|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2010)|
|Type||Video game console|
|Units sold||1.5 million - 2 million|
|CPU||MOS Technology 6502|
Dendy (Russian: Де́нди) is a Taiwanese hardware clone of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), produced for the Russian market. It was released in the early 1990s by the Steepler company. Since no officially licensed version of the NES was ever released in the former USSR, the Dendy was easily the most popular video game console of its time in that region, and enjoyed a degree of fame roughly equivalent to that experienced by the NES/Famicom in North America and Japan. In 1992, Dendy was selling in Russia for 39000 rubles (roughly USD$70–$80), by 1994 over one million Dendy units were sold in Russia and the price was roughly $35.
The Dendy first appeared on the market in late 1992, selling at the price of 39000 rubles ($94). The console had its own animated Russian television commercial with the phrase "Dendy, Dendy! We love Dendy! Dendy -- everyone plays it!" Demand for the console was very high. By April 1993, Steepler had four regional distributors and had generated 500 million rubles in revenue.
The Dendy elephant logo was designed by Russian animator Ivan Maksimov.
Though Steepler quickly filled a nearly empty niche, the Western gaming market still was not interested in Russia at the time. For a while, the Dendy's main competitors were similar products from China. It was not until 1994 that a competitor, the Sega console produced by Nisho Iwai and Forrus, was introduced to the market.
Steepler reorganized in early 1994, resulting in the separation and creation of the Lamport company.
By mid-1994, Steepler had already sold 1 million Dendy consoles and was selling between 100,000 and 125,000 more per month with a revenue of $5 million. At this time, the price of the consoles had dropped to roughly $30–$35.
In August 1994, Incombank and Steepler announced plans to start up a joint business venture called Dendy, in which Incombank would contribute capital and receive 30% of profits. At the end of 1994, two more Dendy rivals (also NES clones) appeared: the Kenga, manufactured in Taiwan by Lamport, and the Bitman, distributed by R-Style.
In November 1994, the newly created Dendy company signed an agreement with Nintendo, in which they were forbidden from promoting Sega products and given exclusive distribution rights to the Super Nintendo in Russia.
Modern Dendy consoles, which can still be found alongside Chinese products in many markets, are manufactured in China and have no relation to the Steepler company, which discontinued operations in 1996. According to another variant, Steepler signed a contract with Nintendo agreeing to sell not only consoles, but game cartridges as well. Given that licensed cartridges cost several times more than pirated ones, Steepler soon found that it was unable to sell them profitably, resulting in the company's demise.
The technical specifications of the Dendy are most consistent with those of the PAL version of the NES, but there are some differences in design and execution.
- 6527P, Ricoh 2A03 compatible. 8-bit, 1.773447 MHz.
The exact chipset and implementation differed depending on the model and time of release (while maintaining software compatibility). Most often in the console were two chips manufactured by UMC — UA6527P (CPU) and UA6538 (PPU) -- which have been integrated to be compatible with the 6502 processor and the rest of the logic. Later editions consolidated the design of all previous implementations into a single, open-frame chip.
- Built-in pAPU, 5 channels
Dendy was produced in five configurations: Dendy Classic, Dendy Classic II, Dendy Junior, Dendy Junior II and Dendy Junior IVP.
Dendy Classic, according to advertising booklets of the manufacturer, has two video outputs, compatible with television standards PAL and SECAM. It has only one gamepad, with a second sold separately. Dendy Classic II is the same, but has different console and controller design. Dendy Junior has only one PAL-video output. Dendy Junior II was also designed to resemble the Famicom but gamepads are hard-wired to the body. Dendy Junior IVP includes a light gun.
Cartridges look very similar to the original Famicom (the Japanese origin of the NES) cartridges. Most of the games sold for Dendy consoles have been bootlegs or copies of NES games. Among them are multicarts, sometimes with a few games replicated many times or separated by levels with ability to choose any of them, sometimes with the sprites or maps slightly altered. There are few original Russian, Taiwanese or Chinese products. Among the games is the Super Mario Bros. series, which includes the three original Mario productions from Nintendo, along with a series of unlicensed Mario games, most of which are just other Famicom games with the main character replaced with Mario sprites. Examples of an originally-programmed (but still copyright-infringing) game include the infamous Somari, which is a port of Sonic the Hedgehog with Sonic's sprite replaced by Mario's, and another one is the unlicensed 8-bit clone of the Super NES's Super Mario World game.
Dendy prices during 1992 began at 39000 rubles (roughly $94). In relation to contemporary income levels, prices in this range were the equivalent of several months' salary, and this effectively put the Dendy out of reach of most individuals. As sales increased, however, Steepler was able to reduce prices such that by 1994 with over one million Dendy units sold, the price had dropped to roughly $35.
- Pichugin, Igor Z. "Steepler начал продавать Dendy — Московская фирма начинает большую видеоигру." Kommersant. 18 December 1992.
- "Полугодовые итоги по бизнесу Dendy — К "русскому Nintendo" добавилась японская Sega" [Talk of Japanese competitor Sega entering Russian market] (in Russian). Kommersant. July 19, 1994. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
- "Мелкооптовая торговля" [Small-scale wholesale] (in Russian). Kommersant. 21 December 1992. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- "Обзор российского рынка видеоигр — Бурный рост приводит к аномалиям" [Russian market sees explosion in demand for video games] (in Russian). Kommersant. 14 April 1993. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- "В "новой реальности" главное выбрать верные ориентиры" [It is most important to pick right guide for the 'new reality'] (in Russian). Kommersant. 29 October 1994. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- "Реклама: казнить нельзя помиловать" [Talk of battle for video game console market being merciless] (in Russian). Kommersant. 26 November 1994. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- Schillinger, Liesl. "News - Forum: The death of childhood in Russia." The Ottawa Citizen. Pg.B3. 24 October 1993.
- Toohey, Nathan. "Retro-kitsch in Moscow's time machine." The Moscow News. 11 March 2010.