Demographics of Scotland

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Map of population density in Scotland at the 2011 census.

The demography of Scotland includes all aspects of population, past and present, in the area that is now Scotland. At the 2011 census Scotland had a population of 5,295,000.[1] Population growth in 2011 was an estimated 0.6% per annum according to the 2011 GROS Annual Review.[2]

Covering an area of 78,782 square kilometres (30,418 sq mi), Scotland has a population density of 67.2 /km2 (174 /sq mi). Around 70% of the country's population live in the Central Lowlands — region stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the major cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including major settlements such as Paisley, Stirling, Falkirk, Perth and Dundee. Other concentrations of population include the northeast coast of Scotland, principally the regions around the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness. The Highlands of Scotland and the island group of Eilean Siar have the lowest population densities at 9 /km2 (23 /sq mi). The City of Glasgow has the highest population density at 3,289 /km2 (8,520 /sq mi).[3]

Until April 2011 responsibility for estimating the population of Scotland, as well as recording births, deaths and marriages in Scotland was overseen by the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS), headed by the Registrar-General for Scotland. From 1 April 2011 the GROS merged with the National Archives of Scotland to become the National Records of Scotland. The new organisation is still required under the terms of the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Scotland) Act 1965, to present a Registrar-General's annual report of demographic trends to Scottish Ministers. (Prior to devolution this was the Secretary of State for Scotland). In conjunction with the rest of the United Kingdom the National Records for Scotland is also responsible for conducting a decadal census of population. The most recent one took place in March 2011 with the next due to take place in 2021.[4]

Historical population[edit]

Evolution of the population of Scotland 1981-2005. Data from General Register Office for Scotland 2005.

Population totals for Scotland 1600 - 2011[edit]

In the United Kingdom a census was taken every 10 years from 1801 with the exception of 1941 due to the Second World War. Population data for years prior to that is provided from directories and gazetteers[5][6][7]

Year Population
1500 500,000
1600 800,000
1707 1,000,000
1755 1,265,380
1801 1,608,420
1811 1,805,864
1821 2,091,521
1831 2,364,386
1841 2,620,184
1851 2,888,742
1861 3,062,294
1871 3,360,018
1881 3,735,578
1891 4,025,647
1901 4,472,103
1911 4,760,904
1921 4,882,407
1931 4,842,989
1939a 5,006,700
1951 5,095,969
1961b 5,179,000
1971 5,229,000
1981 5,035,000
1991c 5,083,000
2001 5,062,000
2011 5,295,000

Notes

a. There was no census in 1941 however there was a National Registrar of the Civilian Population in 1939

b. Data for 1961 onwards rounded to nearest thousand

c. Data for 1991 mid-year estimate

Birth and mortality[edit]

Table of birth and mortality since 1900

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1900 4 437 131 401 82 296 49 105 29.6 18.5 11.1
1901 4 479 132 192 80 107 52 085 29.5 17.9 11.6
1902 4 507 132 267 77 941 54 326 29.4 17.3 12.0
1903 4 536 133 525 76 002 57 523 29.4 16.8 12.7
1904 4 564 132 603 77 981 54 622 29.1 17.1 12.0
1905 4 593 131 410 74 536 56 874 28.6 16.2 12.4
1906 4 621 132 005 75 635 56 370 28.6 16.4 12.2
1907 4 650 128 840 77 296 51 544 27.7 16.6 11.1
1908 4 680 131 362 77 838 53 524 28.1 16.6 11.4
1909 4 709 128 669 74 632 54 037 27.3 15.8 11.5
1910 4 739 124 059 72 268 51 791 26.2 15.2 11.0
1911 4 751 121 850 71 732 50 118 25.7 15.1 10.6
1912 4 741 122 790 72 340 50 450 25.9 15.3 10.6
1913 4 728 120 516 73 069 47 447 25.5 15.5 10.0
1914 4 747 123 934 73 557 50 377 26.1 15.5 10.6
1915 4 771 114 181 81 631 32 550 23.9 17.1 6.8
1916 4 795 109 942 70 640 39 302 22.9 14.7 8.2
1917 4 810 97 441 69 483 27 958 20.2 14.4 5.8
1918 4 812 98 554 78 372 20 182 20.5 16.3 4.2
1919 4 820 106 268 75 149 31 119 22.1 15.6 6.5
1920 4 864 136 546 68 179 68 367 28.1 14.0 14.1
1921 4 882 123 201 66 210 56 991 25.2 13.6 11.7
1922 4 898 115 085 72 905 42 180 23.5 14.9 8.6
1923 4 888 111 902 63 283 48 619 22.9 13.0 9.9
1924 4 862 106 900 70 357 36 543 22.0 14.5 7.5
1925 4 867 104 137 65 507 38 630 21.4 13.5 7.9
1926 4 864 102 449 63 780 38 669 21.1 13.1 7.9
1927 4 853 96 672 65 830 30 842 19.9 13.6 6.4
1928 4 848 96 822 65 271 31 551 20.0 13.5 6.5
1929 4 832 92 880 70 917 21 963 19.2 14.7 4.6
1930 4 828 94 549 64 285 30 264 19.6 13.3 6.3
1931 4 843 92 220 64 229 27 991 19.0 13.3 5.8
1932 4 883 91 000 66 045 24 955 18.6 13.5 5.1
1933 4 912 86 546 64 848 21 698 17.6 13.2 4.4
1934 4 934 88 836 63 741 25 095 18.0 12.9 5.1
1935 4 953 87 928 65 331 22 597 17.8 13.2 4.6
1936 4 966 88 928 66 749 22 179 17.9 13.4 4.5
1937 4 977 87 810 68 942 18 868 17.6 13.9 3.8
1938 4 993 88 627 62 953 25 674 17.8 12.6 5.1
1939 5 007 86 913 64 413 22 500 17.4 12.9 4.5
1940 5 065 86 392 72 775 13 617 17.1 14.9 2.2
1941 5 160 89 748 72 558 17 190 17.4 14.6 2.8
1942 5 174 90 703 64 963 25 740 17.5 13.2 4.3
1943 5 189 94 669 66 733 27 936 18.2 13.9 4.4
1944 5 210 95 920 64 603 31 317 18.4 13.5 4.9
1945 5 187 86 924 62 655 24 269 16.8 13.1 3.7
1946 5 167 104 413 64 605 39 808 20.2 13.0 7.2
1947 5 120 113 147 66 200 46 947 22.1 12.9 9.2
1948 5 150 100 344 60 979 39 365 19.5 11.8 7.6
1949 5 156 95 674 63 488 32 186 18.6 12.3 6.2
1950 5 168 92 530 63 996 28 534 17.9 12.4 5.5
1951 5 102 90 639 65 778 24 861 17.8 12.9 4.9
1952 5 101 90 422 61 510 28 912 17.7 12.1 5.7
1953 5 100 90 913 58 878 32 035 17.8 11.5 6.3
1954 5 104 92 315 61 380 30 935 18.1 12.0 6.1
1955 5 111 92 539 61 645 30 894 18.1 12.1 6.0
1956 5 120 95 313 61 792 33 521 18.6 12.1 6.5
1957 5 125 97 977 61 143 36 834 19.1 11.9 7.2
1958 5 141 99 481 62 065 37 416 19.4 12.1 7.3
1959 5 163 99 251 63 061 36 190 19.2 12.2 7.0
1960 5 178 101 292 61 764 39 528 19.6 11.9 7.6
1961 5 184 101 169 63 928 37 241 19.5 12.3 7.2
1962 5 198 104 334 63 189 41 145 20.1 12.2 7.9
1963 5 205 102 691 65 521 37 170 19.7 12.6 7.1
1964 5 209 104 355 61 039 43 316 20.0 11.7 8.3
1965 5 210 100 660 62 868 37 792 19.3 12.1 7.3
1966 5 201 96 536 63 689 32 847 18.6 12.2 6.3
1967 5 198 96 221 59 523 36 698 18.5 11.5 7.1
1968 5 200 94 786 63 311 31 475 18.2 12.2 6.1
1969 5 209 90 290 63 821 26 469 17.3 12.3 5.1
1970 5 215 87 335 63 640 23 695 16.7 12.2 4.5
1971 5 219 86 728 61 614 25 114 16.6 11.8 4.8
1972 5 223 78 550 65 017 13 533 15.0 12.4 2.6
1973 5 225 74 392 64 545 9 847 14.2 12.4 1.9
1974 5 226 70 093 64 740 5 353 13.4 12.4 1.0
1975 5 227 67 943 63 125 4 818 13.0 12.1 0.9
1976 5 227 64 895 65 253 - 358 12.4 12.5 -0.1
1977 5 226 62 342 62 294 48 11.9 11.9 0.0
1978 5 212 64 295 65 123 - 828 12.3 12.5 -0.2
1979 5 204 68 366 65 747 2 619 13.1 12.6 0.5
1980 5 194 68 892 63 299 5 593 13.3 12.2 1.1
1981 5 180 69 054 63 828 5 226 13.3 12.3 1.0
1982 5 165 66 196 65 022 1 174 12.8 12.6 0.2
1983 5 148 65 078 63 454 1 624 12.6 12.3 0.3
1984 5 139 65 106 62 345 2 761 12.7 12.1 0.5
1985 5 128 66 676 63 967 2 709 13.0 12.5 0.5
1986 5 112 65 812 63 467 2 345 12.9 12.4 0.5
1987 5 099 66 241 62 014 4 227 13.0 12.2 0.8
1988 5 077 66 212 61 957 4 255 13.0 12.2 0.8
1989 5 078 63 480 65 017 -1 537 12.5 12.8 -0.3
1990 5 081 65 973 61 527 4 446 13.0 12.1 0.9
1991 5 083 67 024 61 041 5 983 13.2 12.0 1.2
1992 5 086 65 789 60 937 4 852 12.9 12.0 1.0
1993 5 092 63 337 64 049 - 712 12.4 12.6 -0.1
1994 5 102 61 656 59 328 2 328 12.1 11.6 0.5
1995 5 104 60 051 60 500 - 449 11.8 11.9 -0.1
1996 5 092 59 296 60 654 -1 358 11.6 11.9 -0.3
1997 5 083 59 440 59 494 - 54 11.7 11.7 -0.0
1998 5 077 57 319 59 164 -1 845 11.3 11.7 -0.4
1999 5 072 55 147 60 281 -5 134 10.9 11.9 -1.0
2000 5 063 53 076 57 799 -4 723 10.5 11.4 -0.9
2001 5 064 52 527 57 380 -4 853 10.4 11.3 -1.0
2002 5 055 51 270 58 103 -6 833 10.1 11.5 -1.4
2003 5 057 52 432 58 472 -6 040 10.4 11.6 -1.2
2004 5 078 53 957 56 187 -2 230 10.6 11.1 -0.4
2005 5 095 54 386 55 747 -1 361 10.7 10.9 -0.3
2006 5 117 55 690 55 093 597 10.9 10.8 0.1
2007 5 144 57 781 55 986 1 795 11.2 10.9 0.3
2008 5 169 60 041 55 700 4 341 11.6 10.8 0.8
2009 5 194 59 046 53 856 5 190 11.4 10.4 1.0
2010 5 222 58 791 53 967 4 824 11.3 10.3 1.0
2011 5 255 58 592 53 661 4 931 11.1 10.3 0.8
2012 58 027 54 937 3 090 11.0 10.5 0.5 1.67

Age[edit]

The age distribution based on the 2011 census was as follows.[8]

Ages attained
(years)
Population  % of total
0–4 293,000 5.53
5–9 270,000 5.10
10–14 292,000 5.51
15–19 331,000 6.25
20–24 364,000 6.87
25–29 346,000 6.53
30–34 322,000 6.08
35–39 340,000 6.42
40–44 394,000 7.44
45–49 411,000 7.76
50–54 376,000 7.10
55–59 331,000 6.25
60–64 337,000 6.35
65–69 262,000 4.98
70–74 221,000 4.17
75–79 178,000 3.36
80–84 123,000 2.32
85–89 71,000 1.34
90+ 37,000 0.70

Ethnicity[edit]

Scottish population by ethnic group - All People (2011)[9]
 % of total
Population
Population
White Scottish 84.0 4,445,678
White Other British 7.9 417,109
White Irish 1.0 54,090
White Gypsy/Traveller 0.1 4,212
White Polish 1.2 61,201
Other White ethnic group 1.9 102,117
White Total 96.0 5,084,407
Pakistani 0.9 49,381
Indian 0.6 32,706
Bangladeshi 0.1 3,788
Chinese 0.6 33,706
Other 0.4 21,097
Asian 2.7 140,678
Caribbean 0.1 3,430
Black 0.0 2,380
Caribbean or Black Other 0.0 730
Caribbean or Black 0.1 6,540
African 0.6 29,186
African Other 0.0 452
African 0.6 29,638
Mixed or multiple ethnic groups 0.4 19,815
Arab 0.2 9,366
Other 0.1 4,959
Other ethnic group 0.3 14,325
All population 100.00 5,295,403


Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Scotland

Results of the 2001 Census: Christianity (65.1%): primarily Church of Scotland (42.4%) and Roman Catholicism (15.9%); non-religious (27.6%), Islam (0.8%), others (1.0%); 5.5% didn't answer.[10]

Historical demography[edit]

Stone houses at Knap of Howar, evidence of a settled agricultural population and the beginnings of demographic growth, c. 3500 BC

At times during the last interglacial period (130,000– 70,000 BC) Europe had a climate warmer than today's, and early humans may have made their way to what is now Scotland, though archaeologists have found no traces of this. Glaciers then scoured their way across most of Britain, and only after the ice retreated did Scotland again become habitable, around 9600 BC.[11] Mesolithic hunter-gatherer encampments formed the first known settlements, and archaeologists have dated a site near Biggar to around 8500 BC.[12] Numerous other sites found around Scotland build up a picture of highly mobile boat-using people making tools from bone, stone and antlers, probably with a very low density of population.[13] Neolithic farming brought permanent settlements, such as the stone house at Knap of Howar on Papa Westray dating from 3500 BC, and greater concentrations of population. Extensive analyses of Black Loch in Fife indicate that arable land spread at the expense of forest from about 2000 BC until the period of the first century AD Roman advance into lowland Scotland, suggesting an expanding settled population. Thereafter, there was re-growth of birch, oak and hazel for a period of five centuries, suggesting that the Roman invasions had a negative impact on the native population.[14]

There are almost no written sources from which to re-construct the demography of early medieval Scotland. Estimates have been made of a population of 10,000 inhabitants in Dál Riata and 80-100,000 for Pictland, which was probably the largest region.[15] It is likely that the 5th and 6th centuries saw higher mortality rates due to the appearance of bubonic plague, which may have reduced net population.[16] The examination of burial sites for this period like that at Hallowhill, St Andrews indicate a life expectancy of only 26–29.[15] The known conditions have been taken to suggest it was a high fertility, high mortality society, similar to many developing countries in the modern world, with a relatively young demographic profile, and perhaps early childbearing, and large numbers of children for women. This would have meant that there were a relatively small proportion of available workers to the number of mouths to feed. This would have made it difficult to produce a surplus that would allow demographic growth and more complex societies to develop.[17] From the formation of the kingdom of Alba in the tenth century, to before the Black Death reached the country in 1349, estimates based on the amount of farmable land, suggest that population may have grown from half a million to a million.[18] Although there is no reliable documentation on the impact of the plague, there are many anecdotal references to abandoned land in the following decades. If the pattern followed that in England, then the population may have fallen to as low as half a million by the end of the 15th century.[19] Compared with the situation after the redistribution of population in the later clearances and the industrial revolution, these numbers would have been relatively evenly spread over the kingdom, with roughly half living north of the Tay.[20] Perhaps ten per cent of the population lived in one of many burghs that grew up in the later medieval period, mainly in the east and south. It has been suggested that they would have had a mean population of about 2,000, but many would be much smaller than 1,000 and the largest, Edinburgh, probably had a population of over 10,000 by the end of the era.[21]

Graph showing the population of Scotland 1900-2001. Source: General Register Office for Scotland Birth and Mortality statistics from 1900

Calculations based on Hearth Tax returns for 1691 indicate a population of 1,234,575, but this figure may have been seriously affected by the famines of the 1690s. The first reliable information is a census conducted by the Reverend Alexander Webster in 1755, which shows the inhabitants of Scotland as 1,265,380.[22] By the time of the first decadal census in 1801, the population was 1,608,420. Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901.[23] Even with the growth of industry there were insufficient good jobs, as a result, during the period 1841-1931, about 2 million Scots emigrated to North America and Australia, and another 750,000 Scots relocated to England.[24]

With a population of 4.8 million in 1911, Scotland sent 690,000 men to First World War, of whom 74,000 died in combat or from disease, and 150,000 were seriously wounded.[25][26] Thus, although Scots were only 10 per cent of the British population, they made up 15 per cent of the national armed forces and eventually accounted for 20 per cent of the dead.[27] While emigration began to tail off in England and Wales after the First World War,[28] it continued apace in Scotland, with 400,000 Scots, ten per cent of the population, estimated to have left the country between 1921 and 1931.[29] When the Great Depression hit in the 1930s there were no easily available jobs in the US and Canada and emigration fell to less than 50,000 a year, bringing to an end the period of mass migrations that had opened in the mid-18th century.[30] This contributed to the growth of the population, which reached a peak of 5,240,800 in 1974. Thereafter it began to fall slowly, moving down to 5,062,940 in 2000. There was also a decrease in some urban populations as a result of policies of slum clearance, overspill and relocation to new towns, with the population of Glasgow falling from over a million in 1951 to 629,000 in 2001. Rural areas also saw a loss of population, particularly the Highlands and Hebrides.[31]

Population change[edit]

People on Buchanan Street in Glasgow. Scotland's population is getting older as many baby boomers approach retirement.

From the 1960s to early 1970s Scotland experienced a gradual increase in population, however from 1974 there was a natural decrease in population, with both an excess of deaths over births and of emigration over immigration - particularly to the rest of the United Kingdom.[2]

Fertility and morbidity rates[edit]

Both the Scottish Government and leading academics in Scotland had expressed some concern over the historic falling annual number of births in Scotland. In 2002, according to the GROS, the number of live births in Scotland was the lowest ever recorded, at 51,270. In 2004, for example, there were 4,012 more deaths than births, although for the subsequent five years this process had been reversed with 4,342 more births than deaths in 2008. The long-term reversal in the declining birth rate of the 1990s was confirmed in 2009 when the Registrar General for Scotland reported that with 60,000 births recorded in 2008, this was the highest recorded fertility rate since 1995.[32]

The population of children under age 5 grew by 6% (293,000) over the ten-year period between 2001 and 2011. However, the number of children aged 5–14 fell by 11% (69,000). The population of people over 65 also grew by 11% (85,000) and they now represent 17% of the total population and for the first time there are more people over 65 than under 15 years of age. Significantly, in 2011 there were 230,000 people over 80 years of age.[33]

Migration[edit]

Politicians and academics also noted that in the first years of the 21st century the previous trend of a net migration away from Scotland had reversed with significant immigration to Scotland from the rest of the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2011 Scotland's population grew by 5% (233,000), the fastest rate of growth for at least 100 years.[33] Similarly, since 2004 there had also been a growing influx of arrivals from the new EU accession states such as Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Latvia, contributing to the recent growth of the population. Consequently since 2002 the birth rate gradually increased with 53,957 births recorded in 2004, and in 2008 the number of live births was 60,041[34]

The Scottish Government has responded to these demographic trends by setting up the Fresh Talent - Working in Scotland Scheme open to foreign (non-EU) graduates from Scotland's universities allowing them a 2 year residency period after graduation.[35]

Population projections[edit]

In its 2011 review the GROS predicted that Scotland's population would rise by 10% to 5.76 million by 2035 and to 6.2m by 2085. Until 2028 both net inward migration and the birth rate exceeding the death rate would contribute to this growth, however beyond this date population increase would be due only to a positive net migration as the ageing population would result in more deaths than births. This later trend would be dramatic with the number of children under 16 projected to rise by only 3% while the number of people over 65 is projected to increase by 63% (from 0.88m to 1.43m).[2]

Council Area Population Estimates[edit]

Further information: Subdivisions of Scotland
Scotland Council Area Population Estimates
(2001 & 2011)[3][36]
Local Council Area Population
(2001)
Population
(2011)
 % change
(2001–11)
Aberdeen City 212,125 222,800 5.0
Aberdeenshire 226,871 253,000 11.5
Angus 108,400 116,000 7.0
Argyll and Bute 91,306 88,200 −3.4
Clackmannanshire 48,077 51,400 7.0
Dumfries and Galloway 147,765 151,300 2.4
Dundee City 145,663 147,300 1.1
East Ayrshire 120,235 122,700 2.1
East Dunbartonshire 108,243 105,000 −3.0
East Lothian 90,088 99,700 10.7
East Renfrewshire 89,311 90,600 1.4
City of Edinburgh 448,624 476,600 6.2
Eilean Siar 26,502 27,700 4.5
Falkirk 145,191 156,000 7.4
Fife 349,429 365,200 4.5
Glasgow City 577,869 593,200 2.7
Highland 208,914 232,100 11.1
Inverclyde 84,203 81,500 −3.2
Midlothian 80,941 83,200 2.8
Moray 86,940 93,300 7.3
North Ayrshire 135,817 138,200 1.7
North Lanarkshire 321,067 337,800 5.2
Orkney Islands 19,245 21,400 10.9
Perth and Kinross 134,949 146,700 8.7
Renfrewshire 172,867 174,900 1.2
Scottish Borders 106,764 113,900 6.7
Shetland Islands 21,988 23,200 5.3
South Ayrshire 112,097 112,800 0.6
South Lanarkshire 302,216 313,800 3.8
Stirling 86,212 90,200 4.7
West Dunbartonshire 93,378 90,700 −2.8
West Lothian 158,714 175,100 10.3

Other Miscellaneous statistics[edit]

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (Mid-2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)[37]

Life expectancy at birth (2011):[2]
total population: 78.4 years for those born in 2010 (cf. 72.2 in 1981)
male: 76.1 years for those born in 2010 (cf. 69.1 in 1981)
female: 80.6 years for those born in 2010 (cf. 75.3 in 1981)

General fertility rate:[2] The general Fertiity Rate (GFR) is based on the rate of births per 1000 females of child-bearing age (i.e. 15–44 years of age).

In 2011 it was 56.4 births per 1000 women. For comparison, during the latter part of the 20th century it was at its highest during the 'baby boom' of the 1960s. The GFR reached a peak of 99.5 births per 1000 women in 1962. In 2001 the GFR had fallen to its lowest post World War II level of 50births per 1000 women.

Languages: English, Scots (Doric, Central and Border) and Gaelic

Marriages:[2] In 2011 there were 29,135 marriages in Scotland. This is a 2.3% increase on 2010.

By way of historical comparison, the highest ever recorded was 53,522 in 1940. In the 1970s there were on average between 40-45,000 marriages per annum. The lowest annual figure in recent years was 27,524 in 2009 and lowest on record was 19,655 in 1858.

Of specific interest were the number of so-called 'tourist marriages', where neither partner was resident in Scotland. In 2011 there were 6,829 such marriages, of which 48% took place at Gretna, the most popular of all wedding venues.

Civil Partnerships[2] The Civil Partnership Act 2004 came into force in December 2005. In 2006 the number of civil partnership registrations was 1,047. A one-off figure given the number of long-standing relationships which already existed which could be registered. Since then the numer of ceremonies each year fell from 688 in 2007 to 465 registrations in 2010. 2011 saw the first increase since 2006 with 554 registrations.

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2005 est)

Higher education 95% of Scottish higher education students study in universities in Scotland.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2011 Census: First Results on Population Estimates for Scotland - Release 1A". National Records of Scotland. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g The Registrar General’s Annual Review of Demographic Trends 157th Edition 2011, Accessed 10 February 2013
  3. ^ a b Scotland's Census 2011 Census Day usual resident 1 population estimates by council area , Accessed 9 February 2013
  4. ^ "National Records of Scotland", Scottish Government news release, retrieved 10 February 2013 
  5. ^ Genuki UK and Ireland Genealogy, Accessed 11 February 2013
  6. ^ Websters Scottish Population Statistics of 1751 edited, updated and reprinted by James Grey Kyd in 1951, Accessed 11 February 2013
  7. ^ Census day estimates 1911 - 2011, Accessed 28 February 2013
  8. ^ 2011 Census for Scotland Age Distribution, Accessed 28 February 2013
  9. ^ "Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland Table KS201SC - Ethnic group - Release 3A". National Records for Scotland. 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  10. ^ Scottish Executive (2005). "Analysis of Religion in the 2001 census". United Kingdom Census 2001. Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  11. ^ F. Pryor, Britain B.C.: life in Britain and Ireland before the Romans (London: Harper Collins, 2003), p. 99.
  12. ^ "Signs of Earliest Scots Unearthed". BBC News. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  13. ^ P. J. Ashmore, Neolithic and Bronze Age Scotland: An authoritative and Lively Account of an Enigmatic Period of Scottish Prehistory (2003).
  14. ^ T. C. Smout, R. MacDonald and F. Watson, A History of the Native Woodlands of Scotland 1500-1920. Edinburgh University Press ISBN 9780748632947, p. 34.
  15. ^ a b L. R. Laing, The Archaeology of Celtic Britain and Ireland, c. AD 400-1200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), ISBN 0521547407, pp. 21-2.
  16. ^ P. Fouracre and R. McKitterick, eds, The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 500-c. 700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), ISBN 0521362911, p. 234.
  17. ^ A. Woolf, From Pictland to Alba: 789 - 1070 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), ISBN 0748612343, pp. 17-20.
  18. ^ R. E. Tyson, "Population Patterns", in M. Lynch, ed., The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (New York, 2001), pp. 487–8.
  19. ^ S. H. Rigby, ed., A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003), ISBN 0631217851, pp. 109-11.
  20. ^ J. Wormald, Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470-1625 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991), ISBN 0748602763, p. 61.
  21. ^ E. Gemmill and N. J. Mayhew, Changing Values in Medieval Scotland: a Study of Prices, Money, and Weights and Measures (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), ISBN 0521473853, pp. 8-10.
  22. ^ K. J. Cullen, Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of The 1690s (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010), ISBN 0748638873, pp. 123-4.
  23. ^ A. K. Cairncross, The Scottish Economy: A Statistical Account of Scottish Life by Members of the Staff of Glasgow University (Glasgow: Glasgow University Press, 1953), p. 10.
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  32. ^ Press Release: Births Increase for the Sixth Consecutive Year, Accessed 9 February 2013
  33. ^ a b Press Release: First Results of Scotland's 2011 Census, Accessed 9 February 2013
  34. ^ Scotland's population swelled by largest immigration in 50 years "The Scotsman" 28 April 2005
  35. ^ http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Government/Promoting-Scotland/18738/14640[dead link]
  36. ^ 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland Census day usually resident population by council area, 2001 and 2011; , Accessed 22 March 2013
  37. ^ "Table 4.2: Stillbirth,1 perinatal, neonatal, postneonatal and infant death rates, Scotland, 1946 to 2011". General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 

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