|Schools of Law|
|Schools of theology|
Deobandi (Pashto and Persian: دیو بندی, Urdu: دیو بندی, Bengali: দেওবন্দ, Hindi: देवबन्दी) is a term used for a revivalist movement in Sunni Islam (Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah). It is centered primarily in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh and has recently spread to the United Kingdom and has a presence in South Africa. The name derives from Deoband, India, where the school Darul Uloom Deoband is situated. The movement was inspired by the spirit of scholar Shah Waliullah (1703–1762), while the foundation of Darul Uloom Deoband was laid on 30 May 1866.
- 1 History
- 2 Presence
- 3 Beliefs
- 4 Movements
- 5 Notable Institutions
- 6 Scholars
- 7 Associated political organizations
- 8 See also
- 9 Further Reading
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
The movement developed as a reaction to British colonialism in India, which was believed by a group of prominent Indian scholars — consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi, Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fadhl al-Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi — to be corrupting the Islamic religion. They therefore founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Deoband. From here the Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop. Gradually Darul Uloom Deoband became the second largest focal point of Islamic teachings and research after the Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. Through organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat its ideology began to spread and the graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband from countries like Saudi Arabia, China and Malaysia opened up thousands of madrasas throughout South Asia, specifically in parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
A large group of Deobandi scholars opposed Pakistan being established along religious lines, particularly the demands of Muhammad Ali Jinnah's Muslim League for events during the independence of British India into Muslim and non-Muslim sections. The Deobandi movement advocated a notion of a composite nationalism according to which Hindus and Muslims constituted one nation.
Some 15 per cent of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims would consider themselves Deobandi  and according to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries (Madrasah) in Pakistan are run by Deobandis, 25% by Barelvis, 6% by Ahle Hadith and 3% by various Shia organizations. The Deobandi movement in Pakistan was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereby this funding was pulled in favor of the rival Ahl al-Hadith movement. Having seen Deoband as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith.
In the United Kingdom
According to The Times, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques are run by Deobandi affiliated scholars, and 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow Sunni Deobandi teachings, producing 80% of all domestically trained Ulema.
|Part of a series on the|
Darul Uloom Deoband, India
|Ideology and influences|
|Founders and key figures|
Centres (markaz) of tabligh
The Deobandi movement sees itself as a maslak, or scholastic tradition, situated within orthodox Sunni Islam. It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah al-Dihlawi, the celebrated Indian Islamic scholar and thinker of the eighteenth century.
Fiqh (Islamic Law)
Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of Taqlid. In other words, they believe that a Muslim must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs) of Sunni Islamic Law, and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism. They themselves are predominantly followers of the Hanafi madhhab. Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi movement will study the classic books of Hanafi Law such as Nur al-Idah, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, Sharh al-Wiqayah, and Kanz al-Daqa’iq, culminating their study of the madhhab with the Hidayah of al-Marghinani.
With regard to views on Taqlid, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i Hadis, also known as the ghair-muqallid, the nonconformists, because they eschewed taqlid in favor of the direct use of Quran and Hadith. They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation, and frequently demanded scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling. Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in attempts to defend their adherence to a madhhab in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi madhhab is in complete accordance with the Quran and Hadith.
In response to this need to defend their madhhab in light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the Daura-e Hadis, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of Sunni Hadith (the Sihah Sittah) are reviewed. In a Deobandi madrasa, the position of Shaykh al-Hadith, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari, is held in much reverence.
Deoband's curriculum combined the study of the revealed sciences (Qur'an, Hadith and Law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order. Its Sufism however, was closely integrated with Hadith scholarship and the proper legal practice of Islam.
According to Qari Muhammad Tayyib — the 8th rector or Mohtamim of the Darul Uloom Deoband who died in 1983 — "the Ulema of Deoband ... in conduct ... are Sufis, ... in Sulook they are Chisti [a sufi order] .... They are initiates of the Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiya, Qadriyah and Suhrawardiyya Sufi orders.”
Tablighi Jamaat, a Muslim missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement. Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement, and it now has followers in over 150 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi movement, no particular interpretation of Islam has been endorsed since the beginning of the movement.
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) is a Deobandi Pakistani banned organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party. Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by Maulana Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, its stated goal is to primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 as a terrorist organization under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997. In October 2000 Maulana Masood Azhar, founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e-Muhammad in Jehad." A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi organization."
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi; alternately Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) English: Army of Jhangvi) is a militant organization. Formed in 1996, it has operated in Pakistan since Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP) activist Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors. The group is considered a terrorist organisation by Pakistan and the United States, and continues to be involved in attacks on Shi'a civilians and protectors of them. Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is predominantly Punjabi. The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan as a major security threat.
The Taliban ("students"), alternative spelling Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread into Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia law, and leading Muslims have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women. The majority of their leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism, while Pashtunwali, the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in Taliban legislature.
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (the TTP) (Student Movement of Pakistan), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan.In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan.
The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi interpretation of Islam and are predominantly Pashtun.
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) is a Deobandi organization, part of the Deobandi movement. The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League's lobby for a separate Pakistan. The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani.
Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (Urdu: مجلس احرارلأسلام), also known in short as Ahrar, was a conservative Deobandi political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj (prior to the independence of Pakistan) founded December 29, 1929 at Lahore. Chaudhry Afzal Haq, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, Mazhar Ali Azhar, Zafar Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founder's of the party. The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement, which cleaved closer to the Congress Party. The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and establishment of an independent Pakistan as well as persecution of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Afterthe independence of Pakistan in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam is working for the sake of Muhammad[vague], nifaaz Hakomat-e-illahiyya and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore and in India it is based in Ludhiana.
- Darul Uloom Deoband, Uttar Pradesh, India
- Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow, India
- Mazahirul Uloom Saharanpur, India
- Darul Uloom Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
- Madrasa Al-Baqiyat As-Salihat, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
- Madrasa Kashiful Huda, Poonamallee, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
- Madrasa Mifthahul Uloom, Melvisharam, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
- Jamia Uloom ul Islamia(Binori Town), Karachi, Pakistan
- Darul Uloom Haqqania, Akora Khattak, Pakistan
- Darul 'Uloom Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
- Jamia Ashrafia, Lahore, Pakistan
- Jamia Binoria, Karachi, Pakistan
- Ahsan-Ul-Uloom, Karachi, Pakistan
- Jamiatur Rasheed, Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
- Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam, Chittagong, Bangladesh
- Jamiah Islamiah Yunusia Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh
- Jamiah Rahmania Arabia Dhaka, Bangladesh
- Jamia Qurania Arabia Lalbagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
- Dar al-Ulum al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, Holcombe, Bury, UK - Popularly known as "Dar al-Uloom Bury," it is historically the first madrasa established in the UK, in 1975. Many of the newer madrasas are its branches, or founded by its graduates. Dar al-Ulum Bury together with the Dewsbury Madrasa have together been called the "Oxbridge of the traditional madrasa world" in the UK.
- Jami'at Ta'lim al-Islam, Dewsbury, UK - The "Dewsbury Madrasa" as it is popularly known, was established in 1981 by the Tablighi Jamat. The Dewsbury Madrasa together with Dar al-Ulum Bury have together been called the "Oxbridge of the traditional madrasa world" in the UK.
- Jameah Uloomul Quran, Leicester UK - This madrasa was established in Leicester in 1977 by Shaikhul-Hadith Hadrat Molana Adam Sahib DB. It has over 600 students and graduates of the Exegesis and Jurisprudence course.
- Darul Ulum Newcastle, Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal - The first Deobandi madrasa in South Africa, it was founded in 1971 by Moulana Cassim Mohammed Sema.
- al-Madrasah al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, Azaadville - One of the largest and most prominent Deobandi madrasas in South Africa, it is connected with both the teachings of Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi and Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi. Since several of its graduates are Western students especially from the UK and United States, the madrasa plays an important role in shaping Islam in the West. The school is also important within South Africa as a site for activities of the Tablighi Jamaat. English textbooks from this madrasa are used in English-medium Deobandi madrasas in the West to teach the Dars-e-Nizami curriculum.
- Dar al-Ulum Zakariyya, Zakariyya Park, Lenasia - One of the most prominent Deobandi madaris in South Africa, it was founded by disciples of Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi, the school's namesake. Since several of its graduates are Western students especially from the UK and United States, the madrasa plays an important role in shaping Islam in the West. The school is also important within South Africa as a site for activities of the Tablighi Jama'at.
- Madrasah In'aamiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu-Natal - This madrasa is recognized for its Dar al-Iftaa (Department of Fatwa Research and Training) which runs the popular online fatwa service, Askimam.org.
United States & Canada
- Darul Uloom New York, New York City, United States
- Al-Rashid Islamic Institute, Ontario, Canada
- Darul Uloom Canada, Ontario, Canada
- Darul Uloom Al-Madania, Buffalo, New York
Other Associated Scholars
- Mahmud al-Hasan (popularly known as "Shaykh al-Hind")
- Husain Ahmed Madani
- Ashraf Ali Thanwi
- Anwar Shah Kashmiri
- Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi (Founder of Tablighi Jamaat)
- Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi
- Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
- Muhammad Shafi Usmani (First Grand Mufti of Pakistan )
- Muhammad Taqi Usmani, Pakistan - Vice-President of Dar al-Ulum Karachi, Former judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Deputy Chairman of the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the OIC, leading scholar of Islamic Finance, and often considered to be a leading scholar and figurehead of the Deobandi movement.
- Muhammad Rafi Usmani, Pakistan - (Current Grand Mufti of Pakistan) and President and senior lecturer of Dar al-Ulum Karachi.
- Ebrahim Desai, South Africa - Mufti and senior lecturer at Madrasa Inaamiyyah in Camperdown, and head of the popular online fatwa website, askimam.org.
- Haji Abdulwahab - current (Amir of Tablighi Jamaat Pakistan Chapter)
- Yusuf Motala, UK - Founder and senior lecturer at Dar al-Ulum Bury, one of the oldest Deobandi Madrasas in the West; "He is a scholar's scholar - many of the United Kingdom's young Deobandi scholars have studied under his patronage."
- Allama Khalid Mahmood, UK - He is the founder and Director of The Islamic Academy of Manchester  which was established in 1974. He served formerly as a Professor at Murray College Sialkot and also at MAO College Lahore. He obtained a PhD in Comparative Religion from University of Birmingham in 1970. He has authored over 50 books, and has served as the Justice of Supreme court of Pakistan (Shariat Appellate Bench).
- Tariq Jameel, Pakistan - Prominent scholar and preacher from the Tablighi Jama'at.
Associated political organizations
- Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
- Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam
- Ahrar Party (India)
- Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
- Tablighi Jamaat
- Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, Malaysia
- Islam in India
- Islam in Pakistan
- Islam in Afghanistan
- Islam in Bangladesh
- Islam in the United Kingdom
- Islamic schools and branches
- Islam in South Africa
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- Haque, Ziaul (1975). "Muslim Religious Education in Indo-Pakistan". Islamic Studies (Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad) 14 (4): 284. "The following books and subjects are studied ... Fiqh: Hidayah, Quduri, Nur al-Idah, Sharh-i Waqayah, Kanz al-Daqa'iq"
- Metcalf, Barbara Daly (2002). Islamic revival in British India : Deoband, 1860-1900 (3rd impression. ed.). New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-19-566049-8.
- Khan, Fareeha (2008). Traditionalist Approaches to Shari'ah Reform: Mawlana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi's Fatwa on Women's Right to Divorce (Doctoral Dissertation -- University of Michigan). p. 59. "Polemicists from among the Ahl-i Hadith were especially being targeted in Thanawi's explanation, since they accused those who adhered to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of "blind imitation." It was the practice of the Ahl-i Hadith to demand and provide proofs for every argument and legal ruling."
- Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 24. "The Deobandi sensitivity to the Ahl-i Hadith challenge is indicated by the polemics they engaged in with the Ahl-i Hadith and by the large commentaries on classical works of hadith written specifically to refute them"
- Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 39. "...gave a new and, in the Indian context, unprecedented salience to the studyof hadith in their madrasas. Hadith had, of course, been studied in precolonial Indian madrasas, but the Deobandis instituted the practice of studying (or, more exactly, “reviewing”) all six of the Sunni canonical collections of hadith in the course of a single year; this practice has come to serve in Indian and Pakistani madrasas as the capstone of a student’s advanced madrasa"
- David Emmanuel Singh, Islamization in Modern South Asia: Deobandi Reform and the Gujjar Response, p 167.
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- Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain. pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. "In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world....The need for leadership and imams increased alongside the increasing number of Mosques and in 1975 the first madrasa was established in a village called Holcombe situated near Bury – known as Dār al-‘Ulūm Bury or Bury Madrasa."
- Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain. pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. "In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world...The second madrasa to be established was that of the Tablīghī Jamā’at called ‘Jāmi’at Ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury Madrasa) in Dewsbury in 1981"
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- Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa". ISIM Newsletter 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. "opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India."
- (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa. Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 91, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. "The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia...Mawlana Ishaq following Hamid (sic) Akhtar from Karachi (see below) adheres to the Chishtiyya Sabiriyya Imdadiyya Ashrafiyya lineage, that puts special emphasis on the legacy of Muhammad Ashraf Ali Thanwi (1863-1943)."
- Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa". ISIM Newsletter 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. "Less indigenous to South Africa and more in keeping with the Deobandi spirit is the Azaadville seminary, near Johannesburg, which teaches all subjects in Urdu."
- (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa. Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. "It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi schools worldwide."
- (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa. Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. "For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world."
- (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa. Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. p. 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. "Especially for teaching the Deobandi curriculum of the degree course to become a religious scholar (‘Alim) in the English-speaking world, books from Azaadville have become increasingly useful."
- (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa. Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. "The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia."
- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 110.
- Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37. "He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement."
- Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإِسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (in Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-Basha'ir al-Islamiyyah. p. 15. "وكان أكبرُ كبارِها وشيخُ شيوخِها الشيخَ محمود حَسَن الدِّيْوْبَنْدي الملقَّبَ بشيخ العالَم، والمعروفَ بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريفِ مُسنِدَ الوقتِ ورُحلةَ الأقطار الهندية. (Trans. And the greatest of its [Dar al-Ulum Deoband's] great ones, and the shaykh of its shaykhs was Shaykh Mahmud Hasan al-Deobandi, who is entitled (al-mulaqqab) Shaykh al-'Aalam, and popularly known (al-ma'ruf bi) as Shaykh al-Hind. In regards to the noble Hadith, he was the authority of his time (musnid al-waqt), whom students traveled from all parts of India [to study with]."
- Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216. "After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith during his period."
- Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-520-08093-9. "The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (1864-1943), a leader of the Deobandi reform movement that crystallized in north India in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform."
- Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70. "This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge."
- Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". Oriente Moderno 84 (1): 295–305. "In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad Ilyas (1885-1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh."
- Bashir, Aamir (2013). Shari'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf. Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117. "Muhammad Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi characteristics."
- Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170. "He completed his formal education [from Deoband] in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan and assisted Muhammad Ali Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri."
- Usmani, Muhammad Taqi; (Translated by Zameelur Rahman) (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘: The Grand Mufti Of Pakistan". Deoband.org. Retrieved 6 November 2013. "The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘ (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading ‘ulama of India and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-‘Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-‘Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh [Muhammad Shafi‘] compiled in the Urdu language in 8 large volumes."
- "Mufti Taqi Usmani". Albalagh. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 89. "Leading scholar for the Deobandis...Usmani is very important as a figurehead in the Deobandi movement"
- Rahman, Azizur-. (Translated by Muhammad Shameem), ed. Introducing Darul-'Uloom Karachi. Public Information Department: Darul Uloom Karachi. p. 21.
- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 69. "Leader of the Pakistan chapter of the Tablighi Jamaat [...] Hajji Abd al-Wahhab is a prominent Pakistani scholar with a significant following in South Asia and the United Kingdom...Abd al-Wahhab's work[...] stems from the prominent Islamic institution Darul Uloom Deoband, in India, where the latter studied before establishing a following in Pakistan."
- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 114.
- Islamic Academy of Manchester The Islamic Academy of Manchester
- Kamran, Mohammad (3 December 2003). "SC Shariat Bench to hear appeal on presidential remissions today". Daily Times. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134. "He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities."
- Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09680-5.