Upper 2 instruments are Ukrainian dvodentsivky.
The dentsivka (Ukrainian: Денцівка) (Denchivka) is a woodwind musical instrument. The dentsivka is often commonly called a sopilka, however, it differs from the true sopilka in that the dentsivka has a fipple, like the western European recorder. It is thus classified as a duct flute.
Usually it is made from a tube of wood approximately 30 to 40 cm (12 to 16 in.) length. Tone holes are cut or burnt into the tube and a fipple made at one end. If the fipple is in the top of the instrument on the same plane as the playing holes, instead of the underside, the instrument is a kosa dudka (Ukrainian: Коса дудка), though they may fail to be distinguished. The internal diameter is usually 12 to 14 mm (0.4 to 0.5 in.) with the walls of the tube being 2 to 3 mm (0.08 to 0.12 in.) thick. In the traditional instruments the tuning varied with the length of the tube, but was usually diatonic, with a range of two and a half octaves.
Some dentsivkas (from Western Ukraine) have only five tone holes. In recent times chromatic ten-hole fingering was developed for this instrument that has carried on to most of the other instruments in the sopilka family.
The dentsivka is made in a number of sizes from piccolo tuned in F, prima in C, alto in G, tenor in F to the bass in C. Concert versions of the prima are available, the best being sold in Ukrainian music stores under the name "mala fleita".
Dvodentsivka and pivtoradentsivka
The pivtoradentsivka (Ukrainian: Півтораденцівка) is translated as one and a half dentsivkas. It consists of two dentsivkas joined together into one instrument. Only one of the pipes has fingerholes. The other acts as a drone. The drone pipe in a pivtoradentsivka is usually shorter than the playing pipe. The instrument has the same fingering as the standard dentsivka.
- Humeniuk, A. - Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty - Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1967.
- Mizynec, V. - Ukrainian Folk Instruments - Melbourne: Bayda books, 1984.
- Cherkasky, L. - Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty // Tekhnika, Kiev, Ukraine, 2003 - 262 pages. ISBN 966-575-111-5.