Deepak Chopra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Depok Chopra)
Jump to: navigation, search
Deepak Chopra
Deepak Chopra MSPAC.jpg
Speaking to the Microsoft PAC on January 15, 2011
Born (1947-10-22) October 22, 1947 (age 66)
New Delhi, India
Nationality American
Occupation Alternative medicine practitioner, physician, public speaker, writer
Spouse(s) Rita Chopra
Children Mallika Chopra and Gotham Chopra
Parents K. L. Chopra, Pushpa Chopra
Website
www.deepakchopra.com

Deepak Chopra (/ˈdpɑːk ˈprə/; born October 22, 1947) is an Indian-American author, alternative medicine/New Age guru.[1][2][3] A licensed physician, he began a mainstream medical career in hospitals and universities in the Northeastern United States, becoming Chief of Staff at the New England Memorial Hospital (NEMH).[1] In 1985, Chopra met Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who invited him to study Ayurveda.[1] Chopra left his position at the NEMH and became the founding president of the American Association of Ayurvedic Medicine, and was later named medical director of the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Center.[4]

In 1996, Chopra and neurologist David Simon founded the Chopra Center for Wellbeing, advertising it as having a "holistic view of life".[1]

Chopra has enjoyed business success from the sale of a range of books, courses and alternative and complementary health products.[3][5] He has written more than 50 books which have been translated into 35 languages.[6]

Chopra is a controversial figure. According to a 2008 article in Time magazine, he is "a magnet for criticism", primarily from those involved in science and medicine.[7] Critics have taken issue with his "nonsensical" references to quantum theory,[8][9] criticized his descriptions of AIDS and cancer,[10][11] and said the claims he makes for ineffective alternative medicine may bring "false hope" to people who are sick.[7]

Early life[edit]

Chopra was born in New Delhi, India.[12] His father, Krishan Chopra (1919–2001) was a prominent Indian cardiologist, head of the department of medicine and cardiology at Mool Chand Khairati Ram Hospital, New Delhi, for over 25 years,[13] and a lieutenant in the British army.[12] His paternal grandfather was a sergeant in the British Army, who looked to Ayurveda for treatment for a heart condition when the condition did not improve with Western medicine.[14] His mother tongue is Punjabi.[15]

Chopra completed his primary education at St. Columba's School in New Delhi and graduated from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in 1968.[1] He spent his first months as a doctor working in rural India.[12]

Chopra's subsequent career falls into two parts. At first, Chopra adhered to mainstream medical practice; he then became an advocate of alternative medicine and a wealthy businessman[3] – continuing the long tradition of entrepreneurialism in the American medical system.[1]

East Coast years[edit]

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi – an influence on Chopra in the 1980s

After immigrating to the US in 1970, Chopra undertook a clinical internship at Muhlenberg Hospital in Plainfield, New Jersey.[12] He then did a residency at the Lahey Clinic and the University of Virginia Hospital. He later became Chief of Staff at the New England Memorial Hospital in Stoneham, Massachusetts, later known as Boston Regional Medical Center.[1]

Chopra earned his license to practice medicine in the state of Massachusetts in 1973,[16] becoming board-certified in internal medicine and specializing in endocrinology.[16]

Visiting New Delhi in 1981, Chopra met the Ayurvedic doctor Brihaspati Dev Triguna, whose advice prompted Chopra to begin investigating Ayurvedic medicine.[12]

In 1985, Chopra met Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who instructed him to establish an Ayurvedic health center.[1] Chopra left his position at the New England Memorial Hospital and became the founding president of the American Association of Ayurvedic Medicine, and was later named medical director of the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Center for Stress Management and Behavioral Medicine.[4] In 1989, the Maharishi awarded Chopra the title "Dhanvantari (Lord of Immortality), the keeper of perfect health for the world".[17]

By 1992, Chopra was serving on the National Institute of Health's ad hoc panel on alternative medicine. Chopra said one of the reasons for leaving mainstream medicine was his disenchantment at having to prescribe too many drugs, since in his view "80 percent of all drugs prescribed today are of optional or marginal benefit".[12]

West Coast years[edit]

Chopra in November 2006, speaking at Yahoo!

In 1993, Chopra moved to California began working for Sharp HealthCare, heading their new Institute for Human Potential and Mind-Body Medicine.[12] Chopra did not at first apply for a license to practice medicine in California, preferring to teach and write;[12] in 2004 he was licensed in California.[18]

Chopra left the Transcendental Meditation movement in January 1994. According to his own account, Chopra was accused by the Maharishi of attempting to compete with the Maharishi's position as guru.[19] According to Robert Todd Carroll, Chopra left the TM organization when it "became too stressful" and was a "hindrance to his success".[20]

Alternative medicine business[edit]

In 1996 Sharp HealthCare changed ownership and broke off its relationship with Chopra, who then went on, with neurologist David Simon (1951–2012), to found the Chopra Center for Wellbeing at the Omni La Costa Resort and Spa in Carlsbad, California.[12][21] The new center promoted itself as having a "holistic view of life that sees human beings as networks of energy and information, integrating body, mind and spirit".[1]

The publication of Chopra's Ageless Body, Timeless Mind: The Quantum Alternative to Growing Old (1993) gained him an interview on The Oprah Winfrey Show and coverage in People magazine.[22] Writing in 1997, Tony Perry of the Los Angeles Times puts the "explosion of interest" in Chopra down to his broad alignment with the desires of contemporary society.[22]

In his 2013 book Do You Believe in Magic?, Paul Offit writes that Chopra's business grosses approximately $20 million annually, and is built on the sale of various alternative medicine products such as herbal supplements, massage oils, books, videos and courses. A year's worth of products for "anti-aging" can cost up to $10,000.[5]

According to medical anthropologist Hans Baer, Chopra – as a wealthy individual – is an example of the American success story,[1] but one who has failed to explore some of the potential benefits of a truly alternative, holistic approach to health. Instead he merely offers an alternative form of medical hegemony, focused on the individual – particularly well-off members of the upper and middle-classes; the "worried well".[1]

Education, charity and advisory roles[edit]

Chopra established the Chopra Foundation in 2009 with a mission to advance the cause of mind/body spiritual healing, education, and research through fundraising for selected projects.[23]

Chopra founded the American Association for Ayurvedic Medicine (AAAM) and Maharishi AyurVeda Products International, though later distanced himself from these organizations.[24]

In 2005 Chopra was made a Senior Scientist at The Gallup Organization.[25] He currently serves as an Adjunct Professor of Executive Programs at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.[26] Chopra is Adjunct Professor, Columbia Business School, Columbia University[27]

He participates annually as a lecturer at the Update in Internal Medicine event sponsored by Harvard Medical School, Department of Continuing Education and the Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.[28]

In 2012, Chopra joined the board of advisors for tech startup State.com, creating a browsable network of structured opinions.[29]

Ideas and reception[edit]

Ageing[edit]

Chopra has advanced the notion that human ageing can be retarded or reversed, saying that "contrary to our traditional notions of aging, we can learn to direct the way our bodies metabolize time",[30] and that "ageing is simply learned behaviour".[31] Actress Demi Moore has been reported as believing she might attain the age of 130 by following Chopra's teachings,[31] and Chopra himself has said he expects "to live way beyond 100".[32]

Conversely, Chopra also says that ageing can be accelerated, for example by a person engaging in "cynical mistrust".[33]

Robert Todd Carroll has characterized Chopra's promotion of lengthened life as a selling of "hope", but that it seems to be "a false hope based on an unscientific imagination seeped in mysticism and cheerily dispensed gibberish".[30]

Alternative medicine[edit]

Chopra has been described as "America's most prominent spokesman for Ayurveda".[24] He mixes ideas associated with quantum mechanics with ayurvedic medicine in what he calls "quantum healing".[20]

Chopra has described the AIDS virus as emitting "a sound that lures the DNA to its destruction" and which can be treated, according to Chopra, with "Ayurveda's primordial sound".[10] Taking issue with this view, medical professor Lawrence Schneiderman has said that ethical issues are raised when alternative medicine is not based on empirical evidence and that, "to put it mildly, Dr. Chopra proposes a treatment and prevention program for AIDS that has no supporting empirical data".[10]

A 2008 article in Time magazine by Ptolemy Tompkins commented that for most of his career Chopra had been a "magnet for criticism": Tompkins wrote that the medical and scientific communities had voiced negative opinions of Chopra, which ranged from the "dismissive" to the "outright damning", particularly because Chopra's claims for the effectiveness of alternative medicine could lure sick people away from effective treatments. Tompkins however considered Chopra a "beloved" individual whose basic messages centered on "love, health and happiness" had made him rich because of their popular appeal.[7]

Quantum healing[edit]

Chopra coined the term quantum healing to invoke the idea of a process whereby a person's health "imbalance" is corrected by quantum mechanical means. Chopra claimed that quantum phenomena are responsible for health and wellbeing. He has attempted to integrate Ayurveda, a traditional Indian system of medicine, with quantum mechanics, in order to justify his teachings. According to Robert Carroll, he "charges $25,000 per lecture performance, where he spouts a few platitudes and gives spiritual advice while warning against the ill effects of materialism".[30]

Chopra has equated spontaneous remission in cancer to a change in quantum state, corresponding to a jump to "a new level of consciousness that prohibits the existence of cancer". Physics professor Robert L. Park has written that physicists "wince" at the "New Age quackery" in Chopra's cancer theories, and characterizes them as a cruel fiction, since adopting this view in place of effective treatment risks compounding the ill-effects of the disease with guilt, and might rule out the prospect of getting a genuine cure.[11]

Chopra's claims of quantum healing have attracted controversy due to what has been described as a "systematic misinterpretation" of modern physics.[34] Chopra's connections between quantum mechanics and alternative medicine are widely regarded in the scientific community as being invalid, but nevertheless have a number of followers. The main criticism revolves around the fact that macroscopic objects are too large to exhibit inherently quantum properties like interference and wave function collapse. Most literature on quantum healing is almost entirely theosophical, omitting the rigorous mathematics that makes quantum electrodynamics possible.[35]

Distance healing[edit]

In 2001, ABC News aired a show segment on the topic of distance healing and prayer.[36] In it Chopra said that "there is a realm of reality that goes beyond the physical where in fact we can influence each other from a distance".[36] Chopra was shown using his claimed mental powers in an attempt to relax a person in another room, whose vital signs were recorded in charts which were said to show a correspondence between Chopra's periods of concentration and the subject's periods of relaxation.[36] After the show, a poll of its viewers found that 90% of them believed in distance healing.[37]

Christopher Wanjek has criticized the experiment, saying that any correspondence evident from the charts would prove nothing, but that even so freezing the frame of the video showed the correspondences were not so close as claimed. Wanjek characterized the broadcast as "an instructive example of how bad medicine is presented as exciting news" which had "a dependence on unusual or sensational science results that others in the scientific community renounce as unsound".[36]

Spirituality and religion[edit]

Chopra acknowledges that his thought has been inspired by Jiddu Krishnamurti and others.[38]

In 2012, reviewing War of the Worldviews – a book co-authored by Chopra and Leonard Mlodinow – physics professor Mark Alford says that the work is set out as a debate between the two authors, "[covering] all the big questions: cosmology, life and evolution, the mind and brain, and God". Alford considers the two sides of the debate a false opposition, and says that "the counterpoint to Chopra's speculations is not science, with its complicated structure of facts, theories, and hypotheses," but rather Occam's razor.[39]

In August 2005, Chopra wrote a series of articles on the creation-evolution controversy and Intelligent design, which were criticized by science writer Michael Shermer, founder of The Skeptics Society.[40][41][42] Shermer has said that Chopra is "the very definition of what we mean by pseudoscience".[43]

Attack against skepticism[edit]

Paul Kurtz has written that the popularity of Chopra's views are associated with increasing antiscientific attitudes in society, and that they represent an assault on the objectivity of science itself by seeking new, alternative, forms of validation for ideas. Kurtz argues that medical claims must always be submitted to open-minded but proper scrutiny, and that skepticism "has its work cut out for it".[44]

In 2013 Chopra published an article on what he saw as "skepticism" at work in Wikipedia, arguing that a "stubborn band of militant skeptics" were editing articles to prevent a fair representation of the views of such figures as Rupert Sheldrake – the result, Chopra argued, was that the encyclopedia's readers lost out through not being able to read of attempts to "expand science beyond its conventional boundaries".[45] Biologist Jerry Coyne responded saying that it was instead Chopra himself who was losing out, as his views were being "exposed as a lot of scientifically-sounding psychobabble".[45]

More broadly, Chopra has attacked skepticism as a whole, writing in the Huffington Post that "No skeptic, to my knowledge, ever made a major scientific discovery or advanced the welfare of others".[46] Astronomer Phil Plait said this statement trembled "on the very edge of being a blatant and gross lie", listing Carl Sagan, Richard Feynman, Stephen Jay Gould, and Edward Jenner as some among "thousands of other scientists are skeptics" who he said were counter-examples to Chopra's statement.[47]

Use of scientific terminology[edit]

Reviewing Susan Jacoby's book, The Age of American Unreason, Wendy Kaminer sees Chopra's popular reception in America as being symptomatic of many Americans' historical inability (as Jacoby puts it) "to distinguish between real scientists and those who peddled theories in the guise of science". Chopra's "nonsensical references to quantum physics" are placed in a lineage of American religious pseudoscience, extending back through Scientology to Christian Science.[8] Physics professor Chad Orzel has written that "to a physicist, Chopra's babble about 'energy fields' and 'congealing quantum soup' presents as utter gibberish", but that Chopra's writing gifts enable him to construct a compelling narrative that non-scientists can find convincing.[48]

Chopra has been criticized for his frequent references to the relationship of quantum mechanics to healing processes, a connection that has drawn skepticism from physicists who say it can be considered as contributing to the general confusion in the popular press regarding quantum measurement, decoherence and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.[9] In 1998, Chopra was awarded the satirical Ig Nobel Prize in physics for "his unique interpretation of quantum physics as it applies to life, liberty, and the pursuit of economic happiness".[49] When interviewed by ethologist and evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in the Channel 4 (UK) documentary The Enemies of Reason, Chopra said that he used the term "quantum physics" as "a metaphor" and that it had little to do with quantum theory in physics.[50] In March 2010, Chopra and Jean Houston debated Sam Harris and Michael Shermer at Caltech on the question "Does God Have a Future?" Shermer and Harris criticized Chopra's use of scientific terminology to expound unrelated spiritual concepts.[43]

Others have argued that Chopra's misuse of the word "quantum" has undermined the public's confidence in genuine science and has discouraged people from engaging with conventional medicine.[citation needed] Brian Cox says that "for some scientists, the unfortunate distortion and misappropriation of scientific ideas that often accompanies their integration into popular culture is an unacceptable price to pay."[34]

Yoga[edit]

In April 2010, Aseem Shukla criticized Chopra for suggesting that yoga did not have origins in Hinduism but is an older Indian spiritual tradition.[51] Chopra later said that yoga was rooted in "consciousness alone" expounded by Vedic rishis long before historic Hinduism ever arose. He accused Shukla of having a "fundamentalist agenda". Shukla responded by saying Chopra was an exponent of the art of "How to Deconstruct, Repackage and Sell Hindu Philosophy Without Calling it Hindu!", and he said Chopra's mentioning of fundamentalism was an attempt to divert the debate.[52][53]

Legal actions[edit]

In 1991 the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published an article on Ayurvedic medicine that Chopra had co-authored.[54] JAMA subsequently published an erratum stating that it had received information of undisclosed financial interests from Hari M. Sharma, the lead author[55] followed, on October 2, 1991 with a six-page Medical News and Perspectives exposé written by JAMA associate editor Andrew A. Skolnick,[56] who characterized the paper as a "thinly disguised advertisement for the Transcendental Meditation (TM) movement and its products".[57] An article in the journal Science criticized JAMA for getting itself into an "Indian herbal jam" and for accepting the "shoddy science" of the original article.[57] Skolnick later outlined the chain of events in the Newsletter of the National Association of Science Writers.[58] A 1992 defamation lawsuit which Chopra brought against Skolnick and JAMA was dismissed in 1993.[59]

Chopra was sued for copyright infringement by Robert Sapolsky, for using a chart displaying information on the endocrinology of stress without proper attribution, after the publication of Chopra’s book Ageless Body, Timeless Mind.[60] "An out-of-court settlement" resulted in Chopra correctly attributing material that was researched by Sapolsky.[61]

In 1996, The Weekly Standard published an apology for an earlier article that had accused Chopra of "plagiarism and soliciting a prostitute".[7][undue weight? ]

Other areas of interest[edit]

Media and entertainment[edit]

Chopra is a weekly columnist for the San Francisco Chronicle, a regular contributor to The Washington Post "On Faith" section, a prolific contributor to The Huffington Post, and is also a contributor to the LinkedIn Influencer program.[62][63][64][65]

Chopra is also a monthly contributor to The Times of India Speaking Tree.[66]

Chopra is heavily featured in UniGlobe Entertainment's cancer docudrama titled 1 a Minute talking about mind, body, spirit and the mystery of life and death.[67] The documentary is directed by actress Namrata Singh Gujral and also features cancer survivors Olivia Newton-John, Diahann Carroll, Melissa Etheridge, Mumtaz and Jaclyn Smith.

A friend of Michael Jackson for 20 years, Chopra has criticized the "cult of drug-pushing doctors, with their co-dependent relationships with addicted celebrities", saying that he hoped Jackson's death, attributed to an overdose of a prescription drug, would be a call to action.[68]

Minor business activities[edit]

In 2006, Chopra launched Virgin Comics LLC with his son Gotham Chopra and entrepreneur Richard Branson. The company's purpose is to "spread peace and awareness through comics and trading cards that display traditional Kabalistic characters and stories".[69]

Since 2005, Chopra has been a board member of Men's Wearhouse, Inc., a men's clothing distributor and Fortune 1000 company.[70][71][72]

Select bibliography[edit]

Chopra has written over 50 books and they have been translated into 35 languages.[6] They include:

Awards and memberships[edit]

Chopra is a member of the American Medical Association (AMA),[73] a Fellow of the American College of Physicians[74] and a member of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.[75]

Doctor of Science, Hartwick College[76] Doctor Honoris Causa, The Giordano Bruno University[77] In 1997, Chopra was given the Golden Gavel Award by Toastmasters International.[78][79]

He was presented the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic awarded by the Pio Manzu International Scientific Committee. In the citation, Committee Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev referred to Chopra as "one of the most lucid and inspired philosophers of our time".[80] Chopra was awarded the 2006 Ellis Island Medal of Honor by the National Ethnic Coalition of Organizations.[81][82][83]

As the keynote speaker, he appeared at the inauguration of the State of the World Forum, hosted by Mikhail Gorbachev and the Peace and Human Progress Foundation.[84] He was the recipient in 2009 of the Oceana Award.[85]

He received the 2010 Humanitarian Starlite Award "for his global force of human empowerment, well-being and for bringing light to the world".[86] Chopra is the recipient of the 2010 GOI Peace Award.[87] He is the 2010 Art of Life Honoree[88] and 30th Anniversary Gala Honoree, Asian American Arts Alliance.[89]

In the Help Yourself category, Time magazine lists Deepak Chopra as one of the 100 Heroes and Icons of the Century.[90] In March 2000, President Clinton said, "My country has been enriched by the contributions of more than a million Indian Americans ... which includes Dr. Deepak Chopra, the pioneer of alternative medicine."[91]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Baer, Hans A. (2003). "The Work of Andrew Weil and Deepak Chopra—Two Holistic Health/New Age Gurus: A Critique of the Holistic Health/New Age Movements". Medical Anthropology Quarterly 17 (2): 233–50. doi:10.1525/maq.2003.17.2.233. PMID 12846118. 
  2. ^ Olson, C. (2008). "Book Reviews". International Journal of Hindu Studies 12: 82. doi:10.1007/s11407-008-9055-y. "... the author examines gurus in America, such as Deepak Chopra, Mohandas K. Gandhi, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh" 
  3. ^ a b c Gamel, John (2008). "Hokum on the Rise: The 70-Percent Solution". The Antioch Review 66: 142. "Deepak Chopra, perhaps the wealthiest and most famous of America's CAM practitioners, began his career well within the bounds of traditional medicine. [...] Now thoroughly seduced by the placebo effect, he is the author of thirty-five books plus one hundred audio, video, and CD-ROM titles that advocate virtually every form of alternative therapy." 
  4. ^ a b Burton, Rosamund. "Peace Seeker". Nova Magazine. Retrieved November 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Offit, Paul (2013). Do You Believe in Magic? The Sense and Nonsense of Alternative Medicine. HarperCollins. pp. 245–246. ISBN 978-0062222961. 
  6. ^ a b "Deepak Chopra". Random House Books Australia. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d Tompkins, Ptolemy (November 14, 2008). "New Age Supersage". time.com. Retrieved December 2012. "Ever since his early days as an advocate of alternative healing and nutrition, Chopra has been a magnet for criticism" 
  8. ^ a b Kaminer, Wendy (2008). "The Corrosion of the American Mind (reviewing The Age of American Unreason by Susan Jacoby)". The Wilson Quarterly 32 (2): 92. JSTOR 40262377. "Then came Scientology, the "science" of positive thinking, and, more recently, New Age healer Deepak Chopra's nonsensical references to quantum physics" 
  9. ^ a b Stenger, Victor J (2007). "Quantum Quackery". Skeptical Inquirer 27 (1): 37-. 
  10. ^ a b c Schneiderman, LJ (2003). "The (alternative) medicalization of life". Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 31 (2): 191–7. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2003.tb00080.x. PMID 12964263. 
  11. ^ a b Park, Robert L (2000). "Chapter 9: Voodoo medicine in a scientific world". In Ashman, Keith; Barringer, Phillip. After the Science Wars: Science and the Study of Science. Taylor & Francis. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-203-97774-3. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Chopra, Deepak (1946–)". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale. 1998. ISBN 0-7876-2221-4. 
  13. ^ Krishan Chopra, M.D. "Krishan Chopra, M.D. bio at Hayhouse web site". Hayhouse.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  14. ^ "international dreamer – deepak chopra". Streeteditors.com. March 31, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  15. ^ Chopra, Deepak; Sanjiv Chopra (2013). Brotherhood: Dharma, Destiny, and the American Dream. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,. p. 161. ISBN 0544032101. "There are a lot of different languages spoken in India. Not just different dialects but different languages. Mine is Punjabi..." 
  16. ^ a b "Massachusetts Board of Registration Physician Profile". Profiles.massmedboard.org. January 24, 1973. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  17. ^ O'Mathúna, Dónal (2007-01-01). Alternative Medicine. Zondervan. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-310-26999-1. 
  18. ^ "California Physician Profile". .dca.ca.gov. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  19. ^ The Maharishi Years – The Untold Story: Recollections of a Former Disciple, 13 February 2008.
  20. ^ a b Carroll, Robert Todd (11 January 2011). The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions. John Wiley & Sons. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-118-04563-3. 
  21. ^ Ogul, David (9 February 2012). "David Simon, 61, mind-body medicine pioneer, opened Chopra Center for Wellbeing". U-T San Diego. 
  22. ^ a b Perry, Tony (7 Seprember 1997). "So Rich, So Restless". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "Sages and Scientists Symposium". Deepakchopra.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  24. ^ a b Butler, J. Thomas (1 July 2011). Consumer Health: Making Informed Decisions. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-1-4496-7543-1. 
  25. ^ "Gallup Senior Scientists". Gallup.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  26. ^ "The Soul of Leadership". Kellogg.northwestern.edu. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Columbia Business School". columbia.edu. Columbia University. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Update in Internal Medicine". updateinternalmedicine.com/faculty. updateinternalmedicine.com. 
  29. ^ "State.com/about". Retrieved September 9, 2013. 
  30. ^ a b c Carroll, Robert Todd (19 May 2013), "Deepak Chopra", The Skeptic's Dictionary, retrieved April 2014 
  31. ^ a b Henderson, Mark (7 February 2004). "Junk medicine; The triumph of mumbo jumbo". The Times (Book review). p. 4. 
  32. ^ Francis Wheen (6 July 2005). How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered the World: A Short History of Modern Delusions. PublicAffairs. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-0-7867-2352-2. 
  33. ^ Moukheiber, Zina (1994). "Lord of immortality". Forbes (Book review) 153 (8): 132. 
  34. ^ a b Cox, Brian (2012-02-20). "Why Quantum Theory Is So Misunderstood - Speakeasy - WSJ". Blogs.wsj.com. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 
  35. ^ "'Magic' of Quantum Physics". Aske-skeptics.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 
  36. ^ a b c d Wanjek, Christopher (2003). Bad Medicine: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Distance Healing to Vitamin O. Wiley Bad Science Series. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 224–. ISBN 978-0-471-46315-3. 
  37. ^ Posner, Gary P (2001). "Hardly a Prayer on ABC's 20/20 Downtown". Skeptical Enquirer (November/December). 
  38. ^ Blau, Evelyne (May 1995). Krishnamurti: 100 Years. Stewart, Tabori, & Chang. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-55670-407-9. 
  39. ^ Alford, Mark (2012). "Is science the antidote to Deepak Chopra's spirituality?". Skeptical Inquirer 36 (3): 54. 
  40. ^ Chopra, Deepak (August 23, 2005). "Intelligent Design Without the Bible". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 30, 2008. 
  41. ^ Shermer, Michael (March 28, 2008). "Skyhooks and Cranes: Deepak Chopra, George W. Bush, and Intelligent Design". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 30, 2008. 
  42. ^ Chopra, Deepak (August 24, 2005). "Rescuing Intelligent Design — But from Whom?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 30, 2008. 
  43. ^ a b "Nightline Face-Off Does God Have a Future – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. March 23, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010. 
  44. ^ Paul Kurtz (2001). Skepticism and Humanism: The New Paradigm. Transaction Publishers. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-4128-3411-7. 
  45. ^ a b Coyne, Jerry A (8 November 2013). "Pseudoscientist Rupert Sheldrake Is Not Being Persecuted, And Is Not Like Galileo". The New Republic. 
  46. ^ Chopra, Deepak (30 November 2009). "The Perils Of Skepticism". The Huffington Post. Retrieved april 2014. 
  47. ^ Plait, Phil (1 December 2009). "Deepak Chopra: redefining 'wrong'". Discover. Retrieved April 2014. 
  48. ^ Orzel, Chad (11 October 2013). "Malcolm Gladwell Is Deepak Chopra". ScienceBlogs. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  49. ^ "Winners of the Ig Nobel Prize". Improbable Research. Retrieved December 1, 2008. 
  50. ^ "The Enemies of Reason". Channel 4. Retrieved September 2013. 
  51. ^ Shukla, Aseem. "April 28, 2010". Newsweek.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  52. ^ Shukla, Aseem. "Dr. Chopra: Honor thy heritage". Newsweek.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  53. ^ Shukla, Aseem. "On Faith Panelists Blog: Hinduism and Sanatana Dharma: One and the same – Aseem Shukla". Newsweek.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved July 9, 2010. 
  54. ^ Sharma, H. M.; Triguna, BD; Chopra, D (1991). "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Modern insights into ancient medicine". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 265 (20): 2633–4, 2637. doi:10.1001/jama.265.20.2633. PMID 1817464. 
  55. ^ "Erratum in: JAMA 1991 Aug 14". JAMA 266 (6): 798. 1991. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470060060025. 
  56. ^ Skolnick, AA (1991). "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru's marketing scheme promises the world eternal 'perfect health'". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 266 (13): 1741–2, 1744–5, 1749–50. doi:10.1001/jama.266.13.1741. PMID 1817475. 
  57. ^ a b Barnett, R; Sears, C (1991). "JAMA gets into an Indian herbal jam". Science 254 (5029): 188–9. doi:10.1126/science.1925571. PMID 1925571. 
  58. ^ Skolnick, Andrew (Fall 1991). "The Maharhish Caper: Or How to Hoodwink Top Medical Journals". ScienceWriters. Retrieved December 1, 2008. 
  59. ^ "Deepak's Days in Court". The New York Times. 18 August 1996. 
  60. ^ Kazak, Don (March 5, 1997). "matDon Kazak, "Book Talk", ''Time'' (March 5, 1997)". paloaltoonline.com. Retrieved August 1, 2012. 
  61. ^ TNN, April 15, 2001, 02:04 pm IST (April 15, 2001). "The Times of India, Halyeema Sayed, The Mind-Body, April 15, 2001". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  62. ^ "SFGate: Deepak Chopra: Search". The San Francisco Chronicle. February 4, 2012. [dead link]
  63. ^ "Deepak Chopra". The Washington Post. 
  64. ^ Chopra, Deepak. "Deepak Chopra". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  65. ^ Kovach, Steve. "Now You Can Follow Influential People On LinkedIn Without Them Following You Back", Business Insider, New York, October 2, 2012. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
  66. ^ "The Times of India Speaking Tree". timesofindia.indiatimes.com/. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  67. ^ "Mcg – Indian Star Rallies Celebrity Support For Cancer Movie – Contactmusic News". Contactmusic.com. Retrieved July 9, 2010. 
  68. ^ Posner, Gerald. Deepak Chopra: How Michael Jackson Could Have Been Saved, The Daily Beast, July 2, 2009, p. 4
  69. ^ "Deepak Chopra Biography". Woopidoo! biographies. Retrieved November 2013. 
  70. ^ "Men's Wearhouse Inc.". Business Week. July 10, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013. 
  71. ^ "Men's Wearhouse Inc. Company Overview". Wall Street Journal. July 10, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013. [dead link]
  72. ^ Belton, Beth (June 25, 2013). "Men's Wearhouse fires back at George Zimmer". USA Today. Retrieved July 10, 2013. 
  73. ^ "AMA Profile". Webapps.ama-assn.org. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  74. ^ "American College of Physicians". acpon line.org. American College of Physicians. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  75. ^ "American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists". aace.com. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  76. ^ "Doctor of Science Hartwick University". www.hartwick.edu. Hartwick College. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  77. ^ "Docto Honoris Causa". giordanobrunouniversity.com. Giordano Bruno University. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  78. ^ http://www.toastmasters.org/goldengavel
  79. ^ "Golden Gavel Award". Toastmasters. toastmasters.com. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  80. ^ "Deepak Chopra: Reinventing the Body, Resurrecting the Soul" (Press release). University of Minnesota. Retrieved January 18, 2010. 
  81. ^ "Ellis Island Medal of Honor". spokeo.com. National Ethnic Coalition of Organizations Foundation. 
  82. ^ "Inspirational Journal web site". Inspirationjournal.com. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  83. ^ "University of Minnesota web site". Northrop.umn.edu. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  84. ^ "State of the World Forum". www.crossroad.to. Crossroads. 
  85. ^ "Deepak Chopra and Arianna Huffington to be Honored at Oceana's 2009 Partners Award Gala". Na.oceana.org. October 28, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  86. ^ "2010 Humanitarian Starlite Award - Deepak Chopra". Thestarlitegala.com. March 21, 2000. Retrieved February 18, 2011. [dead link]
  87. ^ "Deepak Chopra Receives the 2010 Goi Peace Award". Goipeace.or.jp. November 7, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  88. ^ "Art for Life Honor". http://b.hamptons.com/. Hamptons.com. 
  89. ^ "Asian American Arts Alliance". Aaartsalliance.org. Aaartsalliance.org. Retrieved September 21, 2013. 
  90. ^ "Top 100 Heroes and Icons of the Century". Time 153 (23). June 14, 1999. p. 206. 
  91. ^ President William Jefferson Clinton, from a speech at a State Dinner hosted by President Kircheril Narayan of India in New Delhi, March 21, 2000. Printed in Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: William J. Clinton, 2000-2001, January 1 to June 26, 2000, Government Printing Office, 2001.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]