Denier of Charlemagne
. AD 768-814. 21mm, 1.19 g, Toulouse mint.
The denier was a medieval coin which takes its name from the Franksih coin created by Charlemagne in the Early Middle Ages. It was introduced together with an accounting system in which twelve deniers equaled one sou and twenty sous equalled one livre. Also three deniers equalled one liard. This system and the denier itself served as the model for many of Europe's currencies, including the British pound, Italian lira, Spanish peseta and the Portuguese dinheiro.
The British equivalent of the denier was the penny, 240 of which (prior to decimalisation) made up one British pound or 20 shillings. The symbol for both the old denier and, until decimalisation, the penny used in the United Kingdom and elsewhere was "d".
The name denier was derived from the name of the Roman coin the denarius. The denier was mint in France and Italy for the whole Middle Ages, in countries such as the patriarchate of Aquileia, the Kingdom of Sicily, the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Siena among the others.