Demographics of Rwanda

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Rwanda, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Rwanda's population density, even after the 1994 genocide, is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa at 230 inhabitants per square kilometre (600 /sq mi). This country has few villages, and nearly every family lives in a self-contained compound on a hillside. The urban concentrations are grouped around administrative centers.

Over half of the adult population is literate, but no more than 5% have received secondary education.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Further information: Ethnic groups in Rwanda

The indigenous population consists of three ethnic groups. The Hutus, who comprise the majority of the population (85%), are farmers of Bantu origin. The Tutsis (14% before the Genocide, probably less than 10% now) are a pastoral people who arrived in the area in the 15th century. Until 1959, they formed the dominant caste under a feudal system based on cattleholding.

The Twa (pygmies) (1%) are thought to be the remnants of the earliest settlers of the region.

Population[edit]

A graph showing Rwanda's total population, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

According to the 2010 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 10 624 000 in 2010, compared to only 2 072 000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 42.6%, 54.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% was 65 years or older .[1]

Total population (in thousands)) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2,072 45.1 52.3 2.6
1955 2,386 46.3 50.8 2.9
1960 2,771 48.1 49.1 2.8
1965 3,221 47.8 49.5 2.7
1970 3,749 47.8 49.7 2.5
1975 4,390 47.7 49.9 2.4
1980 5,179 48.1 49.7 2.2
1985 6,081 48.9 49.1 2.0
1990 7,110 49.1 48.7 2.2
1995 5,570 48.4 49.3 2.3
2000 8,098 45.4 52.0 2.6
2005 9,202 42.4 55.0 2.7
2010 10,624 42.6 54.7 2.7

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Rwanda not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [1]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 118 000 55 000 63 000 52.9 24.7 28.1 8.00 160
1955-1960 137 000 60 000 77 000 53.3 23.4 29.9 8.15 152
1960-1965 155 000 65 000 90 000 51.9 21.9 30.0 8.15 143
1965-1970 178 000 72 000 106 000 51.0 20.7 30.3 8.10 137
1970-1975 211 000 82 000 128 000 51.8 20.3 31.5 8.20 134
1975-1980 250 000 92 000 158 000 52.3 19.3 33.0 8.25 132
1980-1985 294 000 92 000 202 000 52.2 16.3 35.9 8.25 124
1985-1990 326 000 123 000 203 000 49.4 18.7 30.7 7.80 120
1990-1995 258 000 263 000 - 5 000 40.7 41.5 -0.8 6.30 128
1995-2000 278 000 136 000 142 000 40.7 19.9 20.8 6.00 118
2000-2005 344 000 125 000 219 000 39.8 14.4 25.4 5.60 108
2005-2010 404 000 122 000 281 000 40.7 12.3 28.4 5.43 100
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[2]


Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1992 40,0 6,23 38,0 4,51 41,0 6,33
2000 5,8 5,2 5,9
2005 43,2 6,1 39,8 4,9 43,8 6,3
2007-2008 39,2 5,5 37,4 4,7 39,6 5,7
2010 34,4 4,6 30,6 3,4 35,0 4,8

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

11,370,425
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS. This disease can result in lower life expectancy, population, and growth rates; higher infant mortality and death rates; and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2011 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.792% (2011 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 47.3 years
male: 46.26 years
female: 48.38 years (2006 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Rwandan(s)/Rwandese
adjective: Rwandan/Rwandese

Ethnic groups[edit]

Religions[edit]

Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 37.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001) (See Religion in Rwanda)

Languages[edit]

Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular), English (official), French (official), Swahili (used in commercial centres)

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.4%
male: 76.3%
female: 64.7% (2003 est.)

References[edit]