Demographics of Quebec

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The demographics of Quebec constitutes a complex and sensitive issue, especially as it relates to the National Question of Canada.

Quebec is the only province in Canada to feature a francophone (French-speaking) majority, and where anglophones (English-speakers) constitute an officially recognized minority group.

Francophones currently constitute approximately 81% of the overall population, though they have had a low birthrate. While this birthrate has increased in recent years, especially in the city of Québec and various regions of Quebec, in Montreal it remains low. If such trends continue, researchers predict that the low birthrate amongst francophones and the lack of adoption of the French language and assimilation into the francophone culture by allophone (those whose primary language is neither English nor French) immigrants will cause the French-speaking population on the island of Montreal to dive below the 50 percent mark in the coming decades, but not the Montreal metropolitan census area as a whole.[1]

A previous decline in the francophone birth rate, and perceived weakening position of the French language in Montreal, led to the passing of the Charter of the French Language (Bill 101) by the provincial government in order to protect the status of the French language as well as to increase the francophone population in the future. The use of French throughout Quebec has been strengthened, on top of this, immigrants from Francophone countries (such as Mali, Algeria, Cameroon) continue to increase the francophone population in Quebec and Canada.[2]

Quebec is also home to "one of the world's most valuable founder populations", the Quebec Founder Population.[3] Founder populations are very valuable to medical genetic research as they are pockets of low genetic variability which provide a useful research context for discovering gene-disease linkages. The Quebec Founder Population arose through the influx of people into Quebec from France in the 17th century to mid-18th century; though this influx was large, a high proportion of the immigrants either died or returned to France, leaving a founder population of approximately 2,600 people.[3][4] About seven million Canadians (along with several million French Americans in the United States) are descendants of these original 2,600 colonists.[3]

Population[edit]

Population since 1851:

Year Population Five-year
% change
Ten-year
% change
%
Canada
1851 892,061 n/a n/a 36.5
1861 1,111,566 n/a 24.6 34.4
1871 1,191,516 n/a 7.2 32.3
1881 1,359,027 n/a 14.1 31.4
1891 1,488,535 n/a 9.5 30.8
1901 1,648,898 n/a 10.8 30.7
1911 2,005,776 n/a 21.6 27.8
1921 2,360,665 n/a 17.8 26.9
1931 2,874,255 n/a 21.8 27.7
1941 3,331,882 n/a 15.9 29.0
1951 4,055,681 n/a 21.8 28.9
1956 4,628,378 14.1 n/a 28.8
1961 5,259,211 13.6 29.7 28.8
1966 5,780,845 9.9 24.9 28.8
1971 6,027,765 4.3 14.6 27.9
1976 6,234,445 3.4 7.8 27.1
1981 6,438,403 3.3 6.8 26.4
1986 6,532,460 1.5 4.8 25.8
1991 6,895,963 5.6 7.1 25.2
1996 7,138,795 3.5 9.3 24.5
2001 7,237,479 1.4 5.0 23.8
2006 7,546,131 4.3 5.7 23.4
2011 7,903,001 4.7 9.2 23.1

Source: Statistics Canada [2][3]

Vital statistics[edit]

Age structure: (2001 census)

Age groups Total Male Female
0–4 years 375,770 192,280 183,490
5–9 years 457,225 232,650 224,575
10–14 years 458,585 234,140 224,445
15–24 years 949,475 481,990 467,485
25–34 years 921,770 459,960 461,810
35–44 years 1,243,970 617,510 626,460
45–54 years 1,109,945 548,080 561,865
55–64 years 760,905 370,960 389,945
65–74 years 547,185 248,740 298,445
75–84 years 318,185 120,940 197,245
85 years and over 94,450 25,580 68,870
Total 7,237,480 3,532,845 3,704,635

Source : Statistics Canada[5]

Quebec's fertility rate is now higher than the Canadian average. At 1.74 children per woman in 2008,[6] it is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.59, and has increased for five consecutive years, reaching its highest level since 1976.[6] However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman. This contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960, which were among the highest of any industrialized society. For example, between 1951 and 1961, the population grew nearly 30% with minimal immigration, a natural growth rate matched today only by some African countries.

Although Quebec is home to only 23.9% of the population of Canada, the number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in Canada were carried out in Quebec.

Population growth rate: 0.7% (2006)

Birth rate: 9.9% (2005)

Synthetic fertility index: 1.61 (2006)

Death rate: 7.4% (2003)

Net migration rate: 4.1% (2003)

Infant mortality rate: 0.46% (2004)

Stillbirth rate: 3.8% -- 3.5% notwithstanding requested abortions (2002)

Life expectancy: In 2002, life expectancy was 76.3 years for males and 81.9 years for females.

Urbanisation: In 2001, 80.4% of Quebecers lived in urban areas.

Literacy: International Adult Literacy Survey 47% Prose, 42% Document, 40% Quantitative (1996) Note: This is not the official literacy rate, and should not be used in comparisons with rates calculated using different procedures.

Languages[edit]

Mother tongue language[edit]

Mother tongue language (Statistics Canada: 2006,[7] 2001,[8] 1996[9])
Language(s) 2011 2006 2001 1996
Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) Population Percentage (%) French Language 9,234 Non-official languages 961,700 12,3 939,350 12.6 756,710 10.6 730,595 10.2
Total population 7,815,950 100 7,435,905 100 7,125,580 100 7,138,795 100

Language spoken at home[edit]

Language spoken most often at home (Statistics Canada: 2006[7])
Language Population Percentage (%)
French 6,027,735 81
Total population 7,435,905 100

Knowledge of official languages[edit]

Knowledge of official languages (Statistics Canada: 2006[7])
Language Population Percentage (%)
French only 7,435,905 100
Total population 7,435,905 100

Ethnic origin[edit]

Ethnic origin Population Percent
Canadien / Canadian 4,474,115 60.1%
French 2,151,655 28.8%
Irish 406,085 5.5%
Italian 299,655 4.0%
English 245,155 3.3%
North American Indian 219,815 3.0%
Scottish 202,515 2.7%
Quebecer 140,075 1.9%
German 131,795 1.8%
Chinese 91,900 1.24%
Haitian 91,435 1.23%
Spanish 72,090 0.97%
Jewish 71,380 0.96%
Greek 65,985 0.89%
Polish 62,800 0.84%
Lebanese 60,950 0.83%
Portuguese 57,445 0.77%
Belgian 43,275 0.58%
East Indian 41,600 0.56%
Romanian 40,320 0.54%
Russian 40,155 0.54%
Moroccan 36,700 0.49%
American (USA) 36,695 0.49%
Métis 36,280 0.49%
Vietnamese 33,815 0.45%
Acadian 32,950 0.44%
Ukrainian 31,955 0.43%
African (Black) 30,170 0.41%
Filipino 25,680 0.35%
Algerian 25,150 0.34%
British Isles 23,445 0.32%
Armenian 23,230 0.31%
Dutch 23,015 0.31%
Hungarian 22,585 0.30%
Swiss 20,280 0.27%
Egyptian 17,950 0.24%
Salvadoran 15,770 0.21%
Syrian 14,925 0.20%
Ethnic origin Population Percent
Colombian 14,845 0.20%
Mexican 14,215 0.19%
Berbers 13,415 0.18%
Inuit 12,915 0.17%
Iranian 12,370 0.17%
Peruvian 12,335 0.17%
Jamaican 11,935 0.16%
Pakistani 11,710 0.16%
Chilean 11,585 0.16%
Turk 11,385 0.15%
Austrian 11,295 0.15%
Sri Lankan 10,750 0.14%
Congolese 10,190 0.14%
Cambodian 10,175 0.14%
Welsh 9,815 0.13%
Black 9,520 0.13%
Tunisian 7,870 0.11%
Bulgarian 6,955 0.09%
Guatemalan 6,880 0.09%
Laotian 6,425 0.09%
Norwegian 6,350 0.09%
Bangladeshi 6,095 0.08%
Yugoslav 6,090 0.08%
Swedish 5,975 0.08%
Afghan 5,855 0.08%
Lithuanians 5,665 0.08%
Korean 5,555 0.07%
Czech 5,540 0.07%
West Indian 5,420 0.07%
Barbadian 5,340 0.07%
Croatian 5,330 0.07%
Latin/Central/South American 5,270 0.07%
European 5,130 0.07%
Danish 5,130 0.07%
Palestinian 4,940 0.07%
Trinidadian/Tobagan 4,810 0.06%
Japanese 4,560 0.06%
Slovak 4,560 0.06%


Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses.
Only groups with 0.06 percent or more of respondents are shown.
[10]

Ethnicity according to the older more general system of classification is shown below:

Origins 2001 %
North American 4,989,230 70.02%
French 2,123,185 29.80%
British Isles 547,790 7.69%
Southern European 409,095 5.74%
Aboriginal 159,900 2.24%
Western European 153,750 2.16%
Arab 135,750 1.91%
East and Southeast Asian 132,280 1.86%
Origins 2001 %
Eastern European 130,410 1.83%
Caribbean 108,475 1.52%
Other European 86,450 1.21%
Latin, Central and South American 65,150 0.91%
South Asian 62,585 0.88%
African 48,715 0.68%
West Asian 40,960 0.57%
Northern European 15,295 0.21%


Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580) and may total more than 100% due to dual responses
Only groups of more than 0.02% are shown
[11]

Visible minorities and Aboriginals[edit]

The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 108,425 (1.5%) including 65,085 North American Indians (0.9%), 27,985 Métis (0.4%), and 10,950 Inuit (0.15%). It should be noted however, that there is a significant undercount, as many of the biggest Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian censuses for political reasons regarding the question of aboriginal sovereignty. In particular, the largest Mohawk Iroquois reserves (Kahnawake, Akwesasne and Kanesatake) were not counted.’’{Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905)}’’[12]

Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2011 Census)
Population group Population  % of total population
White 6,740,370 87.2%
Visible minority group
Source:[13]
South Asian 83,320 1.1%
Chinese 82,845 1.1%
Black 243,625 3.2%
Filipino 31,495 0.4%
Latin American 116,380 1.5%
Arab 166,260 2.2%
Southeast Asian 65,855 0.9%
West Asian 23,445 0.3%
Korean 6,665 0.1%
Japanese 4,025 0.1%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 8,895 0.1%
Multiple visible minority 17,420 0.2%
Total visible minority population 850,235 11%
Aboriginal group
Source:[13]
First Nations 82,425 1.1%
Métis 40,960 0.5%
Inuit 12,570 0.2%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 4,415 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 1,545 0%
Total Aboriginal population 141,915 1.4%
Total population 7,732,520 100%

Religion[edit]

Quebec is unique among the provinces in its overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population. This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in New France.

Religion Denomination Congregation Proportion
Catholic Christian 5,939,795 83.6%
Roman Catholic 5,930,385 83.23%
Ukrainian Catholic 3,430 0.05%
Protestant Christian 335,595 4.71%
Anglican 85,475 1.20%
United Church of Canada 52,950 0.74%
Baptist 35,455 0.50%
Pentecostal 22,670 0.32%
Lutheran 9,640 0.14%
Presbyterian 8,770 0.12%
Methodist 8,725 0.12%
Adventist 6,690 0.09%
Mission de l'Esprit Saint 765 0.01%
Orthodox Christian 100,375 1.41%
Greek Orthodox 50,020 0.70%
Armenian Orthodox 4,935 0.07%
Russian Orthodox 2,185 0.03%
Coptic Orthodox 2,010 0.03%
Antiochian Orthodox 1,050 0.01%
Ukrainian Orthodox 985 0.01%
Serbian Orthodox 920 0.01%
Other Christian 56,755 0.80%
Muslim 108,620 1.52%
Jewish 89,920 1.26%
Buddhist 41,375 0.58%
Hindu 24,530 0.34%
Sikh 8,220 0.12%
Other eastern religions 3,425 0.05%
Bahá'í 1,155 0.02%
Pagan 1,330 0.02%
Aboriginal spirituality 740 0.01%
No religious affiliation 413,185 5.80%
No religion 400,325 5.62%
Atheist 4,335 0.06%
Agnostic 12,600 0.02%


Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580 in 2001). Only groups of more than 0.01% are shown. [14]

See also[edit]

QC
Canadian Provinces and Territories
Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

References[edit]

External links[edit]