- Tooth fractures
- Injuries of the periodontal apparatus
- Young children
- Sports, especially contact sports
- Piercing in tongue and lips
- Military trainings
- Acute changes in the barometric pressure, i.e. dental barotrauma, which can affect scuba divers and aviators
- Class II malocclusion with increased overjet and Class II Skeletal relationship 
A regular use in mouthguard during sports and other high-risk activities (such as military trainings) are the most effective prevention for dental trauma. However, studies in various high risk populations for dental injuries are repeatedly reporting of a low compliance of individuals for the regular using of mouthguard during activities. Moreover, even with regular use, effectiveness in prevention on dental injuries is not complete, and injuries can still occur even when mouthguards are used as users are not always aware of the best makes or size, which inevitably result in a poor ﬁt.
The sequelae of dental trauma can be serious and can involve pulp necrosis, requiring root canal treatment or tooth extraction. However, recommended in all dental traumas are good oral hygiene with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, a soft and cold diet, and avoidance of smoking for several days. When the injured teeth are painful with function due to damage to the periodontal ligaments (e.g., dental subluxation), a temporary splinting of the injured teeth may relief the pain and enhance eating ability. An avulsed permanent tooth should be gently rinsed under tap water and immediately re-planted in its original socket within the alveolar bone and later temporarily splinted by a dentist. Failure to re-planted the avulsed tooth within the first 40 minutes after the injury may resulted in very poor prognosis for the tooth. Management of injured primary teeth differs from management of permanent teeth; avulsed primary tooth should not be re-planted (to avoid damage to the permanent dental crypt).
- Textbook and Color Atlas of Traumatic Injuries to the Teeth, Fourth Edition, edited by Andreason J, Andreasen F, and Andersson L, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2007
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