Denmark–Eritrea relations

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Denmark - Eritrea relations
Map indicating locations of Denmark and Eritrea

Denmark

Eritrea

Denmark–Eritrea relations refers to the current and historical relations between Denmark and Eritrea. Denmark is represented in Eritrea through its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya,[1] and Eritrea is represented in Denmark through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.[2] Diplomatic relations were established in 1993.[3] Relations between Denmark and Eritrea have been bad, since Denmark decided to suspend development cooperation with Eritrea in January 2002, and close its embassy in June 2002.[4] After the Eritrean–Ethiopian War from 1998 to 2000, Denmark sent 320 soldiers to the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea to monitor a ceasefire in the border war.[5]

History[edit]

In 1950, Denmark and 15 other countries voted for a united Eritrea and Ethiopia under Haile Selassie in the United Nations.[6] During the Eritrean War of Independence, Denmark sent humanitarian assistance to the Eritrean People's Liberation Front.[7] In the 1980s, the parliament of Denmark passed a resolution supporting the independence in Eritrea.[8] Denmark opened an embassy in Asmara in July 1997,[9] but closed it in June 2002,[4] because of the lack of democracy in the country.[10] In October 2001, Eritrea expelled the Italian ambassador, and later Denmark recalled its ambassador to Eritrea for consultations.[11] In 2001, Denmark ended aid to Eritrea because of the arrest of Eritrean students and opposition politicians by President Isaias Afewerki, and the lack of freedom of the press in Eritrea.[12] Another reason was the new liberal government of Denmark, that decided to reduce the aid budget.[13]

Development assistance[edit]

Eritrea was chosen as a Danish programme country from 1993 to 1996, and again from 1999 to 2001. Denmark has been supporting Eritrea with counteracting land degradation. In 1996, Denmark contributed $35,000 through United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and in 1997, $111,000 through United Nations Truce Supervision Organization to Eritrea.[14] In 1996, Denmark assisted 112 million DKK to the agriculture sector,[15] and 80 million DKK to the education sector.[16] The total aid to the Eritrean agricultural programme amounted 112 million DKK. (USD 15 million)[14] From 2001 to 2004, Denmark assisted Eritrea 36.60 million DKK for the justice sector.[17] In 2001, both countries agreed to develop the legal sector.[13] In 2001, Denmark donated $2.199 million to support the clearance of landmines in Eritrea.[18]

High level visits[edit]

In the 2000 Arab League summit in Cairo, Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki met Prince Frederik and called the relationship between Denmark and Eritrea "exemplary".[19][20] In February 2001, Danish Foreign Minister Mogens Lykketoft visited Eritrea, to discuss development programmes between Denmark and Eritrea.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "H.E. Geert Aagaard Andersen, New Danish Ambassador to Kenya". Government of Denmark, Danish embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark). Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  2. ^ "Embassy of Eritrea in Stockholm". Government of Eritrea. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  3. ^ Africa analysis: the fortnightly bulletin on financial and political trends, 163–187. Africa Analysis Ltd. 1993. Retrieved 24 June 2011. "Eritrea and Denmark established diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level" 
  4. ^ a b "Danske mineryddere på vej hjem fra Eritrea". Politiken. 2 September 2002. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  5. ^ "Moralens vogtere". Jyllandsposten (in Danish). 4 April 2001. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  6. ^ Ethiopia, Eritrea to merge 14. Iowa: Telegraph Herald. 3 December 1950. p. 4. Retrieved 25 June 2011. "Besides the United States, the sponsoring powers were Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Denmark, Ecuador, Greece, Liberia, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru" 
  7. ^ "Eritrean Rebels Have Non-Communist Support". New York Times. 21 December 1987. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  8. ^ "Eritrean Rebels to Form Own Rule, Separate From Ethiopian Government". Washington Post. 30 May 1999. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  9. ^ "Danmark åbner ambassade i Eritrea" (in Danish). NPINVESTOR. 1 July 1997. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  10. ^ "'Front Load' Africa's Development, Say UN Humanitarian Aid Coordinators". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  11. ^ Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Europe Publications. 2004. p. 391. ISBN 1-85743-183-9. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  12. ^ "Eritrea vil selv bestemme". Jyllandsposten (in Danish). Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  13. ^ a b "Managing Aid Exit and Transformation: Eritrea Country Case Study". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. p. 18. ISBN 978-91-586-4064-1. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  14. ^ a b UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION: Report from Denmark. April 2000. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  15. ^ "Bekendtgørelse om overenskomst af 17. november 1995 med Eritrea om dansk støtte til etablering af et nationalt skovfrøcenter i Eritrea under Landbrugsministeriet" (in Danish). Retsinformation. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  16. ^ "Bekendtgørelse om overenskomst af 26. april 1996 med Eritrea om dansk støtte til primær uddannelse i Eritrea" (in Danish). Retsinformation. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  17. ^ "Danidas Årsberetning 04". DANIDA (in Danish). Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  18. ^ Landmines, International Campaign to Ban (2002). Landmine Monitor report, 2002 : toward a mine-free world. New York: Human Rights Watch. p. 251. ISBN 1-56432-277-7. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  19. ^ "Nyrups 65 års fødselsdag". Socialdemokraterne. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  20. ^ "Eritrean president in talks with Danish prince, parliamentary defence committee". BBC Monitoring. 7 May 2001. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  21. ^ "Eritrea: Danish foreign minister arrives in Asmara". BBC Monitoring. 22 April 2001. Retrieved 25 June 2011.