Demographics of Réunion

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This article concerns the demography of Réunion. Nationals of Réunion are Réunionese. The official language is French, and Réunionese Creole is widely spoken. The population of Réunion is 720,934 as of 2000.

Population[edit]

As of 2000, estimates put the population of Réunion at 720,934, with a growth rate of 1.63%. The birth rate was estimated at 21.84 births per 1,000 population, and the death rate at 5.55 deaths per 1,000 population in the same year. The net migration rate was zero in 2000. The following table describes age structure and sex ratios in Réunion.

Age structure and sex ratio
Age band (years) Percentage population Sex ratio (male/female)
At birth n/a 1.05
0-14 32 1.05
15-64 62 0.97
65+ 6 0.68

Historical population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1950 248,000 —    
1960 335,000 +35.1%
1970 462,000 +37.9%
1980 510,000 +10.4%
1990 612,000 +20.0%
2000 739,000 +20.8%
2010 846,000 +14.5%
Source:[1]
Year Population Year Population Year Population
1671 90 1830 101 300 1961 349 282
1696 269 1848 110 300 1967 416 525
1704 734 1849 120 900 1974 476 675
1713 1 171 1860 200 000 1982 515 814
1717 2 000 1870 212 000 1990 597 823
1724 12 550 1887 163 881 1999 706 300
1764 25 000 1897 173 192 2006 781 962
1777 35 100 1926 182 637 2007 790 500
1789 61 300 1946 241 708 2008 802 001
1826 87 100 1954 274 370
Official data from INSEE by census or estimate; estimates shown in italics.

Vital statistics[2][3][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1950 248 11 714 5 570 6 144 48.0 22.8 25.2
1951 259 11 684 4 653 7 031 46.5 18.5 28.0
1952 268 13 231 4 677 8 554 51.3 18.1 33.2
1953 277 13 597 4 444 9 153 51.1 16.7 34.4
1954 284 13 613 4 064 9 549 49.7 14.8 34.9
1955 292 14 082 4 394 9 688 49.2 15.4 33.9
1956 300 14 129 3 746 10 383 47.7 12.7 35.1
1957 308 14 484 3 464 11 020 46.9 11.2 35.7
1958 317 14 271 4 594 9 677 44.9 14.4 30.4
1959 326 14 388 4 422 9 966 44.0 13.5 30.5
1960 336 14 856 3 892 10 964 44.0 11.5 32.4
1961 345 15 205 4 001 11 204 43.7 11.5 32.2
1962 355 15 937 4 121 11 816 44.4 11.5 32.9
1963 366 16 482 4 058 12 424 44.4 10.9 33.5
1964 378 16 681 3 960 12 721 43.3 10.3 33.0
1965 391 16 869 3 806 13 063 42.9 9.7 33.2
1966 405 16 683 4 284 12 399 41.4 10.6 30.8
1967 421 16 013 3 586 12 427 38.1 8.5 29.6
1968 437 15 827 3 763 12 064 37.2 8.8 28.3
1969 451 15 153 3 867 11 286 34.8 8.9 25.9
1970 462 13 437 3 663 9 774 30.1 8.2 21.9
1971 470 14 432 3 494 10 938 31.7 7.7 24.0
1972 475 13 740 3 391 10 349 29.7 7.3 22.4
1973 479 13 287 3 377 9 910 28.3 7.2 21.1
1974 482 13 423 3 090 10 333 28.3 6.5 21.8
1975 485 13 301 3 182 10 119 27.7 6.6 21.0
1976 488 12 828 3 113 9 715 26.3 6.4 20.0
1977 492 12 517 3 119 9 398 25.4 6.3 19.1
1978 497 11 978 3 129 8 849 24.1 6.3 17.8
1979 503 12 444 3 021 9 423 24.8 6.0 18.7
1980 509 12 302 3 258 9 044 24.2 6.4 17.8
1981 517 11 838 3 161 8 677 23.1 6.2 16.9
1982 527 11 964 3 048 8 916 23.1 5.9 17.2
1983 537 12 484 3 301 9 183 23.7 6.3 17.4
1984 548 13 116 3 040 10 076 24.4 5.7 18.8
1985 559 13 163 3 018 10 145 24.1 5.5 18.6
1986 569 12 797 3 065 9 732 23.0 5.5 17.5
1987 579 12 599 3 090 9 509 22.3 5.5 16.8
1988 589 13 561 3 163 10 398 23.6 5.5 18.1
1989 599 13 898 3 307 10 591 23.6 5.6 18.0
1990 611 13 877 3 151 10 726 23.1 5.2 17.8
1991 622 14 117 3 401 10 716 23.1 5.6 17.5
1992 635 14 240 3 347 10 893 22.8 5.4 17.4
1993 648 13 432 3 205 10 227 21.3 5.1 16.2
1994 661 13 327 3 089 10 238 20.7 4.8 15.9
1995 674 13 053 3 135 9 918 19.9 4.8 15.1
1996 686 13 047 3 565 9 482 19.5 5.3 14.2
1997 699 13 712 3 553 10 159 20.1 5.2 14.9
1998 712 13 538 3 731 9 807 19.5 5.4 14.2
1999 724 14 153 3 825 10 328 20.0 5.4 14.6 2.33
2000 736 14 594 3 836 10 758 20.2 5.3 14.9 2.51
2001 748 14 541 3 829 10 712 19.8 5.2 14.6 2.45
2002 759 14 789 4 004 10 785 19.8 5.4 14.4 2.41
2003 770 14 427 4 041 10 386 19.0 5.3 13.7 2.43
2004 780 14 545 3 958 10 587 18.9 5.1 13.8 2.45
2005 791 14 610 4 357 10 253 18.7 5.6 13.1 2.49
2006 802 14 495 4 323 10 172 18.4 5.5 12.9 2.44
2007 813 14 808 3 974 10 834 18.6 5.0 13.6 2.47
2008 823 14 927 4 115 10 812 18.4 5.1 13.4 2.47
2009 834 14 299 4 109 10 190 17.4 5.0 12.4 2.37
2010 845 14 147 4 220 9 927 17.0 5.1 11.9 2.36
2011 855 14 124 4 002 10 122 16.5 4.7 11.8 2.36
2012 865 14 288 4 167 10 121 16.5 4.8 11.7

Life expectancy[edit]

At birth, life expectancy is 76.5 years for male children, and 82.9 for female (figures for 2011).[3]

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Réunion
Moufia Mosque in Saint-Denis

The predominant religion is Roman Catholicism with Hinduism, Islam and Buddhism also represented, among others.

Language[edit]

French is the only official language of Reunion. Although not official, Réunion Creole is also commonly spoken by the majority of the population. One can hear it in any administration or office, but education is only in French.[4]

Tamil is taught as optional language in some schools.[5] Due to the diverse population, other languages such as Mandarin, Hakka and Cantonese are also spoken by members of the Chinese community, but fewer people speak these languages as younger generations start to converse in French. The number of speakers of Indian languages (mostly Urdu and Gujarati) is also dropping sharply. Arabic is taught in mosques and spoken by a small community of Arabs.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups present include people of European, African, Malagasy, Indians and Chinese origin as well as many of mixed race. Local names for these are used: Yabs, Cafres, Malbars and Zarabes (both ethnic groups of Indian origin) and Chinois (Réunion).

The fraction of people of each ethnicity is not known exactly, since the 1958 constitution bans ethnic censuses in France,[6] and applies in Réunion. Extensive and long-going intermarriage also blurs the issue. Whites are estimated to make up approximately one-quarter of the population, Indians also roughly a quarter, and people of Chinese ancestry to form roughly 3%. The percentages for mixed race people and those of Afro-Malagasy origins vary wildly between estimates. Some people of Vietnamese ancestry also live on the island, though they are very few in number.[7][8][9]

People of Tamil and Gujarati origin make up the majority of the Indo-Réunionnais people; Bihari and other origins form the remainder of the population.[5] The island's community of Muslims from North Western India and elsewhere is also commonly referred to as Zarab.

Creoles (a name given to those born on the island, of various ethnic origins), make up the majority of the population. Groups that are not creole include people from Metropolitan France (known as zoreils) and those from Mayotte and the Comoros.

Genetics[edit]

In 2005, a genetic study on mixed race people of Réunion found the following. For maternal (mitochondrial) DNA, the haplogroups are Indian (44%), East Asian (27%), European/Middle Eastern (19%) or African (10%). The Indian lineages are M2, M6 and U2i, the East Asian ones are E1, D5a, M7c, and F (E1 and M7c also found only in South East Asia and in Madagscar), the European/Middle Eastern ones are U2e, T1, J, H, and I, and the African ones are L1b1, L2a1, L3b, and L3e1.[10]

For paternal (Y-chromosome) DNA, the haplogroups are European/Middle Eastern (85%) or East Asian (15%). The European lineages are R1b and I, the Middle Eastern one E1b1b1c (formerly E3b3) (also found in Northeast Africa), and the East Asian ones are R1a (found in many parts of the world including Europe and Central and Southern Asia but the particular sequence has been found in Asia) and O3. [10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision[dead link]
  2. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm#2001 United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  3. ^ a b Institut national de la statistique et des études économique
  4. ^ "Ethnologue report (language code:rcf)". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  5. ^ a b "NRI" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  6. ^ "SSRN-Why France Needs to Collect Data on Racial Identity - In a French Way by David Oppenheimer". Papers.ssrn.com. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  7. ^ Clicanoo. "La Réunion Métisse". 
  8. ^ "Anthropometric evaluations of body composition of undergraduate students at the University of La Réunion". 
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ a b Gemma Berniell-Lee, Stéphanie Plaza, Elena Bosch, Francesc Calafell, Eric Jourdan, Maya Cesari, Gérard Lefranc, and David Comas (2008). "Admixture and Sexual Bias in the Population Settlement of La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean)". American Journal of Physical Anthropology (WILEY-LISS, INC.) 136 (1): 100–107. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20783. Retrieved 2010-07-09.