw a more broad picture than that of single, gender-based mtDNA and Y-Chromosome tests, the problem with autosomnal DNA is in the archaic categories used: "European", "Sub-Saharan African", "East Asian" & "Native American". "Asian" (South, North or East) & "North African" are not included. These generalised categories may not take into account the complexity of migratory patterns across the Old World. The study also found that, from the women sampled, 98% had European ancestry markers, 87% had African ancestry markers, 84% had Native American ancestry markers, 5% showed only African and European markers, 4% showed mostly Native American and European markers, 2% showed only African markers, and 2% showed mostly European markers.[23]

These findings are consistent with the historical record that the native male Taino population was virtually wiped out shortly after the arrival of the European settlers to the Island.[22]

Religion[edit]

Islamic Center at Ponce: There are many religious beliefs represented in the island

Religious breakdown in Puerto Rico (2006):[24]


Religion Adherents  % of Population
Christian 3,752,544 97.00%
Non-religious/other 76,598 1.98%
Spiritist 27,080 0.70%
Muslim 5,029 0.13%
Hindu 3,482 0.09%
Jewish 2,708 0.07%
Buddhist 1,161 0.03%

Christians[edit]

Christian Denominational Breakdown (2006):[25]


Denomination Adherents
Catholic 1,650,000
Other Pentecostal 229,814
Pentecostal Church of God 100,000
Assemblies of God 56,000
Baptist Convention 35,000
Seventh-day Adventist 31,524
Jehovah's Witnesses 25,778
Church of God (Cleveland) 17,500
Defenders of the Faith 17,500
Latter-day Saints 16,084
Disciples of Christ 10,778
United Methodist 10,000
Boriquen Presby Synod 8,300
Christian and Missionary Alliance 6,500
Church of the Nazarene 2,994
Other 130,400

Catholics[edit]

The Roman Catholic Church has been historically the most dominant religion of the majority of Puerto Ricans, with Puerto Rico having the first dioceses in the Americas.[26]

Protestants[edit]

The presence of various Protestant denominations has increased under American sovereignty, making modern Puerto Rico an interconfessional country. Protestantism was suppressed under the Spanish regime, but encouraged under American rule of the island. An example of this was with the Holy Trinity Anglican church in Ponce, which was prevented from ringing its bell until 1898, when American troops landed there.[27]

Muslims[edit]

In 2007, there were over 5,000 Muslims in Puerto Rico, representing about 0.13% of the population.[28][29] There are eight Islamic mosques spread throughout the island, with most Muslims living in Río Piedras.[30][31] Puerto Rican converts to Islam continues to occur.[32] "Ties between Latinos and Islam are more than just spiritual, but date back to Spanish history. Many people do not realize that Muslims ruled Spain for more than 700 years".[33] And at times not just individuals, but whole families convert. However, lack of Muslim education in the Island forces some Puerto Rican Muslims to migrate to the States.[33] Islam was brought into Puerto Rico mainly via the Palestinian migration of the 1950s and '60s.[34] Thus, today there is a strong Palestinian presence among Muslims in Puerto Rico. "They are economically strong and are thus able to pay for a full time Imaam".[35]

Jews[edit]

Puerto Rico is also home to the largest Jewish community in the Caribbean with 3,000 Jewish inhabitants. Some Puerto Ricans have converted, not only as individuals but as entire families. Puerto Rico is the only Caribbean island in which the Conservative, Reform and Orthodox Jewish movements are represented.[3][36]

Pagans[edit]

Taíno religious practices have been rediscovered/reinvented by a handful of advocates. Various African religious practices have been present since the arrival of enslaved Africans. In particular, the Yoruba beliefs of Santería and/or Ifá, and the Kongo-derived Palo Mayombe (sometimes called an African belief system, but rather a way of Bantu lifestyle of Congo origin) find adherence among individuals who practice some form of African traditional religion.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Demographics of Puerto Rico, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population: 3,725,789 (2010 U.S. Census)

Gender:[37]

  • Men: 1,785,171
  • Women: 1,940,618

Age structure:
0–17 years: 24.2% (903,295)
18–24 years: 10.1% (375,175)
25-34 years: 13.2% (492,332)
35-49 years: 19.6% (731,514)
50-64 years: 18.3% (681,505)
65 years and over: 14.6% (541,998)

Infant mortality rate:
total 8.23 deaths/1,000 live births
male 9 deaths/1,000 live births
female 7.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.77 years
male: 75.15 years
female: 82.57 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (2010 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)[38]
adjective: Puerto Rican

Ethnic Groups (2010):[39][40]

  • White 75.8%; (mostly Spanish origin)
  • Black 12.4%;
  • Asian 0.2%;
  • Amerindian 0.5%;
  • Mixed and Other 11.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%

Languages: Spanish (main language), English

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Resident Population Data". Census. US: Government. 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b The Virtual Jewish History Tour Puerto Rico
  4. ^ B.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics: the Americas, 1750-2000.
  5. ^ [1] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  6. ^ [2] National Vital Statistics System
  7. ^ Puerto Rico's History on race
  8. ^ a b Representation of racial identity among Puerto Ricans and in the u.s. mainland
  9. ^ CIA World Factbook Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  10. ^ 2010.census.gov
  11. ^ Puerto Rico's Historical Demographics Retrieved November 10, 2011.
  12. ^ Ancestry in Puerto Rico
  13. ^ Not of Pure Blood. Jay Kinsbruner. Duke University Press. 1996. Page 22. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  14. ^ How Puerto Rico became white
  15. ^ Ethnicity 2000 census
  16. ^ "Island Identity 2000 census
  17. ^ 2006-2008 Three Year Estimate. Puerto Rico Community Survey;Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race.[dead link] Path: U.S. Census Bureau > Fact Sheet > United States > Puerto Rico > 2006-2008 tab > ACS Demographic Estimates. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
  18. ^ Ancestry ACS 2006[dead link]
  19. ^ B03001. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN[dead link]
  20. ^ Recent Genetic Selection in the Ancestral Admixture of Puerto Ricans. American Journal of Human Genetics. (2007).
  21. ^ a b Martínez Cruzado, Juan C. (2002). "The Use of Mitochondrial DNA to Discover Pre-Columbian Migrations to the Caribbean: Results for Puerto Rico and Expectations for the Dominican Republic". KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology [On-line Journal], Special Issue, Lynne Guitar, Ed. Available at: http://www.kacike.org/MartinezEnglish.pdf [Date of access: 25 September 2006]
  22. ^ a b Documenting the Myth of Taino Extinction. Dr. Lynne Guitar. KACIKE: Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology.[dead link] Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  23. ^ Bonilla et al., Ancestral proportions and their association with skin pigmentation and bone mineral density in Puerto Rican women from New York City. Hum Gen (2004) 115: 57-58 Available at: http://onedroprule.org/forum/index.php?file=bonilla-2004-pigmnt-bmd-pr-women.pdf [Date of access: 30 May 2008][dead link]
  24. ^ Religions[dead link] Retrieved June 9, 2009.[dead link]
  25. ^ Denominations[dead link] Retrieved June 9, 2009.[dead link]
  26. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Porto Rico". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
  27. ^ Iglesia Anglicana Santa Trinidad de Ponce
  28. ^ Institute of Islamic Information and Education: Number of Muslims and Percentage in Puerto Rico Retrieved June 11, 2009. Corrected October 6, 2009.
  29. ^ Percent Puerto Rican population that are Muslims[dead link] Retrieved June 8, 2009.[dead link]
  30. ^ Muslim mosques in Puerto Rico Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  31. ^ Muslims concentrated in Rio Piedras Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  32. ^ Puerto Rican Converts to Islam Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  33. ^ a b Reshaping One Nation Under God[dead link] Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  34. ^ Palestinian migration[dead link] Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  35. ^ Palestinians in PR Retrieved June 8, 2009.
  36. ^ Luxner News
  37. ^ "2006 Survey[dead link]
  38. ^ CIA World Factbook Found at: CIA World Factbook > Central America and Caribbean > Puerto Rico > People > Nationality. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  39. ^ CIA World Factbook Found at: CIA World Factbook > Central America and Caribbean > Puerto Rico > People > Ethnic Groups. Retrieved June 8, 2009. Confirmed June 19, 2010.
  40. ^ 2010 U.S. Census Retrieved March 3, 2011. Confirmed March 19, 2011.

External links[edit]