Demographics of Sierra Leone

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Demographics of Sierra Leone
Population 5,743,725
Density 80.06 inhabitants per sq km.
Growth rate 15.40% (2004–2014 est.)
Birth rate 37.40 births/1,000 inhabitants
Death rate 11.03 deaths/1,000 inhabitants
Life expectancy 57.39 years
 • male 54.85 years
 • female 60.00 years
Fertility rate 4.83 children born/women
Infant mortality rate 73.29 deaths/1,000 births
Age structure
0–14 years 41.9%
15–64 years 54.4%
65 and over 3.7%
Sex ratio
Total 0.94 male(s)/female
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 0.99 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.94 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.78 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality Sierra Leonean(s)
Major ethnic Temne 35%, Mende 31%
Minor ethnic Limba 8%, Kono 5%, Kriole 2%, Mandingo 2%, Loko 2%, other 15%
Language
Official English
Spoken Mende, Temne, Krio

The demographics of Sierra Leone are made up of an indigenous population from 18 ethnic groups. The Temne in the north and the Mende in the South are the largest. About 60,000 are Krio, the descendants of freed slaves who returned to Sierra Leone from Great Britain, North America and slave ships captured on the high seas. In addition, about 5,000 Lebanese, 1000 Indians, and 5,000 Europeans reside in the country.

In the past, some Sierra Leoneans were noted for their educational achievements, trading activity, entrepreneurial skills, and arts and crafts work, particularly woodcarving. Many are part of larger ethnic networks extending into several countries, which link West African states in the area. Their level of education and infrastructure have declined sharply over the last 30 years.[1]

Population[edit]

Historical populations of Sierra Leone
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1963 2,180,355 —    
1974 2,735,159 +2.08%
1985 3,515,812 +2.31%
2004 4,976,871 +1.85%
2014 5,743,725 +1.44%
Source: [2]
Sierra Leone's total population, from 1961 to 2003.

According to the 2010 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 5 868 000 in 2010, compared to only 1 895 000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 43%, 55.1% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 1.9% was 65 years or older .[3]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 1 895 39.4 57.6 3.0
1955 2 029 39.6 57.5 2.9
1960 2 187 39.6 57.5 2.9
1965 2 373 39.8 57.3 2.9
1970 2 593 40.5 56.9 2.9
1975 2 845 40.5 56.6 3.0
1980 3 162 41.1 56.0 2.9
1985 3 541 42.0 55.3 2.7
1990 3 982 42.4 55.1 2.6
1995 3 898 42.3 55.3 2.4
2000 4 143 42.4 55.5 2.1
2005 5 153 42.9 55.2 1.9
2010 5 868 43.0 55.1 1.9

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Sierra Leone not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [3]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 96 000 69 000 27 000 48.8 35.1 13.6 6.03 242
1955-1960 102 000 71 000 32 000 48.6 33.6 15.0 6.03 235
1960-1965 110 000 73 000 37 000 48.5 32.1 16.3 6.03 227
1965-1970 119 000 75 000 44 000 47.8 30.1 17.7 5.98 214
1970-1975 124 000 73 000 50 000 45.5 26.9 18.6 5.75 195
1975-1980 133 000 69 000 63 000 44.1 23.1 21.1 5.63 164
1980-1985 143 000 68 000 76 000 42.8 20.2 22.6 5.52 135
1985-1990 162 000 86 000 76 000 43.0 22.8 20.1 5.59 154
1990-1995 175 000 101 000 73 000 44.3 25.7 18.6 5.81 166
1995-2000 179 000 100 000 79 000 44.6 24.9 19.6 5.84 157
2000-2005 199 000 97 000 102 000 42.7 20.8 22.0 5.56 133
2005-2010 224 000 93 000 131 000 40.6 16.9 23.7 5.22 114
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[4]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2008 31,5 5,1 27,3 3,8 33,4 5,8
2013 35,7 4,9 29,5 3,5 38,2 5,7

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Sierra Leone's population pyramid in 2005. In 2010, 43% of Sierra Leone's population was below the age of 15.[3]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population growth rate[edit]

2.33% growth rate (2014 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

38.12 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate[edit]

11.49 deaths/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

-3.86 migrants/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Refugees currently in surrounding countries are slowly returning.

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2003 est.)

Maternal Mortality Ratio[edit]

890 deaths/100 000 births (2010)

Sierra Leone's MMR is the worst of any country in the world, according to the 2000 WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA report.

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 56.55 years
male: 54.08 years
female: 59.11 years (2012 est.)
total population: 42.84 years
male: 40.33 years
female: 45.42 years (2003 est.)
total population: 45.25 years
male: 42.37 years
female: 48.21 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

4.9 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures[edit]

13.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density[edit]

0.016 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density[edit]

0.4 beds/1,000 population (2008)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

adult prevalence rate: 1.6% (2009 est.)
people living with HIV/AIDS: 49,000 (2009 est.)
deaths: 2,800 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
aerosolized dist or soil contact disease: Lassa fever (2009)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic groups[edit]

Further information: Ethnic groups in Sierra Leone
20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%)
Creole 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century)
Refugees from Liberia's recent civil war
Small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians

Religions[edit]

Muslim 60%
Christian 30%
Indigenous beliefs 10%

Languages[edit]

Further information: Languages of Sierra Leone
English (official, regular use limited to literate minority)
Mende (principal vernacular in the south)
Temne (principal vernacular in the north)
Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed American and West Indian slaves and Liberated Africans who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)
Bengali was named an official language in 2002 although it is not native to Sierra Leone[5]

Education expenditure[edit]

4.3% of GDP (2009)

Literacy[edit]

Definition: Age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic

Total population: 35.1%
Male: 46.9%
Female: 24.4% (2004 est.)
Total population: 31.4%
Male: 45.4%
Female: 18.2% (1995 est.)

Cities with the highest percentage of a single ethnic group[edit]

City largest ethnic group percentage of population
Freetown Krio 28%
Bo Mende 47%
Kenema Mende 45%
Koidu Town Kono 40%
Makeni Temne 43%
Magburaka Temne 46%
Kabala Mandingo 38%
Kailahun Mende 50%
Bonthe Sherbro 40%
Port Loko Temne 50%
Moyamba Mende 42%
Kambia Temne 38%

References[edit]