Demographics of Swaziland

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Swaziland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Swazi people dancing in a cultural village show.

The majority of Swaziland's population is ethnic Swazi, mixed with a small number of Zulus and white Africans, predominantly of British and Afrikaner origin. This population also includes a small segment within it that is mixed with any number of these ancestries.

Traditionally Swazis have been subsistence farmers and herders, but most now work in the growing urban formal economy and in government. Some Swazis work in the mines in South Africa. Swaziland also received Portuguese settlers and black refugees from Mozambique. Christianity in Swaziland is sometimes mixed with traditional beliefs and practices. Most Swazis ascribe a special spiritual role to the Swazi Royal Family.

The country's official languages are Siswati (a language related to Zulu) and English. Government and commercial business is conducted mainly in English. Asians, Afrikaners, Portuguese, and black Mozambicans speak their own languages.

Population[edit]

Demographics of Swaziland, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Swaziland's population is 1,419,623 according to the 2014 estimate from the CIA Factbook. The 2007 Census put the nation's population at 912,229. This number is lower than the 1997 Census, which gave 929,718 residents. The small difference is believed to be the result of massive emigration of Swazis to South Africa in search of work.[1]

According to the 2010 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 1 186 000 in 2010, compared to only 273 000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 38.4%, 58.2% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.4% was 65 years or older .[2]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 273 43.0 54.3 2.7
1955 307 44.2 53 2.8
1960 349 45.2 52 2.8
1965 392 46.3 51.0 2.7
1970 446 47.2 50.1 2.7
1975 517 48.0 49.3 2.7
1980 603 48.8 48.5 2.7
1985 706 48.9 48.3 2.8
1990 863 48.1 49.2 2.7
1995 964 47.6 49.6 2.8
2000 1 064 44.6 52.4 3.0
2005 1 105 41.8 55 3.2
2010 1 186 38.4 58.2 3.4

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Swaziland not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [2]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 14 000 7 000 7 000 48.1 22.6 25.5 6.70 174
1955-1960 16 000 7 000 9 000 47.6 20.8 26.8 6.70 160
1960-1965 18 000 7 000 10 000 47.9 19.6 28.2 6.75 150
1965-1970 20 000 8 000 13 000 49.0 18.5 30.4 6.85 141
1970-1975 24 000 8 000 16 000 49.3 16.4 32.9 6.87 124
1975-1980 27 000 8 000 19 000 48.5 14.2 34.2 6.73 108
1980-1985 31 000 8 000 23 000 47.7 12.0 35.7 6.54 90
1985-1990 36 000 8 000 28 000 46.1 10.3 35.8 6.13 77
1990-1995 36 000 9 000 28 000 39.9 9.4 30.4 5.30 69
1995-2000 35 000 12 000 22 000 34.1 11.9 22.1 4.49 80
2000-2005 34 000 17 000 17 000 31.8 15.7 16.1 4.01 87
2005-2010 34 000 17 000 17 000 30.1 14.9 15.2 3.57 76
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[3]


Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1986 6,4
1991 5,6
1997 4,5
1999-2002 4,2
2004-2007 31,1 3,8 31,9 3,0 31,0 4,2

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

1,419,623 (July 2014 est.),[4]
note: Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

Median age[edit]

total: 20.5 years male: 20.2 years female: 20.9 years (2012 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.), 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003, 2000 est.)
15-64 years: 0.99 (2003 est.), 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)
65 years and over: 0.78 (2003 est.), 0.7 male(s)/female (2000 est.)
total population: 0.99 (2003 est.), 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

1.195% (2012 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

26.16 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate[edit]

14.21 deaths/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

0 migrants/1,000 population (2010)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 21% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate[edit]

320 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

total: 59.57 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.59 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 55.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population:

49.06 years (2012 est.)
47.85 years (2010 est.)
33.22 (2005 est.)
39.47 (2003 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

3.03 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures[edit]

6.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density[edit]

0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density[edit]

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2006)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

- adult prevalence rate 25.9% (2009 est.) [5]

people living with HIV/AIDS 180,000 (2009 est.) [5]

deaths 7,000 (2009 est.)[4]

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid :fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2009)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Swazi(s) adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups[edit]

Black 97%, White 3% [6]

Religions[edit]

Christianity 57%, Zionist (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship) 40%, other faiths (Muslim, Bahá'í) 3% (see Religion in Swaziland)

Languages[edit]

English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.6% (2003 est.), 76.7% (1995 est.)
male: 82.6% (2003 est.), 78% (1995 est.)
female: 80.8% (2003 est.), 75.6% (1995 est.)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20071222.SWAZII22/TPStory/TPInternational/Africa/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  2. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  3. ^ http://www.safaids.net/files/Swaziland%20Demographic%20and%20Health%20Survey%202006-2007.pdf
  4. ^ a b The World Factbook: Swaziland, CIA 
  5. ^ a b Swaziland statistics: HIV prevalence rate 2007 ages 15-49, UNICEF 
  6. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/wz.html