Demographics of Taiwan

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Population density of Taiwan by district

This article is about the demographic features of the population in Taiwan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The population in Taiwan was estimated in December 2013 at 23,373,517, spread across a total land area of 35,980 km², making it the sixteenth most densely populated country in the world with a population density of 646 people per km².

The original population of the island of Taiwan and its associated islands, i.e. not including Kinmen and the Matsu Islands, consists of Taiwanese aborigines, speaking Austronesian languages and sharing mitochondrial DNA contribution with island peoples of Southeast Asia and the Pacific.[1] Immigration of Han Chinese to the Penghu islands started as early as the 13th century, while settlement of the main island occurred from the 16th century, stimulated by the import of workers from Fujian by the Dutch in the 17th century. According to governmental statistics, 96% of the Republic of China's population is now made up of Han Chinese, while only 2% are Taiwanese aborigines.[2] Half the population are followers of one or a mixture of 25 recognized religions. Around 93% of the religious population are followers of a mixture of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism, while a minority 4.5% are followers of Christianity.

During the 20th century the population of Taiwan rose more than sevenfold, from 3.04 million in 1905 to 22.3 at December 31, 2000. This high growth was caused by a combination of factors, very high fertility rates up to the 1960s, and low mortality rates, and a surge in population as the Chinese Civil War ended, and the Kuomintang forces retreated, bringing an influx of two million soldiers and civilians to Taiwan in 1948 - 1949. Consequently, the natural growth of Taiwan was very rapid, especially in the late 1940s and 1950s, with an effective growth rate as high as 36.8 per 1,000 during 1951-1956. Including the Kuomintang forces, which accounted in 1950 for about 25% of all persons on Taiwan, immigration of mainland Chinese (now approximately 13% of the present population) at the end of the 1940s was a major factor in the high population growth of Taiwan. Some official government statistics for the period, including those reported on this page, do not seem consistent with the known size of the Kuomintang influx.

Fertility rates decreased gradually thereafter, and in 1984 the rate reached the replacement level (2.1 children per women, which is needed to replace the existing population). Fertility rates have continued to decline and in 2010 Taiwan was experiencing a population growth of less than 0.2% and a fertility rate of only 0.9, which is the lowest rate ever recorded in Taiwan. The population of Taiwan is projected to reach a maximum of little over 23.4 million between 2020 and 2025, and will decrease thereafter.

The official national language is Mandarin, although a majority also speak Taiwanese (dialect of Hokkien; a Min Nan/Southern Fujian language) and Hakka. Japanese speakers are becoming rare as the elderly generation who lived under Japanese rule are dying out. Aboriginal languages are gradually becoming extinct as the aborigines have become acculturated despite a program by the ROC government to preserve the languages.

Population[edit]

Population growth since 1978

According to May 2006 statistics from the Ministry of the Interior, the population of Taiwan was 22,805,547, 99.6% of which live on island of Taiwan. The remaining 0.4% (82,618) live on offshore islands (Penghu, Lanyu, Green, Kinmen and Matsu).

Taiwan is ranked the 50th most populous nation in the world.

Historical[edit]

It is estimated that prior to Kingdom of Tungning (1661) the population of Taiwan was no greater than 100,000 people, and the initial Zheng army with family and retainers that settled in Taiwan is estimated to be 30,000 at minimum.[3] During Qing rule (1683–1895), the population of Han Chinese in Taiwan grew rapidly from 100,000 to 2.5 million, while the population of Taiwanese Aborigines shrank.[citation needed] As part of the emphasis placed on governmental control, the Japanese Colonial Government performed detailed censuses every five years starting in 1905. Statistics showed a population growth rate of about 1% to 3% per year throughout Japanese rule. In 1905, the population of Taiwan was roughly 3 million; by 1940 the population had grown to 5.87 million, and by the end of World War II in 1946 it numbered 6.09 million.

Population census[edit]

Year Males (thousands) Females (thousands) Total population (thousands) Average annual growth rate (%)
1905 1,611 1,429 3,040
1915 1,813 1,669 3,480 1.4
1920 1,894 1,762 3,655 1.0
1925 2,053 1,941 3,993 1.8
1930 2,459 2,239 4,593 2.8
1935 2,660 2,553 5,212 2.6
1940 2,971 2,901 5,872 2.4
1956 4,772 4,596 9,368 3.0
1966 7,153 6,352 13,505 3.7
1970 (sampling) 7,723 7,047 14,770 2.3
1975 (sampling) 8,439 7,840 16,279 2.0
1980 9,405 8,624 18,030 2.1
1990 10,618 9,775 20,394 1.2
2000 11,386 10,915 22,301 0.9
2010 (end of year estimate) 23,162 0.4

Net migration rate[edit]

During 2004-2010 Taiwan's migration rate was positive. On average the annual net migration amounted to 22,000 people during that period, which is equivalent to a rate of 1.0 per 1000 inhabitants per year.

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid for Taiwan in November 2012, showing number of male and female inhabitants per year of age
Age range 1980 census 1990 census 2000 2010
0–14 years 32.1% 26.9% 21.2% 15.65%
15–64 years 63.6% 67.0% 70.2% 73.61%
65 years and over 4.3% 6.1% 8.6% 10.74%

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Nationality[edit]

The people from Taiwan identify themselves as Taiwanese (台灣人 Táiwānrén).

Ethnicity (Overview)[edit]

The majority of the population are said to be descendants of Han Chinese immigrants from the adjacent Fujian province in mainland China.

Taiwanese ethnicities[citation needed]

Officially, the population of Taiwan consist of 98% Han Chinese, of which 84% identify as Benshengren (本省人 Běnshěngrén; literally "home-province person") while 15% are mainlanders or Waishengren (外省人 Wàishěngrén; literally "external-province person"). The remainder 2% are aborigines (less than 500,000). A confounding factor is intermarriage between these ethnic groups - to the extent that it is doubtful whether the term "ethnicity" can be used at all.

Han Chinese[edit]

Main article: Taiwanese people

98% of Taiwanese are descendants of a mixture of Han Chinese and mainly plains tribe aboriginals who intermarried over the past four hundred years. Approximately two-thirds of those are descendants of early immigrants (70% of ethnic Hoklo and 15% of ethnic Hakka) from the adjacent Fujian (Fukien) and Guangdong (Kwangtung) provinces who crossed the Taiwan Strait. Some settlers intermarried with Plains Aborigines. Both Hokkien and Hakka speakers regard themselves as Benshengren (本省人) and consider the mainland Chinese immigrants around the late 1940s during the Chinese Civil War as Waishengren (外省人).

Aboriginal[edit]

Original geographic distributions of Taiwanese aboriginal tribes
Main article: Taiwanese aborigines

The total population of aborigines was estimated in May 2006 to be 468,602 which is about 2% of the total population of Taiwan. The aborigines inhabit the eastern half of Taiwan which consists mostly of mountainous terrain.

Living in the Eastern plains Male Female
220,513 (47.1%) 111,372 109,141
Living in the mountains Male Female
248,089 (52.9%) 122,016 126,073
468,602 233,388 235,214
Note: Source data obtained from ROC Ministry of the Interior website (Spreadsheet data: m1-04.xls)

The ROC government officially recognizes sixteen aborigine tribes (原住民; yuánzhùmín; literally "original inhabitants").[4] These are: Ami, Atayal, Paiwan, Bunun, Hla'alua, Kanakanavu, Puyuma, Rukai, Tsou, Saisiyat, Tao (Yami), Thao, Kavalan, Truku, Seediq, and Sakizaya. Japanese colonial rule of Taiwan classified and recognized nine tribes based on linguistic and cultural data; these criteria were modified and included in the official ROC ethnographies of Taiwanese people. The Thao, Kavalan, Truku, Sakizaya, and Seediq tribes were recognized much later in 2001, 2002, 2004, 2007, and 2008 respectively by the ROC government. There are at least another dozen tribes that are not recognized by the government.

Officially Recognized Taiwanese Aboriginal Tribes
English
name
Chinese
name
Pinyin
transliteration
Population at census 2000[5] Population Date of recognition Notes
Amis
(Pangcah)
阿美 Āměi 148,992 183,799 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Tribal name means "north."
Atayal
(Tayal)
泰雅 Tàiyǎ 91,883 80,061 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Tribal name means "brave person."
Bunun 布農 Bùnóng 41,038 51,447 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Hla'alua 拉阿魯哇 Lāālǔwa - 400 26 June 2014 Originally classified as Tsou.
Kanakanavu 卡那卡那富 Kǎnàkǎnàfù - 550 26 June 2014 Originally classified as Tsou.
Kavalan 噶瑪蘭 Gámǎlán - 1,218 2002 Some Kavalan are classified as Amis.
Paiwan 排灣 Páiwān 70,331 88,323 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Puyuma 卑南 Bēinán 9,606 11,850 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Rukai 魯凱 Lǔkǎi 12,084 11,911 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Saisiyat
(Saysiat)
賽夏 Sàixià 5,311 5,900 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Sakizaya 撒奇萊雅 Sāqíláiyǎ - 442 January 17, 2007 Reclassified as Amis during the Japanese colonial era.
Seediq 賽德克 Sàidékè - 6,606 April 23, 2008 Originally classified as Atayal.
Tao
(Yami)
達悟 Dáwù 3,872 3,748 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Also known as 雅美 (Yǎmĕi) or 耶美 (Yémĕi). Tribal name means "person."
Thao Shào - 693 2001 Originally thought to be Plains aborigines living among the Tsou.
Truku
(Taroko)
太魯閣 Tàilǔgé - 25,857 January 14, 2004 Originally classified as Atayal.
Tsou
(Cou)
Zōu 6,169 6,733 Japanese colonial era One of the 9 tribes originally recognized by the Japanese colonial government.
Others 8,249
Total 397,535

Unrecognized Taiwanese aboriginal tribes may include extinct tribes (mostly Plains aboriginal groups) or tribes currently classified with other groups. There are also 25,943 Aborigines who are currently not classified in any group.

Unrecognized Taiwanese Aboriginal Tribes
English
name
Chinese
name
Pinyin
Babuza 巴布薩 Bābùsà
Basay 巴賽 Bāsài
Hoanya 洪雅 Hé'ānyǎ
Kaxabu 噶哈巫 Géhāwū
Ketagalan 凱達格蘭 Kǎidágélán
Luilang 雷朗 Léilǎng
Makatao 馬卡道 Mǎkǎdào
Papora
(Papora)
巴布拉 Bābùlā
Pazeh
(Pazih)
巴宰 (巴澤海) Bāzǎi (Bāzéhǎi)
Qauqaut 猴猴 Hóuhóu
Saaroa 沙阿魯阿 Shāālǔā
Siraya 西拉雅 Xīlāyǎ
Taokas 道卡斯 Dàokǎsī

Foreign residents[edit]

Foreign residents in Taiwan
Nationality / Origin Total
1  Indonesia 179,790 37.0%
2  Vietnam 100,350 20.7%
3  Philippines 85,459 17.6%
4  Thailand 66,868 13.8%
5  Malaysia 13,031 2.7%
6  Japan 11,661 2.4%
7  United States 9,645 2.0%
8  South Korea 3,496 0.7%
9  Canada 2,089 0.4%
10  India 1,927 0.4%
11  United Kingdom 1,545 0.3%
12  Singapore 1,286 0.3%
- Other 8,161 1.7%
Total 485,308 100.0%

There are People from mainland China, Hong Kong and Macao, and Nationals without registered household in Taiwan.

People Temporary residency Permanent residency
China 241,455 128,744
Hong Kong and Macao 34,241 21,218
nationals without registered household 136,846 204,808
  • As of March 2013
  • Source: National Immigration Agency, Ministry of the Interior[7]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Taiwan
Overview: Mandarin (official), Taiwanese Minnan, Hakka dialects, Taiwanese aboriginal languages

Almost everyone in Taiwan born after the early 1950s can speak Mandarin, which has been the official language and the medium of instruction in the schools for more than four decades. The Mandarin spoken in Taiwan has minor differences from that spoken in mainland China, South-east Asia and other regions of the world.

The majority speak a dialect form of Min Nan (Southern Fujianese language), commonly referred to as Taiwanese, which was the most common language. The ethnic Hakka have a distinct Hakka dialect. Between 1900 and 1945 Japanese was the medium of instruction and could be fluently spoken by many of those educated during that period. Chinese romanisation in Taiwan uses both Hanyu pinyin which has been officially adopted by the central government, and Tongyong pinyin which some localities use. Wade-Giles, used traditionally, is also found.

On Kinmen (Quemoy), the language spoken is also Min Nan. On the Matsu Islands, the Foochow dialect, a Min Dong (Eastern Fujianese) dialect, is spoken.

The most widely spoken Taiwanese aboriginal languages today are Amis, Atayal, Bunun, and Paiwan.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Taiwan

Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of China guarantees freedom of religion as a right of all its citizens. As of 2002, the Republic of China government recognizes 25 religions which are registered with the Civil Affairs Department of the Ministry of the Interior (MOI).[8]

Statistics on registered religions (2005)[edit]

About 81.3% of the population can be considered religious believers, most of whom identify themselves as Buddhists or Taoists. At the same time there is a strong belief in folk religion. These are not considered mutually exclusive, and many people practice a combination of the three. Confucianism also is an honored school of thought and ethical codes. Christian churches have been active in Taiwan for many centuries, a majority of which are Protestant, with Presbyterians playing a particularly significant role. The ROC government has diplomatic relations with the Holy See, which is the only European nation to formally recognize the ROC and is the ROC's longest lasting diplomatic ally, having established relations in 1942. Islam is a static religion but has seen a surge in recent years as a result of foreign Muslims seeking work in Taiwan, most notably from Indonesia. There is also a small group of Shinto followers under the Tenrikyo sect which began in the 1970s.

The table shows official statistics on religion issued by the Department of Civil Affairs, Ministry of the Interior ("MOI"), in 2005. The ROC government recognizes 26 religions in Taiwan.[9] The statistics are reported by the various religious organizations to the MOI:[9][10]

Religion Members % of total population Temples & churches
Buddhism (佛教) (including Tantric Buddhism) 8,086,000 35.1% 4,006
Taoism (道教) 7,600,000 33.0% 18,274
Yiguandao (一貫道) 810,000 3.5% 3,260
Protestantism (基督新教) 605,000 2.6% 3,609
Roman Catholic (羅馬天主教) 298,000 1.3% 1,151
Tiandi teaching (天帝教) 298,000 1.3% 50
Miledadao (彌勒大道) 250,000 1.1% 2,200
Tiande teaching (天德教) 200,000 0.9% 14
Zailiism/Liism (理教) 186,000 0.8% 138
Xuanyuanism (軒轅教) 152,700 0.7% 22
Islam (伊斯蘭教) 58,000 0.3% 7
Mormonism
(耶穌基督後期聖徒教會)
51,090 0.2% 54
Tenriism (天理教) 35,000 0.2% 153
Maitreya King of the Universe (宇宙彌勒皇教) 35,000 0.2% 12
Haizidao (亥子道) 30,000 0.1% 55
Scientology (山達基教會) 20,000 < 0.1% 7
Bahá'í Faith (巴哈伊教) 16,000 < 0.1% 13
Jehovah's Witnesses (耶和華見證人) 6,223 < 0.1% 85
True School of the Mysterious Door (玄門真宗) 5,000 < 0.1% 5
Chinese Holy Church (中華聖教) 3,200 < 0.1% 7
Mahikari (真光教團) 1,000 < 0.1% 9
Salvationism of the Ancient Heaven (先天救教) 1,000 < 0.1% 6
Huang Zhong (黃中) 1,000 < 0.1% 1
Dayi teaching (大易教) 1,000 < 0.1% 1
Total religious population 18,724,823 81.3% 33,223
Total population 23,036,087 100% -

The figures for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are not from the MOI rather they are based on self reported data from LDS Newsroom.[11]

The figures for Jehovah's Witnesses are not from the MOI rather they are based on the Witnesses own 2007 Service Year Report.[12]

Vital statistics[edit]

Births and deaths[13][14][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change CBR* CDR* NC* TFR*
1906 3 060 119 107 102 000 16 000 38.6 33.4 5.2
1907 3 090 121 756 100 000 21 000 39.1 32.4 6.7
1908 3 120 119 800 100 000 19 000 38.2 31.9 6.3
1909 3 160 127 286 98 000 29 000 40.2 31.1 9.1
1910 3 210 132 141 88 000 45 000 41.3 27.5 13.8
1911 3 270 135 658 86 000 51 000 41.8 26.2 15.6
1912 3 330 136 622 83 000 55 000 41.3 25.0 16.3
1913 3 390 136 967 85 000 53 000 40.8 25.0 15.8
1914 3 440 141 450 95 000 47 000 41.4 27.6 13.8
1915 3 480 137 669 110 000 29 000 40.0 31.5 8.5
1916 3 510 128 605 100 000 31 000 37.3 28.6 8.7
1917 3 560 142 414 96 000 50 000 40.9 27.0 13.9
1918 3 590 139 465 122 000 21 000 39.7 34.1 5.6
1919 3 630 136 707 97 000 43 000 38.5 26.8 11.7
1920 3 655 141 313 117 000 27 000 39.5 32.1 7.4
1921 3 720 155 159 90 000 69 000 42.8 24.2 18.6
1922 3 790 154 531 93 000 65 000 41.8 24.6 17.2
1923 3 860 146 984 82 000 69 000 39.1 21.3 17.8
1924 3 930 158 688 96 000 67 000 41.4 24.5 16.9
1925 3 993 159 423 95 000 68 000 40.8 23.9 16.9
1926 4 100 175 802 92 000 87 000 43.7 22.4 21.3
1927 4 210 177 422 93 000 89 000 43.2 22.1 21.1
1928 4 330 183 699 95 000 94 000 43.7 22.0 21.7
1929 4 460 190 031 96 000 100 000 44.0 21.6 22.4
1930 4 593 198 186 89 000 117 000 44.8 19.4 25.4
1931 4 710 208 137 100 000 116 000 45.8 21.3 24.5
1932 4 867 204 913 99 000 115 000 44.0 20.4 23.6
1933 4 995 211 737 98 000 123 000 44.3 19.7 24.6
1934 5 128 219 189 105 166 123 510 44.6 20.5 24.1
1935 5 255 225 980 106 905 129 040 44.9 20.3 24.6
1936 5 384 223 961 106 332 127 725 43.5 19.8 23.7
1937 5 530 237 090 109 096 138 570 44.8 19.7 25.1
1938 5 678 235 821 111 723 133 117 43.1 19.7 23.4
1939 5 821 244 707 115 044 139 119 43.7 19.8 23.9
1940 5 987 246 691 116 239 141 232 43.0 19.4 23.6
1941 6 163 241 894 99 858 153 447 41.1 16.2 24.9
1942 6 339 242 796 112 161 143 243 40.3 17.7 22.6
1943 6 507 247 427 122 001 138 662 40.0 18.8 21.2
1944
1945
1946
1947 6 294 241 071 114 000 127 000 38.3 18.1 20.2
1948 6 648 264 000 95 000 169 000 39.7 14.3 25.4
1949 7 099 300 843 93 000 208 000 42.4 13.1 29.3
1950 7 468 323 643 86 000 238 000 43.4 11.5 31.9
1951 7 695 385 383 89 000 296 000 50.0 11.6 38.5
1952 8 000 372 905 79 000 294 000 46.6 9.9 36.8
1953 8 297 374 536 78 000 297 000 45.2 9.4 35.8
1954 8 617 383 574 71 000 313 000 44.6 8.2 36.3
1955 8 924 403 683 77 000 327 000 45.3 8.6 36.6
1956 9 242 414 036 74 000 340 000 44.8 8.0 36.8
1957 9 539 394 870 81 000 314 000 41.4 8.5 32.9
1958 9 858 410 885 75 000 336 000 41.7 7.6 34.1
1959 10 227 421 458 74 000 347 000 41.2 7.2 33.9
1960 10 602 419 442 74 000 345 000 39.5 7.0 32.5 5.750
1961 10 983 420 254 74 000 346 254 38.3 6.7 31.5 5.585
1962 11 312 423 469 72 000 351 469 37.4 6.4 31.1 5.465
1963 11 680 424 250 71 000 353 250 36.3 6.1 30.2 5.350
1964 12 088 416 926 69 000 347 926 34.5 5.7 28.8 5.100
1965 12 442 406 604 67 887 338 717 32.7 5.5 27.2 4.825
1966 12 812 415 108 69 778 345 330 32.4 5.4 27.0 4.815
1967 13 147 374 282 71 861 302 421 28.5 5.5 23.0 4.220
1968 13 474 394 260 73 650 320 610 29.3 5.5 23.8 4.325
1969 13 995 390 728 70 549 320 179 27.9 5.0 22.9 4.120
1970 14 507 394 015 71 135 322 883 27.2 4.9 22.3 4.000
1971 14 837 380 424 70 954 309 470 25.6 4.8 20.9 3.705
1972 15 145 365 749 71 486 294 263 24.1 4.7 19.4 3.365
1973 15 424 366 942 73 477 293 465 23.8 4.8 19.0 3.210
1974 15 699 355 933 74 760 293 063 23.4 4.8 18.7 2.940
1975 15 999 357 653 75 061 292 586 23.0 4.7 18.3 2.765
1976 16 298 424 075 77 000 347 075 26.0 4.7 21.3 3.085
1977 16 601 393 633 79 000 316 796 23.7 4.8 19.1 2.700
1978 16 951 411 637 79 000 330 203 24.3 4.7 19.5 2.715
1979 17 337 421 720 82 000 340 518 24.3 4.7 19.6 2.670
1980 17 608 413 881 84 333 329 548 23.5 4.8 18.7 2.515
1981 17 972 414 069 87 192 326 877 23.0 4.9 18.2 2.455
1982 18 261 405 263 87 578 317 685 22.2 4.8 17.4 2.320
1983 18 538 383 439 90 951 292 488 20.7 4.9 15.8 2.170
1984 18 873 371 008 89 915 281 093 19.7 4.8 14.9 2.055
1985 19 135 346 208 92 348 253 860 18.1 4.8 13.3 1.880
1986 19 356 309 230 95 057 214 173 16.0 4.9 11.1 1.680
1987 19 564 314 024 96 319 217 705 16.1 4.9 11.1 1.700
1988 19 788 342 031 102 113 239 918 17.3 5.2 12.1 1.855
1989 20 004 315 299 103 288 212 011 15.8 5.2 10.6 1.680
1990 20 230 335 618 105 669 229 949 16.6 5.2 11.4 1.810
1991 20 455 321 932 106 284 215 648 15.7 5.2 10.5 1.720
1992 20 655 321 632 110 516 211 116 15.6 5.4 10.2 1.733
1993 20 848 325 613 110 901 214 712 15.6 5.3 10.3 1.764
1994 21 087 322 938 113 866 209 072 15.3 5.4 9.9 1.757
1995 21 268 329 581 119 112 210 469 15.5 5.6 9.9 1.777
1996 21 441 325 545 122 489 203 056 15.2 5.7 9.5 1.767
1997 21 634 326 002 121 000 205 002 15.1 5.6 9.5 1.771
1998 21 836 271 450 123 180 148 270 12.4 5.6 6.8 1.464
1999 22 011 283 661 126 113 157 548 12.9 5.7 7.2 1.548
2000 22 185 305 312 125 957 179 355 13.8 5.7 8.1 1.674
2001 22 342 260 354 127 647 132 707 11.7 5.7 5.9 1.402
2002 22 464 247 530 128 636 118 894 11.0 5.7 5.3 1.337
2003 22 554 227 070 130 801 96 269 10.1 5.8 4.3 1.230
2004 22 647 216 419 135 092 81 327 9.6 6.0 3.6 1.177
2005 22 730 205 854 139 398 66 456 9.1 6.1 2.9 1.117
2006 22 824 204 459 135 839 68 620 9.0 6.0 3.0 1.112
2007 22 918 204 414 141 111 63 303 8.9 6.2 2.8 1.10
2008 22 998 198 733 143 624 55 109 8.6 6.2 2.4 1.06
2009 23 079 191 310 143 582 47 728 8.3 6.2 2.1 1.03
2010 23 141 166 886 145 772 21 114 7.2 6.3 0.9 0.89
2011 23 194 196 627 152 915 43 712 8.5 6.6 1.9 1.06
2012 23 271 229 481 154 251 75 230 9.9 6.6 3.2 1.27
2013 23 345 199 113 155 908 43 205 8.5 6.7 1.8 1.07
* CBR=crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR=crude deathrate (per 1000); NC=natural change (per 1000); TFR=total fertility rate

[dubious ]

Fertility rate[15][16][edit]

The fertility rate of Taiwan is one of the lowest fertility rates ever recorded in the world in historical times. It reached its lowest level in 2010: 0.90 children per female. In 1980, the rate was still well above replacement level (2.515), but it dropped to 1.88 in 1985, 1.81 in 1990, 1.78 in 1995, 1.68 in 2000, 1.12 in 2005.

Infant mortality rate[edit]

total: 6.29 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.97 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Taiwan is ranked 39th in the world for highest life expectancy at birth.

Gender Life expectancy in 2009[17]
Male 75.88 years
Female 82.46 years

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Main article: HIV/AIDS in Taiwan

The first reported case of HIV/AIDS was recorded in December 1984 and the first local infection recorded in February 1986. As of May 2006, there were 11,486 recorded cases of HIV of which 2,631 were confirmed with AIDS. There were 1,425 deaths leaving 10,029 people living with HIV/AIDS. This is less than 0.05% of the total population of Taiwan. Statistics by the Center for Disease Control show that the gender distribution of infected person was 90% male and 10% female.

Data Population
Adult prevalence 11,486
People living with HIV/AIDS 10,029
Deaths 1,425
Source: Center for Disease Control (CDC), Republic of China - May 2006 est.(PDF file) (Chinese)

Military manpower[edit]

The Republic of China has a compulsory military draft for males aged 19–35 years of age with a service obligation of 12 months in 2008.

Available manpower[edit]

Defined as 19–49 years of age.

Gender Population
Male 5,883,828
Female 5,680,773
Total 11,564,601

Fit for military service[edit]

Of the available manpower, the following are fit for military service. Defined as 19–49 years of age.

Gender Population
Male 4,749,537
Female 4,644,607
Total 9,394,144

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Taiwan

Taiwan has a nine-year compulsory education program initiated by the Ministry of Education in 1968. This consists of six years in elementary education and three years in junior high education. About 94.7% of junior high graduates continue their studies in either a senior high or vocational school[citation needed]. Reflecting a strong commitment to education, in FY 2001 16% of the ROC budget was allocated for education[citation needed]. The enrollment rate was 96.77% for the school year 2004-2005.[18] For the school year 2005-2006, there were 5,283,855 students in both public and private schools, about a quarter of the entire population. The literacy rate is above 95%.

Taiwan has an extensive higher education system with more than 100 institutions of higher learning. Each year over 100,000 students take the joint college entrance exam; about 66.6% of the candidates are admitted to a college or university[citation needed]. Opportunities for graduate education are expanding in Taiwan, but many students travel abroad for advanced education, including 13,000 who study in the United States annually[citation needed].

Since the mid-1990s, the government has introduced several education reforms in a bid to further improve education standards such as the replacement in 2002 of the 48-year long Joint University Entrance Examination (JUEE; 大學聯考; Dàxué liánkǎo) which had been set up in 1954.

Distribution of students[edit]

Sector Education Years of study Typical Age range Students Distribution
Pre-school Kindergarten (2 years) 4–6 years old 224,220 4.2%
Compulsory Elementary 6 years 6–12 years old 1,831,913 34.7%
Junior High 3 years 12–15 years old 951,236 18%
Senior Secondary Senior High 3 years 15–18 years old 420,608 8%
Senior Vocation 3 years 15–18 years old 331,604 6.3%
Higher Education Junior College 2–5 years 15–20 years old 37,068 0.7%
University & College 4–7 years
(up to 13 years)
18–25 years old
(up to 31 years old)
1,259,490 23.8%
Other Special School up to 14 years 4–18 years old 6,361 0.1%
Supplementary School n/a n/a 200,573 3.8%
Open University n/a n/a 20,782 0.4%
Total 5,283,855 100%
Source: Number of students at each level (SY 2005-2006), Ministry of Education, Republic of China.

Literacy[edit]

Definition of literacy is those aged 15 and over who can read and write.

Gender Population
Male 99.6%
Female 96.8%
Total 98.2%

"International Comparison of Education Statistical Indicators - 2012 Edition", Ministry of Education, 2012. pp. 17. Retrieved on 2012-10-05. (Table 1-2-5. Literacy Rate for Age 15 Plus by Gender).

2.02 Population of 15 Years and Over by Educational Attainment, Statistical Yearbook of Interior, Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2012. Retrieved on 10-05-2012.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Trejaut, Jean; Toomas Kivisild; Jun Hun Loo; Chien Liang Lee; Chun Lin He; Chia Jung Hsu; Zheng Yuan Li; Marie Lin (August 2005). "Traces of Archaic Mitochondrial Lineages Persist in Austronesian-Speaking Formosan Populations". PLoS Biology 3 (8): e247. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030247. PMC 1166350. PMID 15984912. 
  2. ^ Taiwan More Than an Island Government Information Office of the Republic of China.
  3. ^ Lin, A.; Keating, J. (2008). Island in the Stream : a quick case study of Taiwan's complex history (4th ed.). Taipei: SMC Pub. ISBN 9789576387050. 
  4. ^ http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/national/national-news/2014/06/27/411066/Govt-officially.htm
  5. ^ Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (DGBAS). National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan). Preliminary statistical analysis report of 2000 Population and Housing Census. Excerpted from Table 28:Indigenous population distribution in Taiwan-Fukien Area. Accessed PM 8/30/06
  6. ^ "臺灣地區居留外僑統計". National Immigration Agency, Ministry of the Interior. 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2011-04-02. 
  7. ^ 外僑居留-按國籍別 (Excel) (in Chinese (The agency provides a bilingual glossary)). National Immigration Agency, Ministry of the Interior. 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2013-05-21. 
  8. ^ "Taiwan Yearbook 2004 - Religion". Taipei Times. 2004. 
  9. ^ a b "Taiwan Yearbook 2006". Government of Information Office. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-07-08. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  10. ^ "2006 Report on International Religious Freedom". U.S. Department of State. 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  11. ^ "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Taiwan Country Profile". 
  12. ^ "Jehovah's Witnesses: Interactive Map of the Worldwide Work". 
  13. ^ B.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000.
  14. ^ National Statistics Republic of China (Taiwan)
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  18. ^ "Taiwan Yearbook 2005 - Education". Government Information Office, Republic of China.