Map of Denmark–Norway, c. 1780
|Languages||Official: periodically Danish or German was used in official documents.
Unofficial minority languages (European territory only): Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese, Norn, Frisian, Sami and Low German.
Scholarly language: Latin
|Government||Elective monarchy (Denmark) 1524-1660, Absolute monarchy from 1660.|
|Historical era||Early modern Europe|
|-||Gustav Vasa elected
king of Sweden
June 6, 1523
|-||Kalmar Union collapsed||1524|
October 14, 1660
|-||Lex Regia confirms
November 14, 1665
|-||Treaty of Brömsebro||August 13, 1645|
|-||Treaty of Roskilde||February 26, 1658|
|-||Treaty of Kiel||January 14, 1814|
|-||Congress of Vienna||Sept. 1814 – June 1815|
|-||1780b||487,476 km² (188,216 sq mi)|
|Today part of|
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge; German: Dänemark–Norwegen) is the historiographical name for a former political entity consisting of the united kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including overseas Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern Isles. Following the strife surrounding the break-up of its predecessor, the Kalmar Union, the two kingdoms entered into another personal union in 1524. In 1536 the Norwegian kingdom was formally dissolved and integrated into Denmark, as a consequence its Council of the Realm was abolished, but otherwise Norway continued to have separate institutions and its own laws. Norway was reestablished as a kingdom in 1660 after the introduction of absolutism. The personal union of the two kingdoms lasted until 1814 when Norway was ceded to Sweden by the House of Oldenburg after Denmark–Norway's defeat in the Napoleonic wars. The corresponding adjective and demonym is "Dano-Norwegian".
- 1 Usage and extent
- 2 Colonial empire
- 3 History
- 4 Religion
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Usage and extent
The term Kingdom of Denmark is sometimes used to include both countries in the period, since the political and economic power emanated from Copenhagen, Denmark. These terms cover the "royal part" of the Oldenburgs as it was in 1460, excluding the "ducal part" of Schleswig and Holstein. The administration used two official languages, Danish and German, and for several centuries both a Danish and German Chancery existed.
The term Denmark–Norway has didactic merits and reflects the historical and legal roots of that union. It is adopted from the Oldenburg dynasty's official title. The kings always used the style "King of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths". Denmark and Norway, sometimes referred to as the "twin-realms" of Denmark–Norway, officially had separate legal codes and currencies, as well as mostly separate governing institutions, although following the introduction of absolutism in 1660 the centralisation of government meant a concentration of institutions in Copenhagen. The term Sweden–Finland is sometimes, although with less justification, applied to the contemporary Swedish realm between 1521 and 1809. Finland was never a separate kingdom, and was completely integrated with Sweden, while Denmark was the dominant component in a personal union.
Throughout the time of Denmark–Norway, it continuously had possession over various overseas territories. At the earliest times areas in Northern Europe, for instance Estonia and the Norwegian possessions of Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Iceland.
Denmark–Norway maintained numerous colonies from the 17th to 19th centuries over various parts around India. Colonies included the town of Tranquebar and Serampore. The last towns it had control over were sold to the United Kingdom in 1845. Rights in the Nicobar Islands were sold in 1869.
Centered around what is known as the Virgin Islands, Denmark–Norway established the Danish West Indies. This colony was one of the longest lived of Denmark, as it was sold to the United States in 1917, to become the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Origins of the Union
The Scandinavians were Christianized in the 10th–13th centuries, resulting in three consolidated kingdoms.
Norway forged from various petty kingdoms (including Båhuslen, Herjedalen, Jemtland and Idre & Särna) plus overseas possessions of Shetland and Orkney (from approximately 9th century), Faroe Islands (from 1035), Greenland and Iceland (from 1261–62).
The three kingdoms then united in the Kalmar Union in 1397. Sweden broke out of this union and re-entered it several times, until 1521, when Sweden finally left the Union, leaving Denmark–Norway (including overseas possessions in the North Atlantic as well as the island of Saaremaa in modern Estonia).
Northern Seven Years' War
The outbreak of the Northern Seven Years' War in 1563 is mainly attributed[by whom?] to Denmark's displeasure over the dismantling of the Kalmar Union in the 1520s. When the Danish king Christian III (reigned 1534-1559) included the traditionally Swedish insignia of three crowns into his own coat of arms, the Swedes interpreted this as a Danish claim over Sweden. In response Erik XIV of Sweden (reigned 1560-1568) added the insignia of Norway and Denmark to his own coat of arms.
After Swedish king Erik introduced obstacles in an attempt to hinder trade with Russia, Lübeck and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth joined Denmark in a war alliance. Denmark then carried out some naval attacks on Sweden, which effectively started the war. After seven years of fighting, the conflict concluded in 1570 with a status quo ante bellum.
Because of Denmark–Norway's dominion over the Baltic Sea (dominium maris baltici) and the North Sea, Sweden had the intention of avoiding paying Denmark's Sound Toll. Swedish king Charles IX's way of accomplishing this was to try to set up a new trade route through Lapland and northern Norway. In 1607 Charles IX declared himself "King of the Lapps in Nordland", and started collecting taxes in Norwegian territory.
Denmark and king Christian IV of Denmark protested against the Swedish actions, as they had no intentions of letting another independent trade route open, Christian IV also had an intent of forcing Sweden to rejoin its union with Denmark. In 1611 Denmark finally invaded Sweden with 6000 men and took the city of Kalmar. Eventually on January 20, 1613, the Treaty of Knäred was signed in which Norway's land route from Sweden was regained by incorporating Lapland into Norway, and Swedish payment of a high ransom of 1 million silver riksdaler for two fortresses which Denmark had taken in the war. However, Sweden achieved an exemption from the Sound Toll, which had only previously been secured by Britain and Holland.
Aftermath of the Älvsborg Ransom
The great ransom paid by Sweden (called the Älvsborg Ransom) was used by Christian IV, amongst many other things, to found the cities of Glückstadt, Christiania (refounded after a fire), Christianshavn, Christianstad and Christianssand. He also founded the Danish East India Company which led to the establishment of numerous Danish colonies in India.
Thirty Years' War
Not long after the Kalmar war, Denmark–Norway got involved in another greater war, in which they fought together with the mainly north German and other Protestant states against the Catholic states led by German Catholic League.
Christian IV sought to become the leader of the north German Lutheran states, however following the Battle of Lutter in 1626 Denmark met a crushing defeat. This led to most of the German Protestant states ceasing their support for Christian IV. After another defeat at the Battle of Wolgast and following the Treaty of Lübeck in 1629, which forbade Denmark from future intervening in German affairs, Denmark's participation in the war came to an end.
As Sweden was having great success during the Thirty Years' War, together with Denmark being a failure, Sweden saw an opportunity of a change of power in the region. Denmark–Norway had a threatening territory surrounding Sweden, and the Sound Dues were a continuing irritation for the Swedes. In 1643 the Swedish Privy Council determined Swedish territorial gain in an eventual war against Denmark–Norway to have good chances. Not long after this, Sweden invaded Denmark–Norway.
Denmark was itself poorly prepared for the war, and Norway was reluctant to attack Sweden, which left the Swedes in a good position.
The war ended as foreseen with Swedish victory, and with the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, Denmark–Norway had to cede some of their territories, including Norwegian territories Jemtland, Herjedalen and Idre & Serna as well as the Danish Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel. So, as the Thirty Years' War would see the rise of Sweden as a great power, it marked the start of decline with the Danish.
Second Northern Wars
The Dano-Swedish War (1657–1658), a part of the Second Northern War, was one of the most devastating wars for the Dano-Norwegian kingdom. After a huge loss in the war, Denmark–Norway were forced in the Treaty of Roskilde to give Sweden nearly half their territory. This included Norwegian province of Trøndelag and Båhuslen, and all remaining Danish provinces on the Swedish mainland plus the island of Bornholm.
Royal Absolutist State
In the aftermath of Sweden's definite secession from the Kalmar Union in 1521, civil war and Protestant Reformation followed in Denmark and Norway. When things had settled down, the Rigsraad (High Council) of Denmark became weakened, and finally abolished in 1660 when Denmark–Norway became an absolutist state and Denmark a hereditary monarchy, as Norway had been since the Middle Ages. These changes were confirmed in the Lex Regia signed on 14 November 1665, stipulating that all power lay in the hands of the king, who was only responsible towards God. The Norwegian Riksråd was assembled for the last time in 1537. Norway kept its separate laws and some institutions, such as a royal chancellor, and separate coinage and army.
Denmark had lost its provinces in Scania after the Treaty of Roskilde and was always eager to retrieve them, but as Sweden had grown into a great power it would not be an easy task. However, Christian V finally saw an opportunity when Sweden got involved in the Franco-Dutch War, and after some hesitation Denmark invaded Sweden in 1675.
Although the Danish assault initially was a great success, the Swedes led by 19 year old Charles XI managed to counter-attack and take back the land that was being occupied. In the end the war was concluded with the French dictating peace, with no permanent gains or losses to either of the countries.
Napoleonic Wars and end of the Union
During the Napoleonic Wars Denmark at first tried to keep itself neutral, so it could continue its trade with both France and United Kingdom, but when it entered the League of Armed Neutrality, the British considered it a hostile action, thus attacking Copenhagen in 1801 and again in 1807. Because of this Denmark allied itself with Napoleon.
Denmark–Norway was defeated and had to cede the territory of mainland Norway to the King of Sweden at the Treaty of Kiel. Norway's overseas possessions were kept by Denmark. But the Norwegians objected to the terms of this treaty, and a constitutional assembly declared Norwegian independence on 17 May 1814 and elected the Crown Prince Christian Frederik as king of independent Norway. Following a Swedish invasion, Norway was forced to accept a personal union, but retained its liberal constitution and separate institutions, except for the foreign service. The Union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved in 1905.
Denmark–Norway was amongst the countries to follow Martin Luther after the Protestant Reformation, thus the official religion was established as Lutheran Protestantism throughout the entire life span of the kingdom.
There was however one other religious "reformation" in the kingdom during the rule of Christian VI, a follower of Pietism. The period from 1735 until his death in 1746 has been nicknamed "the State Pietism", as new laws and regulations were established in favor of Pietism. Though Pietism never did last for a substantial amount of recurring time, the next 200 years would see numerous new small pietistic resurrections. In the end, Pietism was never firmly established as a lasting religious grouping.