Muhammad in film

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Muhammad

The depiction of Muhammad, the Islamic Prophet, in film (as with other visual depictions) is a controversial topic both within and outside of Islam. The Quran does not explicitly forbid images of Muhammad, but there are a few hadith (supplemental teachings) which have explicitly prohibited Muslims from creating visual depictions of figures. There is a split on this issue between the two major denominations of Islam, Sunni and Shia Islam.

Most Sunni Muslims believe that visual depictions of all the prophets of Islam should be prohibited.[1] and are particularly averse to visual representations of Muhammad.[2] In 1926, Egyptian actor Youssef Wahbi was in discussions to play Muhammad in a film financed by the Turkish government under Atatürk. When the Sunni Islamic Al-Azhar University in Cairo heard about it, scholars there released a fatwa stipulating that Islam forbids the depiction of Muhammad on screen and King Fuad then sent a severe warning to the actor, threatening to exile him and strip him of his Egyptian nationality. As a result of the controversy, the film was abandoned.[3]

In Shia Islam, scholars were also historically were against such depictions, but have taken a more relaxed view over the years and images of Muhammad are quite common nowadays.[2] A fatwa given by Ali al-Sistani, the Shi'a marja of Iraq, states that it is permissible to depict Muhammad, even in television or movies, if done with respect.[4]

Notable films[edit]

The Message[edit]

Mohammad, Messenger of God, released in the US as The Message, was the first major film about Muhammad. The film was released on January 1, 1976 and on July 29 of the same year it had its premiere in "Plaza", a London cinema. There are two versions of the movie, an English one and an Arab one. The Arab version had also its premiere in a London cinema, Curzon, on August 19, 1976. Both versions were screened till September 29. So the English version was shown for nine weeks, and the Arab version for six weeks.

When director Mustafa Akkad (1935-2005) was shooting the film, he made use of an American cast and an Egyptian cast. In the English version Anthony Quinn played Hamza, Michael Ansara Muhammad's principal opponent Abu Sufyan, and Irene Papas Abu Sufyan's wife Hind. In the Arab version these roles were played by Egyptian actors. However, in a number of overall shots, in which a large group is acting, such as the Battle of Badr, it can be heard that the scene is shot only once, as the actors shout "Allahu Akbar", whereas in other similar scenes the director opted for "God is great".

Although the movie is about Muhammad, the director decided to shoot the film so as to not depict Muhammad. Akkad frequently changed the position of the camera at moments when Muhammad would be brought into vision. When Muhammad was essential to a scene, the camera would show events from his point of view.[5]

The Message became very popular, not the least in the circles of Muslims, for example in Africa, and Asia. Even so, two well-known fatwas from Al-Azhar University and Shiite Council of Lebanon were issued about The Message.

It is certainly probable that this is not the result of the creativity of the filmmakers but of the rules announced by the Islamic scholars of the Azhar and the Shia Council of Lebanon, who prohibited any representation of Muhammad's wives as well as of Muhammad himself.[5]

Muhammad: The Last Prophet[edit]

Muhammad: The Last Prophet is an animated film produced by Badr International according to the same principles as "The Message". Its director is Richard Rich. The movie was released in 2004 and it was screened in a limited number of movie-theatres in the United States and the United Kingdom. The film focuses on the early period of Islam.

Innocence of Muslims[edit]

A 14-minute video clip called The Real Life of Muhammad or Innocence of Muslims is a false story which was created by Nakoula Basseley Nakoula. It was uploaded onto YouTube in July 2012 and later dubbed in Arabic and uploaded in September 2012. It was perceived as denigrating of Muhammad, and caused demonstrations and violent protests against the video to break out on September 11 in Egypt and other Arab and Muslim nations, as well as some western countries.[6][7]

Future projects[edit]

There are some new films currently being produced about Muhammad, considered the "second of their kind" (referring to Western films respecting the portrayal of Muhammad).[8][9]

In October 2008, Producer Oscar Zoghbi, who worked on the original The Message, stated that he would shooting a remake called The Messenger of Peace, to be shot around the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.[9]

In October 2012, Iranian director Majid Majidi began shooting a film titled Muhammad with plans to show Muhammad on screen, though not his face, as per Shia tradition.

Film producer Barrie M. Osborne has been hired as an adviser on a possible series of epics about Muhammad. The films, which are financed by a Qatari media company and will be supervised by the Egyptian cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi, are unlikely to depict Muhammad at all on screen as per Sunni tradition which sees all renderings of the prophet as blasphemous.[8][10]

List of films[edit]

Date Production company Title Country of origin References
September 3, 1977 Moustapha Akkad The Message (or Mohammad, Messenger of God)
 UK  USA [11][12]
[13][14]
[15][16]
November 14, 2004 Fine Media Group Muhammad: The Last Prophet  USA [11][17]
[18][19]
[20][21]
December 17, 2002 PBS Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet  USA [22][23]
[24][25]
[26][27]
[28]
Unknown History Channel Muhammad: Biography  UK [29][30]
2000
March 5, 2005
PBS Islam: Empire of Faith  USA [31]
[32][33]
[34]
March 12, 2002 Mpi Home Video Story of Islam  USA [35]
September 25, 2006 Quantum Leaps; EDS Understanding Islam - The Signs Of The Last Day  Turkey [36]
2005 BBC (BBC Four) An Islamic History of Europe  UK [37][38]
[39]
May 2, 2004 BBC A Muslim In The Family  UK [40][41]
[42][43]
Unknown BBC The Smell of Paradise  UK [44]
Unknown Unknown Why Did We Choose Islam - The Enlightenment
October 21, 2004 National Geographic Inside Mecca  USA [45]
Unknown BBC Me and the Mosque
March 2, 2006 Towers Productions Secrets of the Koran - Decoding the Past  USA [46]
Unknown Unknown Muhammad: A Mercy to Mankind [47]
July 18, 2011
July 25, 2011
August 1, 2011
BBC (BBC Two) The Life of Muhammad  UK [48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Larsson, Göran (2011). Muslims and the New Media. Ashgate. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-4094-2750-6. 
  2. ^ a b Devotion in pictures: Muslim popular iconography – The prophet Muhammad, University of Bergen
  3. ^ Alessandra. Raengo & Robert Stam (2004). A Companion To Literature And Film. Blackwell Publishing. p. 31. ISBN 0-631-23053-X. 
  4. ^ "Istifta". Retrieved 2006-03-10. [dead link]
  5. ^ a b Bakker, Freek L. (January 2006). "The image of Muhammad in The Message, the first and only feature film about the Prophet of Islam" (PDF). Routledge, "Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations", Vol. 17, No.1. Retrieved 2007-07-06. 
  6. ^ "Death, destruction in Pakistan amid protests tied to anti-Islam film". CNN. September 21, 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  7. ^ Freek L. Bakker, 'The Image of Muhammad in THE MESSAGE, the First and Only Feature Film about the Prophet of Islam', Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 17/1 (2006), p. 77-92.
  8. ^ a b http://www.theguardian.com/film/2013/mar/15/qatar-iran-films-prophet-muhammad
  9. ^ a b "Movie planned on life of Mohammad". Reuters. Oct 27, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  10. ^ http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2009/11/02/matrix-and-lord-of-the-rings-producer-to-make-movie-about-the-founder-of-islam/
  11. ^ a b "The Message (Muhammed, Messenger of God) IMDB profile". IMDB.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  12. ^ Kifner, John. "Mohammad Messenger of God (1976) Alternate Titles: The Message, Mohammad: Messenger of God, Al-Risalah". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  13. ^ "The Mohammad Messenger of God (1976) (30th Anniversary 2-Disc Edition)". Yahoo!. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  14. ^ "Overview for Mohammad Messenger of God (1976)". tcm.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  15. ^ "The Mohammed: Messenger of God [1976]". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  16. ^ "Mohammad Messenger of God (1976) Hollywood.com". Hollywood.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  17. ^ "Muhammad, the Last Prophet (2004) Profile". Yahoo!.com (in American English). Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  18. ^ STEVENS, DANA (November 13, 2004). "Animated Retelling of the Birth of Islam (Film Review)". The New York Times (in American English). Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  19. ^ Metacritic.com. "Muhammad: The Last Prophet Metacritic.com reviews". Metacritic.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  20. ^ Amazon.com. "Muhammad: The Last Prophet [2004] (REGION 1) (NTSC) at Amazon.com". Amazon.com. Amazon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  21. ^ Huda. ""Muhammad: The Last Prophet" Opening in Theatres". About.com. About.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  22. ^ "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet PBS Homepage" (in American English). PBS. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  23. ^ "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet (2002) at IMDB.com" (in American English). Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  24. ^ "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet [2002] (REGION 1) (NTSC) Amazon.com DVD". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  25. ^ "Islamic Goods Direct.co.uk - MUHAMMAD - Legacy Of A Prophet". Islamic Goods Direct.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  26. ^ "Unity Production Foundations - Details (SYNOPSIS)" (in American English). Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  27. ^ "Islam Project.org". Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  28. ^ "20,000 Dialogues". 20,000 Dialogues. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  29. ^ "Muhammad DVD". History Channel. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  30. ^ "The Prophet Muhammad". History Channel Asia.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  31. ^ "The Making of Islam: Empire of Faith" (in American English). PBS.org. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  32. ^ "Islam: Empire of Faith Homepage". Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  33. ^ "Islam: Empire of Faith (REGION 1) (NTSC) Ben Kingsley". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  34. ^ "Islam: Empire of Faith (2000) at IMDB.com". Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  35. ^ "The Story of Islam: A History of the World's Most Misunderstood Faith (1983)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  36. ^ QUANTUM LEAP; EDS. "Understanding Islam - The Signs Of The Last Day DVD". DVD.ciao.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  37. ^ Omaar, Rageh. "An Islamic History of Europe". Rageh Omaar. BBC. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  38. ^ "An Islamic History of Europe BBC Educational Archive". Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  39. ^ "Bringing to Life the Islamic History of Europe: A Video Documentary Testimony". MuslimHeritage.com, BBC Four, Rageh Omaar. Retrieved 2008-12-31.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  40. ^ Childs, Roger; BBC (1 May 2004). "BBC News article "A Muslim in the family"". BBC. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  41. ^ Omaar, Rageh. "BBC (Religion & Ethics: Islam) Essay: A Muslim in the family". The BBC. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  42. ^ "Turning Muslim in Texas; A Muslim in the Family; M.D. Digger" (in American English). Hahmed.com. February 20, 2006. Retrieved 2008-12-31.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  43. ^ "Muslim in the Family UK Video Clip". Sumo.tv. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  44. ^ "The Smell of Paradise (2005)". Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  45. ^ "National Geographic: Inside Mecca [2003] (REGION 1) (NTSC)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  46. ^ "Decoding the Past: Secrets of the Koran (2006)". Retrieved 2009-09-25. 
  47. ^ "Muhammad: A Mercy to Mankind". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  48. ^ "Rageh Omaar to present The Life Of Muhammad for BBC Two". BBC. 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2013-02-01. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bakker, Freek, Cinema, in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610691776