Demographics of Germany
|Demographics of Germany|
|Population||80,767,000 (31 December 2013)|
|Growth rate||+0.28 (2014)|
|Birth rate||8.42 births/1,000 population (2014)|
|Death rate||11.29 deaths/1,000 population (2014)|
|Life expectancy||80.44 years (2014)|
|• male||78.15 years|
|• female||82.86 years|
|Fertility rate||1.43 children born/woman (2014)|
|Infant mortality rate||3.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2014)|
|Net migration rate||1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014)|
|Total||0.97 male(s)/female (2013)|
|At birth||1.06 male(s)/female|
|Under 15||1.05 male(s)/female|
|15–64 years||1.02 male(s)/female|
|65 and over||0.76 male(s)/female|
|Nationality||noun: German(s) adjective: German|
The demography of Germany is monitored by the "Statistisches Bundesamt" (Federal Statistical Office of Germany). According to the first census since the reunification, Germany's population was counted to be 80,219,695 on May 9, 2011, making it the 16th most populous country in the world. Germany's population is characterized by zero or declining growth, with an ageing population and smaller cohort of youths. The total fertility rate has been rated around 1.4 in 2010 (the highest value since 1990) and has recently even been estimated at 1.6 after accounting for the fact that older women contribute more to the number of births than in previous statistic models, and total fertility rates increased in younger generations. Fertility was closely linked to educational achievement (with the less educated women having more children than the educated ones). Persons who adhere to no religion have fewer children than Christians, and studies also found that among Christians the more conservative ones had more children than the more liberal ones. In vitro fertilisation is legal in Germany, with an age limit set at 40.
The United Nations Population Fund lists Germany as host to the third-highest number of international migrants worldwide. More than 16 million people are of foreign/immigrant descent (first and second generation, including mixed heritage and ethnic German repatriates and their descendants). 96.1% of those reside in western Germany and Berlin. About seven million of them are foreign residents, which is defined as those not having German citizenship. The largest ethnic group of non-German origin are the Turkish. Since the 1960s, West and later reunified Germany has been attracting migrants primarily from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Turkey, many of whom (or their children) over time acquired German citizenship. While most of these migrations had an economic background, Germany has also been a prime destination for refugees from many developing countries, in part because its constitution long had a clause giving a 'right' to political asylum, but restrictions over the years have since made it less attractive.
Germany has one of the world's highest levels of education, technological development, and economic productivity. Since the end of World War II, the number of students entering universities has more than tripled, and the trade and technical schools are among the world's best. With a per capita PPP income of about $41,370 (compared to $50,619 purchasing power parity per capita income in the USA) in 2012, Germany is a broadly middle class society. However there has been a strong increase in the number of children living in poverty. Whereas in 1965 one in 75 children was on the welfare rolls, in 2007 one child in 6 was – although it should be noted that these children live in relative poverty, but not necessarily in absolute poverty. Germans also are very mobile; millions travel abroad each year. The social welfare system provides for universal health care, unemployment compensation, child benefits and other social programmes. Due to Germany's aging population and struggling economy, the welfare system came under a lot of strain in the 1990s. This led the government to adopt a wide-ranging programme of belt-tightening reforms, Agenda 2010, including the labour market reforms known as Hartz I - IV.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Population
- 4 Immigration
- 5 Education
- 6 Health
- 7 Religion
- 8 Languages
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The contemporary demographics of Germany are also measured by a series of full censuses, with the most recent held in 1987. Since reunification, German authorities rely on a micro census.
Statistics since 1900
Population statistics since 1900. Territorial changes of Germany occurred in 1918/1919, 1921/1922 and 1945/1946.
Fertility is not shown before 1950. Notable features before that time are fertility being extremely low during the ending years of the Weimar Republic, when it dropped down to about 1.1 child per woman in 1933.
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates||Fertility rates BRD||Fertility rates GDR|
|1900||54 326 000||1 944 139||1 199 382||744 757||35.8||22.1||13.7|
|1901||55 144 000||1 980 313||1 140 489||839 824||35.9||20.7||15.2|
|1902||56 017 000||1 971 735||1 088 492||883 243||35.2||19.4||15.8|
|1903||56 869 000||1 931 078||1 135 905||795 173||34.0||20.0||14.0|
|1904||57 695 000||1 972 847||1 128 183||844 664||34.2||19.6||14.6|
|1905||58 514 000||1 935 153||1 158 314||776 839||33.1||19.8||13.3|
|1906||59 343 000||1 970 477||1 078 202||892 275||33.2||18.2||15.0|
|1907||60 183 000||1 948 933||1 084 309||864 624||32.4||18.0||14.4|
|1908||61 023 000||1 964 052||1 100 490||863 562||32.2||18.0||14.2|
|1909||61 857 000||1 929 278||1 062 217||867 061||31.2||17.2||14.9|
|1910||62 698 000||1 876 778||1 016 665||860 113||29.9||16.2||13.7|
|1911||63 469 000||1 824 729||1 097 784||726 945||28.7||17.3||11.5|
|1912||64 236 000||1 823 636||1 000 749||822 887||28.4||15.6||12.8|
|1913||65 058 000||1 794 750||975 950||818 800||27.6||15.0||12.6|
|1914||65 860 000||1 775 596||1 246 310||529 286||27.0||18.9||8.0|
|1915||65 953 000||1 353 546||1 410 420||-56 874||20.5||21.4||-0.9|
|1916||65 795 000||1 005 484||1 258 054||-252 570||15.3||19.1||-3.8|
|1917||65 450 000||912 109||1 345 424||-433 315||13.9||20.6||-6.6|
|1918||64 800 000||926 813||1 606 475||-679 662||14.3||24.8||-10.5|
|1919||62 897 000||1 260 500||978 380||282 120||20.0||15.6||4.5|
|1920||61 794 000||1 599 287||932 929||666 358||25.9||15.1||10.8|
|1921||62 473 000||1 581 130||869 555||711 575||25.3||13.9||11.4|
|1922||61 890 000||1 425 000||890 000||535 000||23.0||14.4||8.6|
|1923||62 250 000||1 318 000||867 000||451 000||21.2||13.9||7.2|
|1924||62 740 000||1 291 000||767 000||524 000||20.6||12.2||8.4|
|1925||63 110 000||1 311 000||753 000||558 000||20.8||11.9||8.8|
|1926||63 510 000||1 245 000||743 000||502 000||19.6||11.7||7.9|
|1927||63 940 000||1 179 000||765 000||414 000||18.4||12.0||6.5|
|1928||64 470 000||1 200 000||747 000||453 000||18.6||11.6||7.0|
|1929||64 670 000||1 164 000||815 000||349 000||18.0||12.6||5.4|
|1930||65 130 000||1 144 000||719 000||425 000||17.6||11.0||6.5||2,18|
|1931||65 510 000||1 048 000||734 000||314 000||16.0||11.2||4.8|
|1932||65 716 000||993 000||708 000||285 000||15.1||10.8||4.3|
|1933||66 027 000||971 000||738 000||233 000||14.7||11.2||3.5|
|1934||66 409 000||1 198 350||725 000||473 000||18.0||10.9||7.1|
|1935||66 871 000||1 263 976||792 018||471 958||18.9||11.8||7.1|
|1936||67 349 000||1 278 583||795 793||482 790||19.0||11.8||7.2|
|1937||67 831 000||1 277 046||794 367||482 679||18.8||11.7||7.1|
|1938||68 424 000||1 348 534||799 220||549 314||19.7||11.7||8.0|
|1939||69 314 000||1 413 230||854 348||558 882||20.4||12.3||8.1|
|1940||69 838 000||1 402 258||885 591||516 667||20.1||12.7||7.4|
|1941||70 244 000||1 308 232||844 435||463 797||18.6||12.0||6.6|
|1942||70 834 000||1 055 915||847 861||208 054||14.9||12.0||2.9|
|1943||70 411 000||1 124 718||853 246||271 472||16.0||12.1||3.9|
|1944||69 000 000||1 215 000||915 000||300 000||17.6||13.3||4.3|
|1945||66 000 000||1 060 000||1 210 000||-150 000||16.1||18.3||-2.3|
|1946||64 260 000||921 998||1 001 331||-79 333||14.3||15.6||-1.2||1.89||1.30|
|1947||65 842 000||1 028 421||932 628||95 793||15.6||14.2||1.5||2.01||1.75|
|1948||67 365 000||1 049 074||804 839||244 235||15.6||11.9||3.6||2.07||1.76|
|1949||68 080 000||1 106 803||770 852||335 951||16.3||11.3||4.9||2.14||2.03|
|1950||68 374 000||1 116 835||748 329||368 506||16.3||10.9||5.4||2.10||2.35|
|1951||68 882 000||1 106 608||752 697||353 911||16.1||10.9||5.1||2.06||2.46|
|1952||69 171 000||1 105 080||767 637||337 443||16.0||11.1||4.9||2.16||2.08||2.42|
|1953||69 564 000||1 095 096||790 654||304 442||15.7||11.4||4.4||2.15||2.07||2.40|
|1954||69 934 000||1 110 028||775 291||334 737||15.9||11.1||4.8||2.18||2.12||2.38|
|1955||70 307 000||1 113 128||795 938||317 190||15.8||11.3||4.5||2.18||2.11||2.38|
|1956||70 711 000||1 137 169||812 111||325 058||16.1||11.5||4.6||2.22||2.19||2.30|
|1957||71 166 000||1 165 555||840 195||325 360||16.4||11.8||4.6||2.28||2.28||2.24|
|1958||71 637 000||1 175 870||818 418||357 452||16.4||11.4||5.0||2.29||2.29||2.22|
|1959||72 180 000||1 243 922||835 402||408 520||17.2||11.6||5.7||2.36||2.34||2.37|
|1960||72 664 000||1 261 614||876 721||384 893||17.4||12.1||5.3||2.37||2.37||2.35|
|1961||73 352 000||1 313 505||850 300||463 205||17.9||11.6||6.3||2.45||2.47||2.42|
|1962||74 049 000||1 316 534||878 814||437 720||17.8||11.9||5.9||2.44||2.45||2.42|
|1963||75 019 000||1 355 595||895 070||460 525||18.1||11.9||6.1||2.51||2.52||2.47|
|1964||75 273 000||1 357 304||870 319||486 985||18.0||11.6||6.5||2.54||2.55||2.48|
|1965||76 061 000||1 325 386||907 882||417 504||17.4||11.9||5.5||2.50||2.51||2.48|
|1966||76 734 000||1 318 303||911 984||406 319||17.2||11.9||5.3||2.51||2.54||2.43|
|1967||76 954 000||1 272 276||914 417||357 859||16.5||11.9||4.7||2.48||2.54||2.34|
|1968||77 249 000||1 214 968||976 521||238 447||15.7||12.6||3.1||2.38||2.39||2.30|
|1969||77 918 000||1 142 368||988 092||154 276||14.7||12.7||2.0||2.21||2.20||2.24|
|1970||77 772 000||1 047 737||975 664||72 073||13.5||12.5||0.9||2.03||1.99||2.19|
|1971||78 355 000||1 013 396||965 623||47 773||12.9||12.3||0.6||1.96||1.92||2.13|
|1972||78 717 000||901 657||965 689||-64 032||11.5||12.3||-0.8||1.73||1.72||1.79|
|1973||78 951 000||815 969||963 034||-147 065||10.3||12.2||-1.9||1.56||1.54||1.58|
|1974||78 966 000||805 500||956 573||-151 073||10.2||12.1||-1.9||1.53||1.51||1.54|
|1975||78 862 000||782 310||989 649||-207 339||9.9||12.5||-2.6||1.48||1.45||1.54|
|1976||78 299 000||798 334||966 873||-168 539||10.2||12.3||-2.2||1.51||1.46||1.64|
|1977||78 161 000||805 496||931 155||-125 659||10.3||11.9||-1.6||1.51||1.40||1.85|
|1978||78 066 000||808 619||955 550||-146 931||10.4||12.2||-1.9||1.50||1.38||1.90|
|1979||78 082 000||817 217||944 474||-127 257||10.5||12.1||-1.6||1.50||1.39||1.90|
|1980||78 295 000||865 789||952 371||-86 582||11.1||12.2||-1.1||1.56||1.44||1.94|
|1981||78 399 000||862 100||954 436||-92 336||11.0||12.2||-1.2||1.53||1.43||1.85|
|1982||78 293 000||861 275||943 832||-82 557||11.0||12.1||-1.1||1.51||1.41||1.86|
|1983||78 082 000||827 933||941 032||-113 099||10.6||12.1||-1.4||1.43||1.33||1.79|
|1984||77 797 000||812 292||917 299||-105 007||10.4||11.8||-1.3||1.39||1.29||1.74|
|1985||77 619 000||813 803||929 649||-115 846||10.5||12.0||-1.5||1.37||1.28||1.73|
|1986||77 635 000||848 231||925 411||-77 180||10.9||11.9||-1.0||1.41||1.34||1.70|
|1987||77 718 000||867 969||901 291||-33 322||11.2||11.6||-0.4||1.43||1.37||1.74|
|1988||78 116 000||892 993||900 627||-7 634||11.4||11.5||-0.1||1.46||1.41||1.67|
|1989||78 677 000||880 459||903 441||-22 103||11.2||11.5||-0.3||1.42||1.39||1.56|
|1990||79 365 000||905 675||914 361||-8 686||11.4||11.5||-0.1||1.454||1.450||1.518|
|1991||79 984 000||830 019||911 245||-81 226||10.4||11.4||-1.0||1.332||1.422||0.977|
|1992||80 570 000||809 114||885 443||-76 329||10.0||11.0||-0.9||1.292||1.402||0.830|
|1993||81 187 000||798 447||897 270||-98 823||9.8||11.1||-1.2||1.278||1.393||0.775|
|1994||81 422 000||769 603||884 659||-115 056||9.5||10.9||-1.4||1.243||1.347||0.772|
|1995||81 661 000||765 221||884 588||-119 367||9.4||10.8||-1.5||1.249||1.339||0.838|
|1996||81 896 000||796 013||882 843||-86 830||9.7||10.8||-1.1||1.316||1.396||0.948|
|1997||82 061 000||812 173||860 389||-48 216||9.9||10.5||-0.6||1.369||1.441||1.039|
|1998||82 024 000||785 034||852 382||-67 348||9.6||10.4||-0.8||1.355||1.413||1.087|
|1999||82 101 000||770 744||846 330||-75 586||9.4||10.3||-0.9||1.361||1.406||1.148|
|2000||82 213 000||766 999||838 797||-71 798||9.3||10.2||-0.9||1.378||1.413||1.214|
|2001||82 350 000||734 475||828 541||-94 066||8.9||10.1||-1.1||1.349||1.382||1.231|
|2002||82 489 000||719 250||841 673||-122 423||8.7||10.2||-1.5||1.341||1.371||1.238|
|2003||82 541 000||706 721||853 946||-147 225||8.6||10.3||-1.8||1.340||1.364||1.264|
|2004||82 517 000||705 622||818 271||-112 649||8.6||9.9||-1.4||1.355||1.372||1.307|
|2005||82 470 000||685 795||830 227||-144 432||8.3||10.1||-1.8||1.340||1.355||1.295|
|2006||82 377 000||672 724||821 627||-148 903||8.2||10.0||-1.8||1.331||1.341||1.303|
|2007||82 267 000||684 862||827 155||-142 293||8.3||10.1||-1.7||1.370||1.375||1.366|
|2008||82 110 000||682 514||844 439||-161 925||8.3||10.3||-2.1||1.376||1.374||1.404|
|2009||81 901 000||665 126||854 544||-189 418||8.1||10.4||-2.3||1.358||1.353||1.404|
|2010||81 751 000||677 947||858 768||-180 821||8.3||10.5||-2.2||1.393||1.385||1.459|
|2011||80 233 100||662 685||852 328||-189 643||8.2||10.6||-2.4||1.364||1.357||1.433|
|2012||80 399 000||673 544||869 582||-196 038||8.4||10.8||-2.4||1,378||1,371||1,454|
|2013||80 585 700||682 069||893 825||-211 756||8.5||11.1||-2.6||1,39|
After the World War II border shifts and expulsions, the Germans from Central and Eastern Europe and the former eastern territories moved westward to post-war Germany. During the partition of Germany, many Germans from East Germany fled to West Germany for political and also economic reasons. Since Germany's reunification, there are ongoing migrations from the eastern New Länder to the western Old Länder for economic reasons.
The federal republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic followed different paths when it came to demographics. The politics of ther German Democratic Republic was pronatalistic while that of the Federal Republic was compensatory. Fertility in the GDR was higher than that in the FRG. Demographic politics was only one of the reasons. Women in the GDR had less "biographic options", young motherhood was expected of them. State funded costfree childcare was available to all mothers.
After 1990, the total fertility rate (TFR) in the East dropped to 0.772 in 1994. This has been attributed to the fact that there was a "demographic shock" (people not only had less children, they also were less likely to marry or divorce after the end of the GDR) the biographic options of the citizens of the former GDR had increased. Young motherhood seemed to be less attractive and the age of the first birth rose sharply.
In the following years, the TFR in the East Germany started rising again, surpassing 1.0 in 1997 and 1.3 in 2004, reaching the West's TFR in 2007 (1.37). In 2010, the East's fertility rate (1.459) clearly exceeded that of the West (1.385), while Germany's overall TFR has risen to 1.393, the highest value since 1990 - which is still far below the natural replacement rate of 2.1 and the birth rates seen under communism. In the 2012 the TFR of East Germany was 1.454, while TFR in the West was only 1.371.
Since 1989, about 2,000 schools have closed because of a scarcity of children.
In some regions the number of women between the ages of 20 and 30 has dropped by more than 30%. In 2004, in the age group 18-29 (statistically important for starting families) there were only 90 women for every 100 men in the new federal states (including Berlin).
Until 2007 family politics in the federal republic was compensatory, which means that poor families received more family benefits (such as the Erziehungsgeld) than rich ones. In 2007 the so-called "Elterngeld" was introduced. According to Christoph Butterwege the Elterngeld was meant to "motivate highly educated women to have more children", the poor on the other hand were disadvantaged by the Elterngeld, receiving now less child benefits than the middle classes. The very well-off (who earn more than 250.000 Euro per annum) and those on welfare receive no Elterngeld payments.
In 2013 the following most recent developments were noticed:
- The income of families having young children has risen. Persons holding a college degree, persons older than 30 years and parents of only children benefited the most. Single parents and young parents did not benefit
- Fathers are becoming more involved in parenting, and 28% of them now take some time off their jobs (3.3 months on average) when their children are born.
- Mothers are more likely to work and as a result less likely to be economically deprived than they used to.
- The birth rate of college educated women has risen.
With an estimated more than 81.8 million inhabitants in late 2011, Germany is the most populous country in the European Union and ranks as the 16th largest country in the world in terms of population. Its population density stands at 229.4 inhabitants per square kilometer.
Germany comprises sixteen states that are collectively referred to as Länder. Due to differences in size and population the subdivision of these states varies, especially between city states (Stadtstaaten) and states with larger territories (Flächenländer). For regional administrative purposes five states, namely Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxony, consist of a total of 22 Government Districts (Regierungsbezirke). As of 2009 Germany is divided into 403 districts (Kreise) on municipal level, these consist of 301 rural districts and 102 urban districts.
|5||Frankfurt am Main||Hesse||671,927|
|10||Bremen||Free Hanseatic City of Bremen||547,685|
Germany officially has eleven metropolitan regions. In 2005, Germany had 82 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants.
|City name||Location||Description||Population (2004)||Largest German ethnic groups||Largest non-German ethnic groups|
|Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region||Cologne is the largest city of the Rhineland, the very Western part of Germany. Particularly among young Germans, Cologne and Düsseldorf are known for their nightlife and open-minded atmosphere.||11.7 mil||Rhinelanders, Westfalians and others||Turks, Italians, Dutch, Poles, French, Arabs, Iranians, South Asians like Indians, and Japanese (large Japanese community in Düsseldorf).|
|Frankfurt Rhine-Main Region||Frankfurt is the economic and financial center both for Germany and the continental European Union. It boasts a large airport and numerous skyscrapers. Within Germany, the city has a reputation of being very business-oriented, perhaps at the expense of other pursuits.||5.8 mil||Hessians and others||Turks, Italians, Dutch, Arabs, Iranians, Bosnians, Greeks, Russians, Israelis, Koreans, Afghans, and Pakistanis (mostly Pashtun & Panjabi ethnic groups).|
|Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region||Berlin is the capital of Germany and its largest city. Berlin lies in the eastern part of the country and is regarded as one of Europe's most vibrant and ever changing capitals. It is also the 3rd most visited city in Europe. Additionally, it is Germany's most ethnically and culturally diverse city.||4.9 mil||Berliners, Prussians, Swabians, Bavarians etc.||Turks, Arabs, Bosnians, Poles, Russians, Albanians, Serbs, Kurds, Vietnamese, Israelis, Chinese, rising number of Africans, Chileans, Brazilians Puerto Ricans and other Latin Americans.|
|Munich Metropolitan Region||Munich has Germany's highest standard of living. Countless sporting and leisure opportunities - both in the city and in its picturesque region. Munich is a powerhouse of the German economy and rich in Bavarian culture.||4.7 mil||Bavarians, Franconians and others||Turks, Croats, Serbs, Dutch, Afghans, Greeks, Albanians, Macedonians, Italians, Bosnians, Hungarians, Spaniards and Romanians.|
|Hamburg Metropolitan Region||Hamburg is a free city state and the second largest city in Germany. It has a long tradition for sea trade and civil establishment and is home to Europe's 2nd largest port. The city is proud of its diverse nightlife and music scene centered in and around the famous St. Pauli district. According to European Union Statistics (EUROSTAT) it is Germany's richest city.||4.3 mil||Hamburgers, Schleswiger, Holsteiner, Lower Saxons and others||Turks, Russians, Albanians, Dutch, Poles, Pakistanis, Iranians, Macedonians, Chinese, Portuguese, Afghans, Africans|
|Southern Lower Saxony: Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region||The relatively urban south of Lower Saxony, located on route between the Ruhr area and Berlin, and the route form Hamburg to the south, has been important for logistics, industry, but also developed a strong standing in the service industries.||3.9 mil||Lower Saxons, Eastphalians and others||Turks, Kurds (especially around Celle), Serbs, Ukrainians, Greeks, Russians, Italians (especially in Wolfsburg) and Spanish (Especially in Hanover).|
|Leipzig-Halle-Dresden (Saxon Triangle)||Also dubbed "City of Heroes", Leipzig is where the 1989 revolution that brought down the Berlin Wall started. Today totally refurbished, it sports Europe's highest density of Art Nouveau architecture. Very lively bar scene, fastest growing economy in Germany.||3.5 mil||Upper Saxons and others||Vietnamese, Indians, Russians, Portuguese, Italians, Poles, Iranians, Turks, Dutch, Arabs and Pakistanis.|
|Stuttgart Metropolitan Region||Stuttgart has a reputation for research, inventions and industry. The German headquarters of many international enterprises are in Stuttgart. This contrasts with the strong rural, down-to-earth attitude of the Stuttgarters throughout the classes. A popular slogan is "We are good at everything. Except speaking High (standard) German."||3.5 mil||Swabians and others||Turks, Greeks, Dutch, Kittians, Italians, Croats, Serbs, French, Chinese, Romanians, Americans and Spaniards.|
|Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region||Located in the northwestern part of Germany, the main axis contains the cities of Bremen, Delmenhorst and Oldenburg, with the cities of Wilhelmshaven and Bremerhaven being the northern corners at the north sea. Major rural areas are covered in between these cities. There is a smooth transition to the Hamburg metropolitan area to the east.||2.4 mil||Lower Saxons, Frisians and others||Turks, Russians, Albanians, Serbs, Portuguese, Iranians, Dutch, Americans and Britons.|
Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
80,791,000 (2014 estimate)
- Age structure
- 0–14 years: 13.9% (male 5,894,724; female 5,590,373)
- 15–64 years: 66.3% (male 27,811,357/female 26,790,222)
- 65 years and over: 19.8% (male 6,771,972/female 9,542,348) (2007 est.)
- 0–14 years: 13.7% (male 5,768,366/female 5,470,516)
- 15–64 years: 66.1% (male 27,707,761/female 26,676,759)
- 65 years and over: 20.3% (male 7,004,805/female 9,701,551) (2010 est.)
- 0–14 years: 13.1%
- 15–64 years: 66%
- 65 years and over: 20.9% (2013 est.)
- Sex ratio
- at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
- 15–64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
- total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
- Infant mortality rate
4.09 deaths per 1,000 live births (2007)
total: 3.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2010)
- Life expectancy at birth
total population: 79.26 years (2010)
- 80.3 (2013)
- Total fertility rate
1.38 children born/woman (2008)
1.42 children born/woman (2010 est.)
While most child-births in Germany happen within marriage, a growing number of children are born out-of-wedlock. In 2010 the out-of-wedlock-rate was 33%, more than twice of what it was in 1990.
The Mikrozensus done in 2008 revealed that the number of children a German woman aged 40 to 75 had, was closely linked to her educational achievement. In Western Germany the most educated women were the most likely to be childless. 26% of those groups stated they were childless, while 16% of those having an intermediate education, and 11% of those having compulsory education, stated the same. In Eastern Germany however, 9% of the most educated women of that age group and 7% of those who had an intermediary education were childless, while 12% of those having only compulsory education were childless.
The reason for that east-western difference is that the GDR had an "educated mother scheme" and actively tried to encourage first births among the more educated. It did so by propagandizing the opinion that every educated woman should "present at least one child to socialism" and also by financially rewarding its more educated citizen to become parents. The government especially tried to persuade students to become parents while still in college and it was quite successful in doing so. In 1986 38% of all women, who were about to graduate from college, were mothers of at least one child and additional 14% were pregnant and 43% of all men, who were about to graduate from college, were fathers of at least one child. There was a sharp decline in the birth rate and especially in the birth rate of the educated after the fall of the Berlin wall. Nowadays,[when?] 5% of those about to graduate from college are parents.
The more educated a Western German mother aged 40 to 75 is, the less likely she is to have a big family.
|Percent of Western German mothers having 1, 2 and 3 or more children by educational attainment|
|number of children||compulsory education||intermediary education||highest education|
|three or more children||39||22||21|
The same is true for a mother living in Eastern Germany.
|Percent of Eastern German mothers having 1, 2 and 3 and more children by educational attainment|
|number of children||compulsory education||intermediary education||highest education|
|three or more children||40||21||16|
A study done in the western German state of Nordrhein-Westfalen by the HDZ revealed that childlessness was especially widespread among scientists. It showed that 78% of the female scientists and 71% of the male scientists working in that state were childless.
Migrant background and foreign nationality
Foreign nationals in Germany
- 205,043 and 36,331 still State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
The Federal Statistical Office defines persons with a migrant background as all persons who migrated to the present area of the Federal Republic of Germany after 1949, plus all foreign nationals born in Germany and all persons born in Germany as German nationals with at least one parent who migrated to Germany or was born in Germany as a foreign national. The figures presented here are based on this definition only.
Total population is 80.2 million.
- German citizens: 74 million (92.3% of total population)
- German citizens of no migrant background: 64.7 million (80% of total population)
- German citizens of immigrant background: 9.9 million (12.3%)
- Foreign nationals: (7.7%)
In 2010, 2.3 million families with children under 18 years were living in Germany, in which at least one parent had foreign roots. They represented 29% of the total of 8.1 million families with minor children. Compared with 2005 – the year when the microcensus started to collect detailed information on the population with a migrant background – the proportion of migrant families has risen by 2 percentage points.
Most of the families with a migrant background live in the western part of Germany. In 2010, the proportion of migrant families in all families was 32% in the former territory of the Federal Republic. This figure was more than double that in the new Länder (incl. Berlin) where it stood at 15%.
Families with a migrant background more often have three or more minor children in the household than families without a migrant background. In 2010, about 15% of the families with a migrant background contained three or more minor children, as compared with just 9% of the families without a migrant background.
In 2009, 3.0 million of the persons of immigrant background had Turkish roots, 2.9 million had their roots in the successor states of the Soviet Union (including a large number of Russian-speaking ethnic Germans), 1.5 million had their roots in the successor states of Yugoslavia and 1.5 million had Polish roots.
In 2008, 18.4% of Germans of any age group and 30% of German children had at least one parent born abroad. Median age for Germans with at least one parent born abroad was 33.8 years, while that for Germans, who had two parents born in Germany was 44.6 years.
In 2012, 80% of Germans had no migration background, a further 4% were ethnic German immigrants (from countries such as Russia, Kazakhstan, and Romania). In total, 91.6% of the population is of European background, excluding Turkey (including ethnic Germans from Kazakhstan but excluding ethnic Europeans from other parts of the world, such as the USA). 3.7% of the population had a Turkish background.:pp. 230–231
Germany is home to the third-highest number of international migrants worldwide.
|Other EU member states (primarily Italian, Romanian, Greek and Spanish)||4.9||3,992,000|
|Russian (including Russian Germans)||1.5||1,213,000|
|Others (primarily Kazakh German and former Yugoslavian, excluding Croatia and Slovenia)||3.3||2,715,000|
|Others (primarily Arabic and Iranian)||0.8||721,000|
|Other background (primarily Australian and Oceanic)||0.3||246,000|
|Mixed or unspecified background||1.5||1,208,000|
Four other sizable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" (nationale Minderheiten) because they have lived in their respective regions for centuries: Danes, Frisians, Roma and Sinti, and Sorbs. There is a Danish minority (about 50,000, according to government sources) in the northern-most state of Schleswig-Holstein. Eastern and Northern Frisians live at Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony. They are part of a wider community (Frisia) stretching from Germany to the northern Netherlands. The Sorbs, a Slavic people with about 60,000 members (according to government sources), are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg. They are the last remnants of the Slavs that lived in central and eastern Germany since the 7th century to have kept their traditions and not been completely integrated into the wider German nation.
Until World War II the Poles were recognized as one of the national minorities. In 1924 the Union of Poles in Germany had initiated cooperation between all national minorities in Germany under the umbrella organization Association of National Minorities in Germany. Some of the union members wanted the Polish communities in easternmost Germany (now Poland) to join the newly established Polish nation after World War I. Even before the German invasion of Poland, leading anti-Nazi members of the Polish minority were deported to concentration camps; some were executed at the Piaśnica murder site. Minority rights for Poles in Germany were revoked by Hermann Göring's World War II decree of 27 February 1940, and their property was confiscated.
After the war ended, the German government did not re-implement national minority rights for ethnic Poles. The reason for this is that the areas of Germany which formerly had a native Polish minority were annexed to Poland and the Soviet Union, while almost all of the native German populations (formerly the ethnic majority) in these areas subsequently fled or were expelled by force. With the mixed German-Polish territories now lost, the German government subsequently regarded ethnic Poles residing in what remained of Germany as immigrants, just like any other ethnic population with a recent history of arrival. In contrast, Germans living in Poland are recognized as national minority and have granted seats in Polish Parliament. It must be said, however, that an overwhelming amount of Germans in Poland have centuries-old historical ties to the lands they now inhabit, whether from living in territory that once belonged to the German state, or from centuries-old communities. In contrast, most Poles in present-day Germany are recent immigrants, though there are some communities which have been present since the 19th and perhaps even the 18th centuries. Despite protests by some in the older Polish-German communities, and despite Germany being now a signatory to the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Germany has so far refused to re-implement minority rights for ethnic Poles, based on the fact that almost all areas of historically mixed German-Polish heritage (where the minority rights formerly existed) are no longer part of Germany and because the vast majority of ethnic Poles now residing in Germany are recent immigrants.
Roma people have been in Germany since the Middle Ages. They were persecuted by the Nazis, and thousands of Roma living in Germany were killed by the Nazi regime. Nowadays, they are spread all over Germany, mostly living in major cities. It is difficult to estimate their exact number, as the German government counts them as "persons without migrant background" in their statistics. There are also many assimilated Sinti and Roma. A vague figure given by the German Department of the Interior is about 70,000. In the late 1990s, many Roma moved to Germany from Kosovo. In contrast to the old-established Roma population, the majority of them do not have German citizenship, they are classified as immigrants or refugees.
After World War II, 14 million ethnic Germans were expelled from the eastern territories of Germany and homelands outside former German Empire. The accommodation and integration of these Heimatvertriebene in the remaining part of Germany, in which many cities and millions of apartments had been destroyed, was a major effort in the post-war occupation zones and later states of Germany.
Since the 1960s, ethnic Germans from the People's Republic of Poland and Soviet Union (especially from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine), have come to Germany. During the time of Perestroika, and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the number of immigrants increased heavily. Some of these immigrants are of mixed ancestry. During the 10-year period between 1987 and 2001, a total of 1,981,732 ethnic Germans from the FSU immigrated to Germany, along with more than a million of their non-German relatives. After 1997, however ethnic Slavs or those belonging to Slavic-Germanic mixed origins outnumbered these with only Germanic descent amongst the immigrants. The total number of people currently living in Germany having FSU connection is around 4 to 4.5 million (Including Germans, Slavs, Jews and those of mixed origins), out of that more than 50% is of German descent.
Germany now has Europe's third-largest Jewish population. In 2004, twice as many Jews from former Soviet republics settled in Germany as in Israel, bringing the total inflow to more than 100,000 since 1991. Jews have a voice in German public life through the Central Council of Jews in Germany (Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland). Some Jews from the former Soviet Union are of mixed heritage.
In 2000 there were also around 300,000–500,000 Afro-Germans (those who have German citizenship) and 150,000+ African nationals. Most of them live in Berlin and Hamburg. Numerous persons from Tunisia and Morocco live in Germany, which in most cases do not considers themselves "Afro-Germans" and are not considered "Afro-Germans" by the German public although they come from Northern Africa, because they are not Black African looking. However, Germany does not keep any statistics regarding ethnicity or race. Hence, the exact number of Blacks or Afro-Germans in particular, is unknown.
Germany's biggest East Asian minority are the Vietnamese people in Germany. About 40,000 Vietnamese live in Berlin and surroundings. Also there are about 20,000 to 25,000 Japanese people residing in Germany. Some South Asian and Southeast Asian immigration has taken place. Nearly 50,000 Indians live in Germany. As of 2008, there were 68,000 Filipino residents and an unknown number of Indonesians residing in Germany.
Numerous descendants of the so-called Gastarbeiter live in Germany. The Gastarbeiter mostly came from Chile, Greece, Southern Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey and the former Yugoslavia. Also included were Vietnam, Mongolia, North Korea, Angola, Mozambique and Cuba when the former East Germany existed until reunification in 1990. The (socialist) German Democratic Republic (East Germany) however had their guest-workers stay in single-sex dormitories. Female guest workers had to sign contracts saying that they were not allowed to fall pregnant during their stay. If they fell pregnant nevertheless they faced forced abortion or deportation. This is one of the reasons why the vast majority of ethnic minorities today lives in western Germany and also one of the reasons why minorities such as the Vietnamese have the most unusual population pyramid, with nearly all second-generation Vietnamese Germans born after 1989.
In its State of World Population 2006 report, the United Nations Population Fund lists Germany with hosting the third-highest percentage of the main international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 10 million of all 191 million migrants.
Germany had previously signed special visa agreements with several countries in times of severe labour shortages or when particular skills were deficient within the country. During the 60s & 70s, agreements were signed with the governments of Turkey, Yugoslavia and Spain to help Germany overcome its severe labour shortage.
Currently, as of 2012, the largest sources of net immigration to Germany are other European countries, most importantly Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Spain, and Greece; notably, in the case of Turkey, German Turks moving to Turkey slightly outnumber new immigrants.
Responsibility for educational oversight in Germany lies primarily with the individual federated states. Since the 1960s, a reform movement has attempted to unify secondary education into a Gesamtschule (comprehensive school); several West German states later simplified their school systems to two or three tiers. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung ("dual education") allows pupils in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run vocational school.
Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four years and public schools are not stratified at this stage. In contrast, secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different levels of academic ability: the Gymnasium enrols the most academically promising children and prepares students for university studies; the Realschule for intermediate students lasts six years; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education.
In addition Germany has a comprehensive school known as the Gesamtschule. While some German schools such as the Gymnasium and the Realschule have rather strict entrance requirements, the Gesamtschule does not have such requirements. They offer college preparatory classes for the students who are doing well, general education classes for average students, and remedial courses for those who aren't doing that well. In most cases students attending a Gesamtschule may graduate with the Hauptschulabschluss, the Realschulabschluss or the Abitur depending on how well they did in school. The percentage of students attending a Gesamtschule varies by Bundesland. In 2007 the State of Brandenburg more than 50% of all students attended a Gesamtschule, while in the State of Bavaria less than 1% did.
The general entrance requirement for university is Abitur, a qualification normally based on continuous assessment during the last few years at school and final examinations; however there are a number of exceptions, and precise requirements vary, depending on the state, the university and the subject. Germany's universities are recognised internationally; in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) for 2008, six of the top 100 universities in the world are in Germany, and 18 of the top 200. Nearly all German universities are public institutions, charging tuition fees of €50–500 per semester for each student.
Over 99% of those of age 15 and above are estimated to be able to read and write. However, a growing number of inhabitants are functionally illiterate. The young are much more likely to be functionally illiterate than the old. According to a study done by the University of Bremen in coorporation with the "Bundesverband Alphabetisierung e.V.", 10% of youngsters living in Germany are functionally illiterate and one quarter are able to understand only basic level texts. Illiteracy rates of youngsters vary by ethnic group and parents' socioeconomic class.
As of 2009[update], the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 42%, followed by malignant tumours, at 25%. As of 2008[update], about 82,000 Germans had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 26,000 had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982). According to a 2005 survey, 27% of German adults are smokers. A 2009 study shows Germany is near the median in terms of overweight and obese people in Europe.
The national constitutions of 1919 and 1949 guarantee freedom of faith and religion; earlier, these freedoms were mentioned only in state constitutions. The modern constitution of 1949 also states that no one may be discriminated against due to their faith or religious opinions. A state church does not exist in Germany (see Freedom of religion in Germany).
According to organizational reportings based on projections in 2008 about 34.1% Germans have no registered religious denomination. According to a poll by Der Spiegel magazine, 45% believe in God, and just a quarter in Jesus Christ.
Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, with around 49.4 million adherents (62.8%) in 2008 of which 24 million are Protestants (29.3%) belonging to the Protestant churches and 23.9 million are Catholics (29.2%) in 2010, the remainder belong to small denominations (each considerably less than 0.5% of the German population). The second largest religion is Islam with an estimated 3.8 to 4.3 million adherents (4.6 to 5.2%) 9.1 of the children born in Germany had Muslim parents in 2005 according to the German statistical office. Those religions are followed by Buddhism and Judaism, both with around 200,000 adherents (0.3%). Hinduism has some 90,000 adherents (0.1%), Sikhism 75,000 (0.1%) and Yazidi religion (45,000-60,000). All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 (<0.1%) adherents.
Protestantism is concentrated in the north and east and Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west. According to the last nationwide census, Protestantism is more widespread among the population with German citizenship; there are slightly more Catholics total because of the Catholic immigrant population (including such groups as Poles and Italians). The former Pope, Benedict XVI, was born in Bavaria. Non-religious people, including atheists and agnostics might make as many as 55%, and are especially numerous in the former East Germany and major metropolitan areas.
Of the roughly 4 million Muslims, most are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites and other denominations. 1.6% of the country's overall population declare themselves Orthodox Christians, with Serbs, Greeks, and Ukrainians, Russians being the most numerous. Germany has Europe's third-largest Jewish population (after France and the United Kingdom). In 2004, twice as many Jews from former Soviet republics settled in Germany as in Israel, bringing the total Jewish population to more than 200,000, compared to 30,000 prior to German reunification. Large cities with significant Jewish populations include Berlin, Frankfurt and Munich. Around 250,000 active Buddhists live in Germany; 50% of them are Asian immigrants.
According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 47% of German citizens agreed with the statement "I believe there is a God", whereas 25% agreed with "I believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% said "I do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".
According to the 2011 EU-wide census, in which Germany participated:
- Roman Catholic Church: 24,740,380 or 30.8% of the German population;
- Evangelical Church: 24,328,100 or 30.3% of the German population;
- Other, atheist or not specified (including Protestants outside EKD): 31,151,210 or 38.8% of the German population.
Danish, Low German, the Sorbian languages (Lower Sorbian and Upper Sorbian), and the two Frisian languages, Saterfrisian and North Frisian, are officially recognized and protected as minority languages by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in their respective regions. With speakers of Romany living in all parts of Germany, the federal government has promised to take action to protect the language. Until now, only Hesse has followed Berlin's announcement, and agreed on implementing concrete measures to support Romany speakers.
Implementation of the Charter is poor. The monitoring reports on charter implementation in Germany show many provisions unfulfilled.
|Saterland Frisian||Lower Saxony|
|Low German||Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Romany||Hesse de facto, de jure in all states (see text)|
High German dialects
German dialects – some quite distinct from the standard language – are used in everyday speech, especially in rural regions. Many dialects, for example the Upper German varieties, are to some degree cultivated as symbols of regional identity and have their own literature, theaters and some TV programming. While speaking a dialect outside its native region might be frowned upon, in their native regions some dialects can be spoken by all social classes.. Nevertheless, partly due to the prevalence of Standard German in media, the use of dialects has declined over the past century, especially in the younger population.
The social status of different German dialects can vary greatly. The Alemannic and Bavarian dialects of the south are positively valued by their speakers and can be used in almost all social circumstances. The Saxonian and Thuringian dialects have less prestige and are subject to derision. While Bavarian and Alemannic have kept much of their distinctiveness, the Middle German dialects, which are closer to Standard German, have lost some of their distinctive lexical and grammatical features and tend to be only pronunciation variants of Standard German.
Low Saxon dialects
Low Saxon is officially recognized as a language on its own, but despite this fact, there's little official action taken on fostering the language. Historically one third of Germany's territory and population was Low Saxon speaking. No data was ever collected on the actual number of speakers, but today the number of speakers ranges around 5 million persons. Despite this relatively high number of speakers there is very little coverage in the media (mostly on NDR TV, no regular programming) and very little education in or on the language. The language is not fixed as part of the school curriculum and Low Saxon is used as a medium of instruction in one school only in the whole Germany (as a "model project" in primary school sided by education in Standard German). As a consequence the younger generation refused to adopt the native language of their parents. Language prevalence dropped from more than 90% (depending on the exact region) in the 1930s to less than 5% today. This accounts for a massive intergenerational gap in language use. Older people regularly use the language and take private initiative to maintain the language, but the lack of innovative potential of the younger generation hinders language maintenance. The language too has an own literature (around 150 published books every year) and there are many theatres (mostly lay stages, but some professional ones, like for example Ohnsorg-Theater).
Use of Low Saxon is mainly restricted to use among acquaintances, like family members, neighbours and friends. A meeting of a village council can be held almost completely in Low Saxon if all participants know each other (as long as written protocols are written in Standard German), but a single foreigner can make the whole switching to Standard German.
The Low Saxon dialects are different in their status too. There's a north-south gradient in language maintenance. The Southern dialects of Westfalian, Eastfalian and Brandenburgish have had much stronger speaker losses, than the northern coastal dialects of Northern Low Saxon. While Eastfalian has lost speakers to Standard German, Westfalian has lost speakers to Standard German and Standard German based regiolect of the Rhine-Ruhr area. Brandenburgish speakers mostly switched to the Standard German based regiolect of Berlin. Brandenburgish is almost completely replaced by the Berlin regiolect. Northern Low Saxon speakers switched mostly to pure Standard German.
English is the most common foreign language and almost universally taught by the secondary level; it is also taught at elementary level in some states. Other commonly-taught languages are French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Russian. Dutch is taught in states bordering the Netherlands, and Polish in the eastern states bordering Poland. Latin and Ancient Greek are part of the classical education syllabus offered in many secondary schools.
According to a 2004 survey, two-thirds of Germany's citizens have at least basic knowledge of English. About 20% consider themselves to be speakers of French, followed by speakers of Russian (7%), Italian (6.1%), and Spanish (5.6%). The relatively high number of Russian speakers is a result of massive immigration from the former Soviet Union to Germany for almost 10 consecutive years, plus its having been learned in school by many older former East Germans.
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This article may incorporate text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Overweight and obesity - BMI statistics - Statistics Explained
- Basic Law Art. 140
- Bevölkerung und Kirchenzugehörigkeit nach Bundesländern Table 1.1 shows 63.4 % of the German population to be Christians of which 2.2% outside the Evangelische Landeskirchen (EKD) and the Roman Catholic Church. Table 1.3 shows overview by German state of membership of the Evangelische Landeskirchen (EKD)and the Roman Catholic Church
- 80% of population in Sachsen-Anhalt is without religion
- religion by Bundesland showing non religious being the majority in Eastern Germany
- "By Location". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- "EKD-Statistik: Christen in Deutschland 2007" (in German). Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
- Religionszugehörigkeit, Deutschland Bevölkerung, 1970-2011
- Konfessionen in Deutschland(German), fowid. Retrieved 2010, 9–9 September.
- "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
Demnach leben in Deutschland zwischen 3,8 und4,3 Millionen Muslime [. . .] beträgt der Anteil der Muslime an der Gesamtbevölkerungzwischen 4,6 und 5,2 Prozent. Rund 45 Prozent der in Deutschland lebenden Muslime sind deutsche Staatsangehörige,rund 55 Prozent haben eine ausländische Staatsangehörigkeit.
- Frank Gesemann. "Die Integration junger Muslime in Deutschland. Interkultureller Dialog - Islam und Gesellschaft Nr. 5 (year of 2006). Friedrich Ebert Foundation, on p. 8 - the document is written in German
- Die Jesiden in Deutschland - Religion und Leben Document is in German
- Zensus 2011 - Ergebnisse, page 6
- (German) Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst; 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
- "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in Deutschland?" [How many Muslims live in Germany?]. Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland [Muslim Life in Germany] (PDF) (in German). Nuremberg: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (German: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge), an agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany). June 2009. p. 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
Der Anteil der Sunniten unter den in den Haushalten lebenden Muslimen beträgt 74 Prozent
- Blake, Mariah. In Nazi cradle, Germany marks Jewish renaissance Christian Science Monitor. 10 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- The Jewish Community of Germany European Jewish Congress. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- (German) Die Zeit 12/07, page 13
- "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 (page 11)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-05-05.
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- Homepage of the Federal Statistical Office Germany (in English)
- German demographics in Online-Databank HISTAT (in German, Registration needed)
- Dossier "The Aging Society" of the Goethe-Institut
- Demographic Profile Germany: United in Decline Allianz Knowledge