Dental diseases may affect the teeth, the gums, or other tissues and parts of the mouth. Dental diseases can cause much more serious problems than a toothache; they can affect our ability to chew, smile, or speak properly. Their severity may range from a simple aphthous ulcer or a common tooth cavity, to oral cancer.
These are among the most common diseases in humans and include dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and many more oral conditions. The prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of these diseases are the base to the dentistry profession, in which are dentists and dental hygienists, and its sub-specialties, such as oral medicine, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and endodontics.
Dental diseases affect not only the teeth but also the gums and tongue. Dental diseases can cause a range of problems from a slight tooth ache, cavity, and ulcer to a more serious oral cancer. The three most common of these diseases are Dental Caries, Gingivitis, and Periodontitis. These diseases can affect speech, smile, ability to chew, and in some cases even loss of tongue or teeth. Dental Diseases can be prevented by taking proper care of your teeth. Brushing, flossing, and regular visits to the dentist will help prevent these diseases. These diseases could affect you in a number of ways, including the loss of your teeth, tongue, or even the ability to speak and eat. Most dental diseases are caused from poor oral hygiene and can be easily cured by taking good care of your teeth.
Dental caries 
Dental caries are known as a cavity or tooth decay. Dental caries are an infection that causes destruction to the hard tissues such as enamel, dentin, and cementum. Bacteria is in the foods eaten that contain sugars and starches that turn into acids which eat away at the tooth’s structure that initially cause tooth decay. Dental caries are a chronic disease that can be prevented but shows mostly in 6 to 11 year old children and 12 to 19 year old adolescents. 9 out of 10 adults are affected with some type of tooth decay. Prevention includes good oral hygiene that consists of brushing twice daily, flossing, eating nutritious meals, and visiting the dentist on a regular basis. Fluoride treatments benefit the teeth by strengthening while sealants help chewing surfaces to not decay. (CentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention)
Another common periodontal disease is Gingivitis. Periodontal refers to the area the infection affects, which include the teeth, gums, and tissues surrounding the teeth. There is no exact cause of gingivitis but there are many contributing factors (Emedicinehealth). The number one thing that can cause Gingivitis is due to the buildup of plaque on the teeth. If the plaque is not taken care of and continues to accumulate, bacteria may begin to grow and this will cause the gingivitis infection. There are many symptoms of Gingivitis; these include bleeding, swelling, inflammation, and also a deep red color of the gums (Emedicinehealth). Treatment of gingivitis is dependent on how severe and how far the disease has progressed. If the disease is not too severe it is possible to be treated with fluoride rinse and fluoride toothpaste to remove the plaque, and kill the Gingivitis, but once the infection has progressed antibiotics will be needed to kill the bacteria (Emedicinehealth).